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7664-93-9

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Basic Information
CAS No.: 7664-93-9
Name: Sulfuric acid
Molecular Structure:
Molecular Structure of 7664-93-9 (Sulfuric acid)
Formula: H2O4S
Molecular Weight: 98.08 .
Synonyms: Dihydrogen sulfate;Dipping acid;NSC 248648;Oil of vitriol;Sulphuric acid;Vitriol brown oil;Sulfuricacid;
EINECS: 231-639-5
Density: 2.2 g/cm3
Melting Point: 10 °C
Boiling Point: 330.001 °C at 760 mmHg
Flash Point: 11°C
Solubility: miscible with water
Appearance: clear colorless oily liquid
Hazard Symbols: CorrosiveC
Risk Codes: 36/38-35-39-23/24/25-11
Safety: 26-30-45-36/37-16
Transport Information: UN 3264 8/PG 3
PSA:
LogP:
Synthetic route
7446-09-5

sulfur dioxide

7553-56-2

iodine

A

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

B

10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
0 - 25 °C; part of a Mg-S-I water splitting cycle;A 100%
B 100%
7446-09-5

sulfur dioxide

A

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

B

7704-34-9

sulfur

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 170-180°C; in very dilute soln. complete decompn. in 2 h, incomplete decompn. in concd. solns.;A n/a
B 100%
byproducts: H2S4O6;
sodium thiosulfate In water 100°C;
463-58-1

carbon oxide sulfide

7722-84-1

dihydrogen peroxide

A

124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

C

7732-18-5

water

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium sulfate; potassium hydrogensulfate; potassium peroxomonosulfate In water Kinetics; oxidation of OCS studied in round-bottom Pyrex bulbs, acid-water mixtures introduced into bulbs and degassed, bulb reactors filled with with a gas mixture slightly above 1 atm total pressure with a typical mixing ratio of OCS:Ar:He=40:60:700 Torr; gas chromy. and mass spectroscopy applied for determination of product content;A 100%
B n/a
C n/a
With sulfuric acid In water Kinetics; oxidation of OCS studied in round-bottom Pyrex bulbs, acid-water mixtures introduced into bulbs and degassed, bulb reactors filled with with a gas mixture slightly above 1 atm total pressure with a typical mixing ratio of OCS:Ar:He=40:60:700 Torr; gas chromy. and mass spectroscopy applied for determination of product content;A 100%
B n/a
C n/a
7446-09-5

sulfur dioxide

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfuric acid; ammonia absorption of dild. SO2 in aq. soln. of NH3, eliberation with H2SO4, O2 from water electrolysis, 3-layer contact bed, heat exchanger, 3 H2SO4 absorbers, coke filter, tail gas recirculation, 528-682°C;99.5%
With NH3; H2SO4; catalyst: V compd. absorption of dild. SO2 in aq. soln. of NH3, eliberation with H2SO4, O2 from water electrolysis, 3-layer contact bed, heat exchanger, 3 H2SO4 absorbers, coke filter, tail gas recirculation, 528-682°C;99.5%
ferric hydroxide In not given 125-130°C, Fe(OH)3 on pumice or asbestos;
7704-34-9

sulfur

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With air moist air introductions into four-stage contact furnace, 2-stage drum absorber, washing of tail gas in Venturi app.; 93-95 % acid concn.;99%
With air moist air introductions into four-stage contact furnace, 2-stage drum absorber, washing of tail gas in Venturi app.; 93-95 % acid concn.;99%
With catalyst: V compd. moist S roaster gas, absorption in concd. acid;
13445-49-3

Marshall's acid

tin(ll) chloride

A

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

B

7646-78-8

tin(IV) chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In hydrogenchloride room temp.; 10-15 min.;A n/a
B 99%
In hydrogenchloride room temp.; 10-15 min.;A n/a
B 99%
7789-31-3

bromic acid

A

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

B

7726-95-6

bromine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulphurous acid byproducts: H2O;A n/a
B 99%
With H2SO3 byproducts: H2O;A n/a
B 99%
7446-09-5

sulfur dioxide

A

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

B

7704-34-9

sulfur

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In not given Electrolysis; Pt anode, graphite cathode, area of the electrodes 30 cm^2, 1 A, 20 min, 0.208 mg/l SO2 soln.;A 98.16%
B 70.87%
In not given Electrolysis; Pt anode, graphite cathode, area of the electrodes 30 cm^2, 1 A, 20 min, 0.420 mg/l SO2 soln.;A 98.52%
B 74.28%
In not given Electrolysis; Pt anode, graphite cathode, area of the electrodes 30 cm^2, 1 A, 20 min, 1.123 mg/l SO2 soln.;A 98.86%
B 74.2%

pyrite

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
3-stage contact with heat exchangers, for pyrite roaster gas;98%
With air burning at 820°C in rotating furnace, elec. filter, washing, air addn., wet elec. filter, drying, heat exchanger, two-stage inner cooling, cooler, absorption, cooling;
With nitric acid formation of H2SO4 by reaction of HNO3 with pyrite; faster reaction at 100 °C than at higher temperature;;
With air; catalyst: V2O5 - K2O - SiO2 burning at 820°C in rotating furnace, elec. filter, washing, air addn., wet elec. filter, drying, heat exchanger, two-stage inner cooling, cooler, absorption, cooling;
7446-09-5

sulfur dioxide

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With (CN)2 In water byproducts: HCN; with (CN)2 excess for 4-5 days at room temp.;94%
contact oven with intermediate heat exchangers, temp. regulation by fresh air addn., H2O to inlet gas, SO2 recycling;80%
condensation after contact furnace at 175. degree.C; 66.3 % acid concn.;46.7%
7757-82-6

sodium sulfate

A

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

B

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water Electrolysis; formation of PbSO4 on Pb-anode; electrolysis of PbSO4;A 91%
B 91%
With H2O Electrolysis;
In water Electrolysis;
7782-99-2

sulphurous acid

7790-93-4

chloric acid

A

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

B

10049-04-4, 25052-55-5

chlorine dioxide

C

7732-18-5

water

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With air; sulfur dioxide In sulfuric acid byproducts: HClO, HCl, Cl2; Holst-process;;A n/a
B 90%
C n/a
7790-94-5

chlorosulfonic acid

A

7791-25-5

sulfuryl dichloride

B

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
uranyl chloride In neat (no solvent) equilibrium on thermal decompn.;; distillation;;A 90%
B n/a
mercury In neat (no solvent) equilibrium on thermal decompn.;; distillation;;A 90%
B n/a
bismuth(III) chloride In neat (no solvent) equilibrium on thermal decompn.;; distillation;;A 90%
B n/a

vanadyl(IV) sulphate pentahydrate

4199-89-7

5-Chloro-1,10-phenanthroline

4370-59-6

bromanilic acid

230953-51-2

(VO)2(Br2C6O4)(C12H7ClN2)2(2+)*SO4(2-)=[(VO)2(Br2C6O4)(C12H7ClN2)2](SO4)

B

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In methanol dropwise addn. of soln. of VOSO4 to soln of bromanilic acid, addn. of soln. of N-ligand (stirring, room temp.), refluxing (8 h; crystn.); filtration, washing (MeOH, Et2O), drying (vac., over P2O5), recrystn. (DMF/EtOH); elem. anal.;A 88%
B n/a
7790-94-5

chlorosulfonic acid

A

7791-27-7

pyrosulfuryl chloride

B

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: chlorosulfonic acid With Acetanilid at 26 - 45℃; for 9.2h;
Stage #2: With thionyl chloride at 55℃; for 6.4h; Temperature; Further stages;
A 87%
B n/a

vanadyl(IV) sulphate pentahydrate

484-11-7

2.9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline

4370-59-6

bromanilic acid

230953-49-8

(VO)2(Br2C6O4)((CH3)2C12H6N2)2(2+)*SO4(2-)=[(VO)2(Br2C6O4)((CH3)2C12H6N2)2](SO4)

B

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In methanol dropwise addn. of soln. of VOSO4 to soln of bromanilic acid, addn. of soln. of N-ligand (stirring, room temp.), refluxing (8 h; crystn.); filtration, washing (MeOH, Et2O), drying (vac., over P2O5), recrystn. (DMF/EtOH); elem. anal.;A 85%
B n/a
66-71-7

1,10-Phenanthroline

vanadyl(IV) sulphate pentahydrate

4370-59-6

bromanilic acid

230953-47-6

(VO)2(Br2C6O4)(C12H8N2)2(2+)*SO4(2-)=[(VO)2(Br2C6O4)(C12H8N2)2](SO4)

B

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In methanol dropwise addn. of soln. of VOSO4 to soln of bromanilic acid, addn. of soln. of N-ligand (stirring, room temp.), refluxing (8 h; crystn.); filtration, washing (MeOH, Et2O), drying (vac., over P2O5), recrystn. (DMF/EtOH); elem. anal.;A 81%
B n/a
5329-14-6

aminosulfonic acid

A

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

B

7727-37-9

nitrogen

C

7647-14-5

sodium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With chlorine In water introduction of chlorine into alkaline soln.; intermediates (NaSO3NCl2/NaSO3NHCl) decompose after short time in this soln.;;A n/a
B 79.65%
C n/a
With Cl2 In water introduction of chlorine into alkaline soln.; intermediates (NaSO3NCl2/NaSO3NHCl) decompose after short time in this soln.;;A n/a
B 79.65%
C n/a
366-18-7

[2,2]bipyridinyl

vanadyl(IV) sulphate pentahydrate

4370-59-6

bromanilic acid

230953-45-4

(VO)2(Br2C6O4)(NC5H4C5H4N)2(2+)*SO4(2-)=[(VO)2(Br2C6O4)(NC5H4C5H4N)2](SO4)

B

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In methanol dropwise addn. of soln. of VOSO4 to soln of bromanilic acid, addn. of soln. of N-ligand (stirring, room temp.), refluxing (8 h; crystn.); filtration, washing (MeOH, Et2O), drying (vac., over P2O5), recrystn. (DMF/EtOH); elem. anal.;A 72%
B n/a
13954-94-4

trisulfimide

A

7803-63-6

ammonium bisulfate

B

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

C

7803-58-9

SULFAMIDE

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water heat of evapn., 2 h, 2 M HCl;A n/a
B 67%
C n/a
With H2O heat of evapn., 2 h, 2 M HCl;A n/a
B 67%
C n/a
13954-94-4

trisulfimide

A

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

B

5329-14-6

aminosulfonic acid

C

7803-58-9

SULFAMIDE

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water in the cold, 48 h, 2 M HCl;A 33%
B n/a
C n/a
With H2O in the cold, 48 h, 2 M HCl;A 33%
B n/a
C n/a
In water decompn. in aq. soln.; 0 and 22°C discussed; presece of acid discussed;;
14970-71-9

dithionic acid

A

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

B

7446-09-5

sulfur dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water 0.2362 mM/g decompn. 46.8°C, 245 h.;A 19.96%
B n/a
In water 0.2401 mM/g decompn. 25.3°C, 945.25 h.;A 2.96%
B n/a
In water Kinetics;
7704-34-9

sulfur

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
condensation of humidified S burner gas;
absorption of moist gas to H2SO4;
In water in sealed tube;at 150°C;under 20 atm O2;;0.06%

4-bromo-5-methyl-2-phenyl-2H-pyrazole-3-sulfonic acid

7726-95-6

bromine

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

7726-95-6

bromine

5,7,5',7'-tetrabromo-3,3'-dioxo-1,3,1',3'-tetrahydro-[2,2']biindolyl-2,2'-disulfonic acid

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

87-90-1

trichloroisocyanuric acid

7782-99-2

sulphurous acid

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

7440-69-9

bismuth

aqueous H2 O2

aqueous H2 O2

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

7440-44-0

pyrographite

68283-19-2

2-butyl-5-hydroxymethyl-1H-imidazole

7440-06-4

platinum

68282-49-5

2-butyl-1H-imidazole-5-carboxaldehyde

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide In water100%
With sodium hydroxide In water98.2%
With sodium hydroxide In methanol; water94.5%
170142-44-6

7-Chloro-4-hydroxy-2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-1,2,5,10-tetrahydropyridazino [4,5-b]quinoline-1,10-dione

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

7-Chloro-4-hydroxy-2-(4-carboxymethylphenyl)-1,2,5,10-tetrahydropyridazino [4,5-b]quinoline-1,10-dione

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In methanol100%
7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

cadmium(II) sulphide

cadmium sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In hydrogenchloride; sulfuric acid dissolving CdS in HCl, evapn. to dryness, dissoln. in dild. H2SO4, evapn. with a drop of concd. HNO3;100%
In hydrogenchloride; sulfuric acid aq. H2SO4; dissolving CdS in HCl, evapn. to dryness, dissoln. in dild. H2SO4, evapn. with a drop of concd. HNO3;100%
7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

magnesium oxide

A

7487-88-9

magnesium sulfate

B

magnesium iodide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
70 °C; 1-2. step of Mg-S-I water splitting cycle;A 100%
B 100%
392334-61-1, 371241-08-6, 392333-87-8, 1226500-22-6

[Fe(μ-S2(CH2)3)(CN)(CO)4(PMe3)](1-)

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water Electrolysis; electrolysis of soln. of Fe2(CO)4(CN)(PMe3)S2(CH2)3 with 50 equiv. H2SO4at -1.2 V for 15 min; GC analysis;100%

barium sulfate

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Ba(2+)*SO4(2-)*2H2SO4*H2O=BaSO4*2H2SO4*H2O

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water In sulfuric acid digesting; concn. of H2SO4 in aq. H2SO4 >93%; pptn. by adjusting H2SO4 concn. to 84.15%-93% with water;100%
With H2O In sulfuric acid aq. H2SO4; digesting; concn. of H2SO4 in aq. H2SO4 >93%; pptn. by adjusting H2SO4 concn. to 84.15%-93% with water;100%
With water In sulfuric acid uptake of water from the air;

0.34K(1+)*0.7H2O*NbS2(034-)=K0.34(H2O)0.7NbS2

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

0.34H3O(1+)*NbS2(034-)=(H3O)0.34NbS2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In sulfuric acid aq. H2SO4; Nb-contg. compd. was treated in aq. H2SO4 for 48 h;100%
4-(3-methylimidazolium)butanesulfonate

4-(3-methylimidazolium)butanesulfonate

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

827320-59-2

1-methyl-3-(4-sulfobutyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium hydrogensulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In toluene at 80℃; for 24h;100%
21876-43-7

4-(pyridinium-1-yl)butane-1-sulfonate

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

827320-61-6

N-(4-sulphonic acid)butylpyridinium hydrogen sulphate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In toluene at 80℃; for 24h;100%

ammonium sulfate

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

7446-11-9

sulfur trioxide

11113-50-1

boric acid

3H3N*3H(1+)*B(SO4)3(3-)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 300℃; for 3h;100%
1633-05-2

strontium(II) carbonate

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

7446-11-9

sulfur trioxide

11113-50-1

boric acid

Sr(2+)*2{B(SO4)2}(1-)=Sr{B(SO4)2}2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 180℃; for 24h;100%
7440-69-9

bismuth

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

bismuth(III) sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In further solvent(s) H2SO4 was added to Bi in HNO3 with stirring and heating; more H2SO4 wasadded and suspn. was heated for 40 h; heated in a muffle furnace at 648K; elem. anal.;99.8%
In sulfuric acid byproducts: SO2; by dissolving in boiling concd. H2SO4;;
In sulfuric acid byproducts: SO2; very weak reaction with diluted H2SO4.;;
In nitric acid Bi dissolved in HNO3 and treated with H2SO4, heated for several hours at 380 °C;;
24766-14-1

2-(bromomethyl)-3-methylbutanoic acid

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

115-11-7

isobutene

224178-55-6

2-Bromomethyl-3-methyl-butyric acid tert-butyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydrogencarbonate In dichloromethane99%
108-75-8

2,4,6-trimethyl-pyridine

100-60-7

N-methylcyclohexylamine

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

1643-19-2

tetrabutylammomium bromide

N-Isobutenyloxycarbonyl-N-methylcyclohexylamine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethylene99%
27697-50-3

N-nitroso-N-cyclohexylhydroxylamine potassium salt

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

N-nitroso-N-cyclohexylhydroxylamine aluminum salt

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water; toluene99%

molybdenum (II) chloride

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

Mo6Cl8(4+)*2SO4(2-)=[Mo6Cl8](SO4)2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In methanol byproducts: HCl; concd. H2SO4 is added to a soln. of the cluster in MeOH, HCl is evolvedand soln. is warmed up; soln. is heated to remove HCl and concd., soln. is diluted with MeOH, ppt.is sepd., washed and dried over P2O5, elem. anal.;99%
15020-99-2

cis-dichloro(ethylenediamine)palladium(II)

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

17356-08-0

thiourea

(Pd(Thio)4SO4)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With acetic acid In water soln. PdEnCl2 in water was treated under heating in water bath with saturated aq. thiourea acidified with acetic acid, in 30 min 2 M H2SO4 was added; ppt. was filtered, washed with diluted H2SO4 and water, and dried;99%

Pt2(6+)*2O2(2-)*2OH(1-)*32K(1+)*32HSO4(1-)=[Pt2(O2)2(OH)2]*32KHSO4

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

2K(1+)*Pt2(6+)*4SO4(2-)*2H2O=K2[Pt2(SO4)4(H2O)2]

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In sulfuric acid aq. H2SO4; room temp.;99%

Pt2(6+)*2O2(2-)*2OH(1-)*20K(1+)*20HSO4(1-)=[Pt2(O2)2(OH)2]*20KHSO4

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

2K(1+)*Pt2(6+)*4SO4(2-)*2H2O=K2[Pt2(SO4)4(H2O)2]

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In sulfuric acid aq. H2SO4; room temp.;99%

Pt2(6+)*2O2(2-)*2OH(1-)*24K(1+)*24HSO4(1-)=[Pt2(O2)2(OH)2]*24KHSO4

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

2K(1+)*Pt2(6+)*4SO4(2-)*2H2O=K2[Pt2(SO4)4(H2O)2]

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In sulfuric acid aq. H2SO4; room temp.;99%

Pt2(6+)*2O2(2-)*2OH(1-)*28K(1+)*28HSO4(1-)=[Pt2(O2)2(OH)2]*28KHSO4

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

2K(1+)*Pt2(6+)*4SO4(2-)*2H2O=K2[Pt2(SO4)4(H2O)2]

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In sulfuric acid aq. H2SO4; room temp.;99%

Pt2(6+)*2O2(2-)*2OH(1-)*10K(1+)*10HSO4(1-)=[Pt2(O2)2(OH)2]*10KHSO4

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

2K(1+)*Pt2(6+)*4SO4(2-)*2H2O=K2[Pt2(SO4)4(H2O)2]

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In sulfuric acid aq. H2SO4; room temp.;99%
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History

The discovery of sulfuric acid is credited to the 8th century Muslim chemist and alchemist, Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber). The acid was later studied by 9th century Persian physician and alchemist Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes), who obtained the substance by dry distillation of minerals including iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4·7H2O, and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4·5H2O.
In the 17th century, the German-Dutch chemist Johann Glauber prepared sulfuric acid by burning sulfur together with saltpeter (potassium nitrate, KNO3), in the presence of steam
Sulfuric acid created by John Roebuck's process only approached a 35–40% concentration.
Later refinements to the lead-chamber process by French chemist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and British chemist John Glover improved the yield to 78%.
Throughout the 18th century, this could only be made by dry distilling minerals in a technique similar to the original alchemical processes.
In 1831, British vinegar merchant Peregrine Phillips patented the contact process, which was a far more economical process for producing sulfur trioxide and concentrated sulfuric acid. Today, nearly all of the world's sulfuric acid is produced using this method.

Consensus Reports

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: TWA 1 mg/m3
ACGIH TLV: TWA 1 mg/m3; STEL 3 mg/m3; Suspected Human Carcinogen (Contained in strong inorganic mists); (Proposed: TWA 0.2 mg/m3; Suspected Human Carcinogen (Contained in strong inorganic mists))
DFG MAK: 1 mg/m3
NIOSH REL: (Sulfuric Acid) TWA 1 mg/m3
DOT Classification:  8; Label: Corrosive

Analytical Methods

 Sulfuric acid (CAS NO.7664-93-9) ,its occupational chemical analysis uses OSHA: #ID-113 or NIOSH: Acids, inorganic, 7903.

 

Specification

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid), with the cas number 7664-93-9, is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2 SO4. It is a pungent-ethereal, colorless to slightly yellow viscous liquid which is soluble in water at all concentrations.Sometimes, it may be dark brown as dyed during its industrial production process in order to alert people to its hazards.

Physical properties about Sulfuric acid are: (1)ACD/LogP: -1.114; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): -5.61; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): -5.61; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1.00; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.00; (6)#H bond acceptors: 4; (7)#H bond donors: 2; (8)Index of Refraction: 1.537; (9)Molar Refractivity: 13.925 cm3; (10)Molar Volume: 44.58 cm3; (11)Polarizability: 5.52 10-24cm3; (12)Surface Tension: 124.13500213623 dyne/cm; (13)Density: 2.2 g/cm3; (14)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 62.935 kJ/mol; (15)Boiling Point: 330.001 °C at 760 mmHg

Preparation of Sulfuric acid: The manufacture of Sulfuric acid (CAS NO.7664-93-9) by the lead chamberprocess involves oxidation of sulfur to sulfur dioxide by oxygen, further oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide with nitrogen dioxide, and, finally, hydrolysis of sulfur trioxide.

S + O2 → SO2
2NO + O2→ 2NO2
SO2 + NO2 → SO3 + NO
SO3 + H2O → H2SO4

Modifications of the process include towers to recover excess nitrogen oxides and to increase the final acid concentration from 65% (chamber acid) to 78% (tower acid).
The contact process has evolved to become the method of choice for sulfuric acid manufacture because of the ability of the process to produce stronger acid.

S + O2 → SO2
2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3
SO3 + H2O → H2SO4

In the process, sulfur and oxygen are converted to sulfur dioxide at 1000 °C and then cooled to 420 °C. The sulfur dioxide and oxygen enter the converter, which contains a catalyst such as vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). About 60 to 65% of the sulfur dioxide is converted by an exothermic reaction to sulfur trioxide in the first layer with a 2 to 4-second contact time. The gas leaves the converter at 600°C and is cooled to 400°C before it enters the second layer of catalyst. After the third layer, about 95% of the sulfur dioxide is converted into sulfur trioxide. The mixture is then fed to the initial absorption tower, where the sulfur trioxide is hydrated to sulfuric acid after which the gas mixture is reheated to 420 °C and enters the fourth layer of catalyst that gives overall a 99.7% conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide. It is cooled and then fed to the final absorption tower and hydrated to sulfuric acid. The final sulfuric acid concentration is 98 to 99% (1 to 2% water). A small amount of this acid is recycled by adding some water and recirculating into the towers to pick up more sulfur trioxide.

Uses of Sulfuric acid: Although Sulfuric acid is the common starting raw material, other sources of Sulfuric acid (CAS NO.7664-93-9) can be used, including iron, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc sulfides. Hydrogen sulfide, a by-product of petroleum refining and natural gas refining, can be burned to sulfur dioxide. Gypsum (CaSO4) can also be used but needs high temperatures to be converted to sulfur dioxide. Other uses for it include the manufacture of fertilizers, chemicals, inorganic pigments, petroleum refining, etching, as a catalyst in alkylation processes, in electroplating baths, for pickling and other operations in iron and steel production, in rayon and film manufacture, in the making of explosives, and in nonferrous metallurgy.

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice;
Never add water to this product;
In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible);?
Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves;

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)InChI=1S/H2O4S/c1-5(2,3)4/h(H2,1,2,3,4);
(2)InChIKey=QAOWNCQODCNURD-UHFFFAOYSA-N;
(3)SmilesS(=O)(=O)(O)O;

The toxicity data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
guinea pig LC50 inhalation 18mg/m3 (18mg/m3) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES Medicina del Lavoro. Industrial Medicine. Vol. 45, Pg. 590, 1954.
 
human TCLo inhalation 1mg/m3/3H (1mg/m3) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES Inhalation Toxicology. Vol. 9, Pg. 731, 1997.
human TCLo inhalation 3mg/m3/24W (3mg/m3) MUSCULOSKELETAL: CHANGES IN TEETH AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 18, Pg. 63, 1961.
 
man LDLo unreported 135mg/kg (135mg/kg)   "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970Vol. 2, Pg. 73, 1970.
mouse LC50 inhalation 320mg/m3/2H (320mg/m3)   "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 107, 1982.
rat LC50 inhalation 510mg/m3/2H (510mg/m3)   "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 107, 1982.
rat LD50 oral 2140mg/kg (2140mg/kg)   American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 30, Pg. 470, 1969.