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Calcium

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Name

Calcium

EINECS 231-179-5
CAS No. 7440-70-2 Density 1.54 g/mL
PSA 0.00000 LogP 0.22500
Solubility reacts with H2O, alcohols, dilute acids to evolve H2 [MER06] Melting Point 850 °C(lit.)
Formula Ca Boiling Point 1484 °C(lit.)
Molecular Weight 40.08 Flash Point
Transport Information Appearance softish silver-white metal
Safety 8-24/25-43 Risk Codes 15
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 7440-70-2 (Calcium) Hazard Symbols FlammableF
Synonyms

Atomiccalcium;Blood-coagulation factor IV;Calcium atom;Calcium element;Praval;

 

Calcium Synthetic route

7440-62-2

vanadium

calcium phosphide

A

VP0.95

B

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) heating at 1200°C;;A 100%
B n/a
75-20-7

calcium carbide

graphite

B

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) pressure about 1 Torr, 1600-1800°C; small amts. of Ca;;A 94%
B n/a
In neat (no solvent) pressure about 1 Torr, 1600-1800°C; small amts. of Ca;;A 94%
B n/a

dolomite

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With pyrographite In melt byproducts: S; Electrolysis; Bitterfeld process variants;;
1333-84-2, 1344-28-1

aluminum oxide

calcium chloride

A

7440-70-2

calcium

B

7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With H In neat (no solvent) byproducts: HCl, H2O; bombarding mixt. of CaCl2:Al2O3=1:4 (on substrate, periodically stirred) with H for 300 mins in plasmochemical app. described by I. Sh. Normatov, N. Shermatov, and U. Mirsaidov, Fiz. Khim. Obrab. Mater., No. 3, 141-142 (1990); mechanism discussed;; X-ray diffraction;;

calcium azide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
explosive decompn. by heating in vacuo at 158°C;

calcium cyanide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt Electrolysis; Bitterfeld process variants: at 700 - 800°C;;
In melt Electrolysis; Bitterfeld process variants: at 700 - 800°C;;

calcium cyanide

A

460-19-5

ethanedinitrile

B

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt Electrolysis; Bitterfeld process variants: separated cathode- and anode room; carbon anode and Ni cathode; 2.5 A, 9 V;;
In melt Electrolysis; Bitterfeld process variants: separated cathode- and anode room; carbon anode and Ni cathode; 2.5 A, 9 V;;

calcium(II) sulfide

7440-09-7

potassium

7440-70-2

calcium

calcium fluoride

calcium(II) sulfide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt Electrolysis; Bitterfeld process variants: under H2 or Ar at ambient or low pressure;;

calcium(II) sulfide

75-20-7

calcium carbide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In not given reduction;;

calcium oxide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) at 1280°C;;
With Al-Si-Fe-Ti alloy In neat (no solvent) reduction by alloy;;
With aluminium In neat (no solvent) Pidgeon process: at 1200°C in vacuum;;
7439-95-4

magnesium

calcium oxide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
incomplete reaction {4,6,14,16,17} with formation of yellow powder with bad odor {14};;

oxygen

calcium oxide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In gaseous matrix Kinetics; byproducts: O2; He bath gas, 250-898 K; time-resolved laser-indiced fluorescence spectroscopic monitoring;

calcium oxide

7440-18-8

ruthenium

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) react. in the heat;;
7429-90-5

aluminium

calcium oxide

A

tricalcium aliminate

B

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) reduction with aluminium;;
In neat (no solvent) reduction with aluminium;;

calcium chloride

calcium oxide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt byproducts: O2, CO2, Cl2; Electrolysis; electrowinning of Ca metal from molten CaCl2 containing 0-5 wt% CaO at 825-900°C in MgO crucible, under Ar atm., stainless steel cathode and graphite anode (K and Na chlorides for lowering melting point, density and viscosity); anodically generated gaseous by-products O2, CO2 and Cl2 removed;

calcium carbonate

calcium chloride

calcium oxide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With pyrographite In melt Electrolysis; Bitterfeld process variants: cyclic process;;
With pyrographite In melt Electrolysis; Bitterfeld process variants: cyclic process;;
773837-37-9

sodium cyanide

calcium oxide

A

201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

B

7727-37-9

nitrogen

C

7440-23-5

sodium

D

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) reduction of CaO with NaCN at 560-750°C in vac.;; no complete reaction;;
In neat (no solvent) reduction of CaO with NaCN at 560-750°C in vac.;; no complete reaction;;

calcium fluoride

calcium oxide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With aluminium In neat (no solvent) reduction in vacuum;;
With silicon In neat (no solvent) reduction in vacuum;;
With Al In neat (no solvent) reduction in vacuum;;
75-20-7

calcium carbide

calcium oxide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent)
In not given reduction;;
In not given reduction;;

calcium sulfate

calcium oxide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With S In neat (no solvent) heating on between mp and bp of Ca; thermal decompn.;;
With sulfur In neat (no solvent) heating on between mp and bp of Ca; thermal decompn.;;

calcium carbonate

calcium oxide

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With S In neat (no solvent) heating on between mp and bp of Ca; thermal decompn.;;
With sulfur In neat (no solvent) heating on between mp and bp of Ca; thermal decompn.;;
7440-44-0

pyrographite

calcium oxide

A

201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

B

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Kinetics; heating;
7440-23-5

sodium

7647-14-5

sodium chloride

calcium chloride

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) shaking of Na, CaCl2 and NaCl in a closed supremax-tube for 30 min at 500-810°C until equilibrium; heating for 15 min at the same temperature; chilling; examination of the equilibrium;; seperation of the saltfree metal- and the saltphase under ether;;
11113-50-1

boric acid

A

arsenic

B

tetrafluoroboric acid

C

fluorosilicic acid

E

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen fluoride byproducts: Na, H2SO4; with ice cooling; H2SO4 and HF removed by Pb(CO3)2, Pb by H2S and H2S by air stream;
With HF byproducts: Na, H2SO4; with ice cooling; H2SO4 and HF removed by Pb(CO3)2, Pb by H2S and H2S by air stream;
7440-09-7

potassium

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium oxide
With calcium silicate
7439-95-4

magnesium

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium oxide treatment by heating in vac.; after cooling treatment with melted Na and alcohol;
With calcium oxide0%
With hydrogen; calcium oxide at red heat in H2 flow;0%
With CaO treatment by heating in vac.; after cooling treatment with melted Na and alcohol;
7440-23-5

sodium

calcium chloride

A

7440-70-2

calcium

B

7647-14-5

sodium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) equilibrium reaction at higher temperatures;;
7429-90-5

aluminium

7440-70-2

calcium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium oxide at red heat; 8.3 % Ca in the product;
7440-70-2

calcium

7440-06-4

platinum

7440-43-9

cadmium

Ca6PtCd11

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) at 600 - 950℃; for 111h; Sealed tube; Schlenk technique; Inert atmosphere; Glovebox;100%
1333-74-0

hydrogen

7440-70-2

calcium

7789-78-8

calcium hydride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt High Pressure; Ca melted in vac. at 350°C for 5 h, filled with H2 (5 atm) at 400°C for 5 min, at 10 atm. at 480°; elem. anal.;99.6%
In neat (no solvent) hydrogenation in a closed iron tube under pressure at temperatures between 650°C and 690°C;;90%
In neat (no solvent) hydrogenation in a closed iron tube under pressure at temperatures between 650°C and 690°C;;90%
1493-13-6

trifluorormethanesulfonic acid

7440-70-2

calcium

67-68-5

dimethyl sulfoxide

calcium(II) triflate - dimethylsulfoxide (1/6.4)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With oxygen In dimethyl sulfoxide metal. Ca under O2 atm. treated with DMSO and triflic acid (2 equiv.) in3 portions, heated at 100°C for 2 h;99%
7440-70-2

calcium

titanium(IV) oxide

A

7440-32-6

titanium

B

calcium oxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium chloride; calcium oxide In neat (no solvent) mixt. with flux and binder using stirrer; flux was CaCl2 or CaO powder; binder collodion soln. consisted of 5 mass% nitrocellulose in ethanol and ether;A 99%
B n/a
7440-36-0

antimony

7440-70-2

calcium

Ca11Sb10

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Electric Arc; Sr:Sb=1:1;99%
In melt 5:4-mixt. of Ca and Sb heated in alumina or Ta crucible to 1100°C, kept at this temp. for ca. 1 h, cooled with 50-100°C;
With Sn In melt byproducts: Ca5Sb3; Ca:Sb:Sn were layered in Al2O3 crusible in the ratio 11:10:50; the mixt.was heated under Ar to 1275 K; the react. was held at this temp. for 1 h and cooled at a rate of 277 K/h to 975 K; the single-crystal compd. was sepd. from the molten Sn; identified by powder XRD studies;
7727-37-9

nitrogen

7440-70-2

calcium

calcium nitride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) (Ar); placing of cleaned Ca rod in alumina crucible inside a molybdenum foil-lined reaction tube; heating under flowing N2 for 48 h at 1000°C;98%
In neat (no solvent) heating of electrolyt-Ca-chips in a N2-stream at 660°C for 1/2 h; cooling down, grinding; heating at approx. 850°C for 1/2 h in a N2-stream;; soiled with 3.24% unreacted Ca and some CaO;;90.9%
In neat (no solvent) heating of electrolyt-Ca-chips in a N2-stream at 660°C for 1/2 h; cooling down, grinding; heating at approx. 850°C for 1/2 h in a N2-stream;; soiled with 3.24% unreacted Ca and some CaO;;90.9%

zinc chloride-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-ide lithium chloride complex

7440-70-2

calcium

2C9H18N(1-)*Zn(2+)*CaCl2*2LiCl

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With iodine In tetrahydrofuran at 25℃; for 24h; Schlenk technique; Inert atmosphere;98%

neodymium(III) oxide

7440-70-2

calcium

A

neodymium

B

calcium oxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt metallothermic redn. of Nd2O3 with Ca in CaCl2-NaCl melt at temps. between 983 and 1063 K; Nd recovered from the salt melt by dissoln. in a molten mtal pool of either Nd-Zn or Nd-Fe; vac. distn. of the Nd-Zn alloy;A 95%
B n/a

niobium(V) oxide

7440-70-2

calcium

niobium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
extracting with HCl;95%
extracting with HCl;95%
best yield with 50 % excess of Ca, with S as react. booster; purity: 99.5 % Nb;
7440-56-4

germanium

7440-74-6

indium

7439-93-2

lithium

7440-70-2

calcium

Ca2LiInGe2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) the mixt. of metals in sealed tantalum ampules was heated to 1050°C and held for 10 h, slow cooled over 5 days to about 300°C (Ar atm.);95%

graphite

7440-70-2

calcium

calcium carbide

calcium carbide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) all manipulations under dry Ar atm.; Ca and C (1:2.2) heated at 925°C for 16 h, then cooled; speed of haeting and cooling 5°C/min;A 95%
B n/a
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) all manipulations under dry Ar atm.; Ca and C (1:1.8) heated at 925°C for 16 h, then cooled; speed of heating and cooling 5°C/min;A n/a
B 90%
7440-56-4

germanium

7440-70-2

calcium

calcium germanide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) placing of Ca and Ge in welded Ta containers, heating under vac. at 1150°C for 6 h, cooling to 650°C with rate of 10-12°C/h;95%
In melt stoich. mixt. melted under Ar; XRD;
7440-74-6

indium

7440-70-2

calcium

Ca14.1Au44.2In41.7

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt Electric Arc; (Ar); arc melting mixt. of calcium, gold and indium;95%
In melt (Ar); heating mixt. of calcium, gold and indium at 800°C for 24 h; quenching;
41924-26-9

bis((trimethylsilyl)methyl)zinc

7440-70-2

calcium

bis(tetrahydrofuran)calcium-bis[tris(trimethylsilylmethyl)zincate]

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran byproducts: Zn; all manipulations under Ar; Ca added to Zn compd. in THF, stirred at room temp. for 24 h; filtered, volatiles evapd. in vac., residue dissolved in toluene, cooledto -20°C for several d, elem. anal.;91%
109-99-9

tetrahydrofuran

trimethylammonium carba-closo-undecahydrododecaborate

7440-70-2

calcium

2CH12B11(1-)*C24H48CaO6(2+)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
for 25h;91%
7440-56-4

germanium

7440-70-2

calcium

calcium oxide

Ca3GeO

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) Ar atm.; heating (1100°C, 4 h), cooling (20°C/h);90%

graphite

7440-70-2

calcium

calcium chloride

A

Ca4 oxy-chloride

B

Ca3Cl2C3

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) mixture of Ca, CaCl2 and graphite was heated under dry Ar in a sealed tantalum capsule at 900°C for 1 day, annealing at 780°C for 3 days, cooling;A 5%
B 90%
7440-70-2

calcium

7440-21-3

silicon

calcium silicide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) placing of Ca and Si in welded Ta containers, heating under vac. at 1300°C for 6 h, cooling to 600°C with rate of 8°C/h;90%
In melt melt, annealed in vac.; XRD;
In neat (no solvent) sealed, heated at 750 °C for 12 h;
7440-70-2

calcium

7440-06-4

platinum

7440-43-9

cadmium

Ca6Pt8Cd16

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: calcium; platinum; cadmium In neat (no solvent, solid phase) at 950℃; for 12h; Sealed tube;
Stage #2: In neat (no solvent, solid phase) at 500℃; for 240h; Time; Temperature; Sealed tube;
90%

[(IP-)2Al]2(μ2η3-OCO2)

311-28-4

tetra-(n-butyl)ammonium iodide

7440-70-2

calcium

A

Bu4N[(IP(-))2Al]

B

calcium carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: [(IP-)2Al]2(μ2η3-OCO2); calcium In tetrahydrofuran at 60℃; for 1h; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: tetra-(n-butyl)ammonium iodide In diethyl ether for 24h; Inert atmosphere;
A 89%
B 90%

NbO1.4

7440-70-2

calcium

niobium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
with 60 % excess of Ca, 1000°C; purity: 98 % Nb;89%
with 60 % excess of Ca, 1000°C; purity: 98 % Nb;89%
32579-76-3

1-chloro-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine

7440-70-2

calcium

C9H18N(1-)*Cl(1-)*Zn(2+)*CaCl2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With iodine; diisobutylaluminium hydride In tetrahydrofuran at -5 - 25℃; for 0.5h; Schlenk technique; Inert atmosphere;88%
555-31-7

aluminum isopropoxide

7440-70-2

calcium

67-63-0

isopropyl alcohol

Ca(2+)*2Al(3+)*8(CH3)2CHO(1-)=Ca[Al(OCH(CH3)2)4]2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
mercury dichloride In isopropyl alcohol byproducts: H2; absence of moisture; 2 equiv. Al(OiPr)3, refluxing for 120 h; evapn. (reduced pressure), sublimation (reduced pressure); elem. anal.;86%
7440-02-0

nickel

7440-70-2

calcium

7440-21-3

silicon

Ca3Ni3Si2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) al manipulations under Ar; mixt. of elements filled into Ta ampouls, heated at 1000°C for 16 h, then at 800°C for 3 d; cooled (5 K/min);85%

graphite

7440-70-2

calcium

A

calcium(II) sulfide

calcium carbide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With S In neat (no solvent, solid phase) High Pressure; (inert atm.), glovebox; addn. of Ca and mixture of C and S (3.77 mass %)into milling vial, milling in 30-60 min increments with 30 min of cooli ng between each increment, in SPEX Certiprep mixer/mills, various times; detected by powder XRD;A n/a
B 81.1%
1333-74-0

hydrogen

7440-48-4

cobalt

7440-70-2

calcium

7439-95-4

magnesium

137892-58-1

Mg(2+)*Ca(2+)*CoH5(4-)=CaMgCoH5

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) melting, hydrogenating (450-460°C, 110 bar);80%
7440-56-4

germanium

7440-74-6

indium

7440-70-2

calcium

strontium

SrCa2In2Ge

Conditions
ConditionsYield
(Ar), excess In and Ge, heating (350-450°C, 5-8 h, vac.), heating(1050°C, 5 d); ICP analysis;80%
7440-02-0

nickel

7440-70-2

calcium

7439-95-4

magnesium

16873-17-9

deuterium

calcium magnesium nickel(0) tetradeuteride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) melting, hydrogenating (450-460°C, 110 bar);80%

Calcium Chemical Properties


IUPAC Name: Calcium
Empirical Formula: Ca
Molecular Weight: 40.078
EINECS: 231-179-5
Product Categories: Inorganics; Food & Flavor Additives; Calcium Organic Electronics and Photonics; Alkali Metals Metal and Ceramic Science; Electrode Materials; Metals; Reduction; Substrates and Electrode Materials; Synthetic Reagents
Stability: Stable, but reacts with water to release hydrogen and produce calcium hydroxide. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, alcohols, moisture.
Melting Point: 850 °C(lit.)
density: 1.54 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
storage temp.: water-free area
Boiling point: 1757 K,1484 °C,2703 °F
Heat of fusion: 8.54 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 154.7 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity of Calcium (CAS NO.7440-70-2): (25 °C) 25.929 J/mol/K

Calcium History

  Calcium (CAS NO.7440-70-2) was known as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide. Literature dating back to 975 AD notes that plaster of paris (calcium sulphate), is useful for setting broken bones. It was not isolated until 1808 in England when Sir Humphry Davy electrolyzed a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide. Davy was trying to isolate calcium; when he heard that Swedish chemist J?ns Jakob Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, he tried it himself. He worked with electrolysis throughout his life and also discovered/isolated sodium, potassium, magnesium, boron and barium. Calcium metal was not available in large scale until the beginning of the 20th century.

Calcium Uses

 Calcium (CAS NO.7440-70-2) is used as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium,as a deoxidizer, desulfurizer, or decarbonizer for various ferrous and nonferrous alloys and used as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminium, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys. It is used in the making of cements and mortars to be used in construction.,in the making of cheese, where calcium ions influence the activity of rennin in bringing about the coagulation of milk.

Calcium Safety Profile

Hazard Codes: FlammableF
Risk Statements: 15 
R15:Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases.
Safety Statements: 8-24/25-43 
S8:Keep container dry. 
S24/25:Avoid contact with skin and eyes. 
S43:In case of fire use ... (there follows the type of fire-fighting equipment to be used.)
RIDADR: UN 1401 4.3/PG 2
WGK Germany: 1
HazardClass: 4.3
PackingGroup: II

Calcium Standards and Recommendations

DOT Classification:  4.3; Label: Dangerous When Wet

Calcium Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use NIOSH: Calcium, 7020.

Calcium Specification

  Calcium (CAS NO.7440-70-2), its Synonyms are Elemental calcium ; HSDB 273 ; UNII-SY7Q814VUP . It is silvery, soft metal that turns grayish white on exposure to air. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. Calcium is also the fifth most abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate.

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