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Citric acid

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Name Citric acid EINECS 201-069-1
CAS No. 77-92-9 Density 1.762 g/cm3
Solubility 750 g/L (20 °C) in water Melting Point 153-159 °C(lit.)
Formula C6H8O7 Boiling Point 309.567 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 192.14 Flash Point 155.243 °C
Transport Information UN 1789 8/PG 3 Appearance White crystalline powder
Safety 26-39-37/39-24/25-36/37/39-45-36 Risk Codes 41-36/37/38-36/38-37/38-34
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 77-92-9 (Citric acid) Hazard Symbols IrritantXi,CorrosiveC
Synonyms

Citretten;.beta.-Hydroxytricarballylic acid;K-Lyte;Citric Acid anhy;2-Hydroxy-1,2, 3-propanetricarboxylic acid;K-Lyte/Cl;Kyselina 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propantrikarbonova [Czech];2-Hydroxypropanetricarboxylic acid;Chemfill;Citric acid (8CI);2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid;3-Carboxy-3-hydroxypentane-1,5-dioic acid;Anhydrous citric acid;1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid,2-hydroxy-;2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate;Anhydrous citric acid (JP14);Kyselina citronova [Czech];H3cit;FEMA No. 2306;E 330;2-Hydroxytricarballylic acid;F 0001 (polycarboxylic acid);Kyselina citronova;Hydrocerol A;Citric acid [USAN:JAN];Citric acid, anhydrous;1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy- (9CI);Uro-trainer;1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-;Aciletten;Monohydrate Citric Acid;Citric acid anhydrate;Citric Acid Anydrous;

 

Specification

The Citric acid, also known as 1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, is the organic compound with the formula C6H8O7. Citric acid is a weak organic acid which is a white crystalline powder. Its EINECS registry number is 201-069-1. With the CAS registry number 77-92-9, its IUPAC name is 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid.It is stable but incompatible with bases, strong oxidizing agents, reducing agents, metal nitrates. Reactions with metal nitrates are potentially explosive. Heating to the point of decomposition causes emission of acrid smoke and fumes. Citric acid can exist either in an anhydrous (water-free) form or as a monohydrate. Citric acid is soluble in water.

Physical properties of Citric acid:
(1)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1; (2)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1; (3)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 1; (4)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 1; (5)#H bond acceptors: 7; (6)#H bond donors: 4; (7)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 6; (8)Index of Refraction: 1.575; (9)Molar Refractivity: 36.04 cm3; (10)Molar Volume: 109.007 cm3; (11)Surface Tension: 103.956 dyne/cm; (12)Density: 1.762 g/cm3; (13)Flash Point: 155.243 °C; (14)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 63.816 kJ/mol; (15)Boiling Point: 309.567 °C at 760 mmHg; (16)Vapour Pressure: 0 mmHg at 25 °C.

Preparation of Citric acid:
Except for small amounts produced from citrus-fruit wastes, Citric acid is manufactured by aerobic fermentation of crude sugar or com sugar by a special strain of Aspergillus niger. The submerged process for the manufacture of it involves coordinated sequences of biochemical conversions with the aid of A. niger and various unit operations and chemical conversions.
C12H22O11 + H2O + 3O2 → 2C6H8O7 + 4H2O
 sucrose                         citric acid
2C6H12O6 + 3O2 → C6H8O7 + 4H2O
 dextrose              citric acid

Uses of Citric acid:
Citric acid is a natural preservative/conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. It is used mainly as an acidifier, as a flavoring, and as a chelating agent. Citric acid can also be used in food coloring to balance the pH level of a normally basic dye. As a food additive, Citric acid is used as a flavoring and preservative in food and beverages, especially soft drinks. Citric acid may be used as the main ripening agent in the first steps of making mozzarella cheese. Citric acid is used as a successful alternative to nitric acid in passivation of stainless steel. Citric acid can be used as a lower-odor stop bath as part of the process for developing photographic film.Citric acid is also used to remove fatty acids in blood vessels and to lower blood pressure. Meanwhile, it can also be used for cleaning, for example, Citric acid's ability to chelate metals makes it useful in soaps and laundry detergents and Citric acid can be used in shampoo to wash out wax and coloring from the hair. In addition, Citric acid can be used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, which is commonly used as a buffer to increase the solubility of brown heroin and as one of the active ingredients in the production of antiviral tissues.

Safety information of Citric acid:
When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:This chemical may cause inflammation to the skin or other mucous membranes. It is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. In case of contact with eyes, you should rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Whenever you will contact it, please wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)InChI: InChI=1S/C6H8O7/c7-3(8)1-6(13,5(11)12)2-4(9)10/h13H,1-2H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)(H,11,12)
(2)InChIKey: KRKNYBCHXYNGOX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
(3)Canonical SMILES: C(C(=O)O)C(CC(=O)O)(C(=O)O)O

The toxicity data of Citric acid is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 903mg/kg (903mg/kg)   Toxicology. Vol. 62, Pg. 203, 1990.
mouse LD50 intravenous 42mg/kg (42mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS

GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF SALIVARY GLANDS
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 94, Pg. 65, 1948.
mouse LD50 oral 5040mg/kg (5040mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

MUSCULOSKELETAL: OTHER CHANGES
Takeda Kenkyusho Ho. Journal of the Takeda Research Laboratories. Vol. 30, Pg. 25, 1971.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 2700mg/kg (2700mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

MUSCULOSKELETAL: OTHER CHANGES
Takeda Kenkyusho Ho. Journal of the Takeda Research Laboratories. Vol. 30, Pg. 25, 1971.
rabbit LD50 intravenous 330mg/kg (330mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF SALIVARY GLANDS

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 94, Pg. 65, 1948.
rabbit LDLo oral 7gm/kg (7000mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY)
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Vol. 15, Pg. 628, 1923.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 290mg/kg (290mg/kg)   Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. Vol. (5), Pg. 9, 1994.
rat LD50 oral 3gm/kg (3000mg/kg)   Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 43, Pg. 561, 1992.
rat LD50 subcutaneous 5500mg/kg (5500mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

MUSCULOSKELETAL: OTHER CHANGES
Takeda Kenkyusho Ho. Journal of the Takeda Research Laboratories. Vol. 30, Pg. 25, 1971.

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