white crystalline powder
As a plant growth retardant, daminozide has various applications as dwarfing agent, fruit-setting agent, rooting agent and preservative agent. After treatment, plants can absorb, transport and distribute to various parts of the plant. The initial effect of B9 is to inhibit the synthesis of auxin, inhibit the transport of auxin in plants and the biosynthesis of gibberellin. It can also delay the senescence of leaf lettuce, inhibit the decay and discoloration of mushrooms, and has less effect on green cauliflower and stone cypress. In addition, daminozide preserves chlorophyll in plants and prolongs the life of some perishable vegetables.
Plant growth regulator.
Plant growth regulator: Daminozide is a systemic growth regulator registered for use on ornamentals, including potted chrysanthemums and poinsettias, and bedding plants in enclosed structures. U.S. sales for food and feed crops were halted in 1989 because of health considerations, i. e., the Alar scare on apples.
Risk and Warning
Based on the investigation of the United States environmental protection agency[USEPA], Daminozide has to potential to induce cancer[16,17]. It is also known that it is a selective inhibitor of human KDM2/7 histone demethylases.
Air & Water Reactions
Slightly soluble in water.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Daminozide[Alar] Pesticide Canceled for Food Uses" Archived October 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.[press release], 7 November 1989
- United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides And Toxic Substances[September 1993]. "R.E.D. Facts: Daminozide"
- 18. Rose, Nathan R., et al. "Plant Growth Regulator Daminozide Is a Selective Inhibitor of Human KDM2/7 Histone Demethylases." Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 55.14(2012]:6639-6643.
Flash point data for Daminozide are not available; however, Daminozide is probably combustible.
Daminozide has a fairly wide range of efficacy on ornamentals and is commonly used on young plants such as seedling plugs and liners. It cannot be legally applied to herbs or other food crops. Typical spray rates for young plants range from 1,500 to 2,500 ppm, whereas higher rates of up to 5,000 ppm are sometimes used on finish plants[12,13]. Carefully follow the mixing instructions on the product labels to deliver the desired concentration. Applications are best made just as plants begin to rapidly elongate. Spray applications are more effective when made at a high humidity, on a cloudy day, at low temperatures and when the air is calm. A spray made during the heat of the day can dry rapidly, resulting in reduced effectiveness[13-15]. Applications should be made to well-watered plants with dry leaves. Wilted plants can absorb less PGR, and wet leaves can dilute the PGR concentration. Overhead irrigation should not be made soon after an application, as the water can wash off the PGR before it has been allowed to enter leaves. Once daminozide enters leaf tissue however, it quickly moves throughout the plant to inhibit subsequent extension growth of stems and leaves[13-15].
ALAR®; ALAR-85®; AMINOZID®; AMINOZIDE®; B-9®; B-995®; B-NINE®; DAZIDE®; DAZIDE®; ENHANCE®; DIMAS®; KYLAR®; SADH®
Odorless white crystals or powder.
Mode of action
Daminozide can retard shoot growth in certain plant species, sharing similar effect with the prohexadione, which is an acylcyclohexanedione. This inhibition has been shown to be a result of competition with the natural co‐substrate, 2-oxoglutarate, at the active site of hydroxylases involved in the later stages of the gibberellin[GA] biosynthesis pathway. Detailed analysis found that daminozide inhibits only the bean 3β‐hydroxylase to a significant degree, whereas prohexadione inhibited both the bean and pumpkin enzymes. However, in general, this two plant growth regulator has the same mode of action as prohexadione in distinct plant species, namely to inhibit the 3β-hydroxylase and, to a lesser extent, the 2β-hydroxylase, further resulting in the suppression of the late stages of gibberellin metabolism
The effects of daminozide on plants include:
- Delay plant vegetative growth, make the leaves thick green, small and thick, the plant compact and strong, the root system developed, increasing the dry weight of the roots to reduce the proportion of crown roots, which is conducive to control excessive growth and flower bud differentiation.
- Increase chlorophyll content of crops, delay the senescence of chloroplasts, slow down the growth rate, and have a high photosynthetic net assimilation rate, which is conducive to increasing dry matter accumulation, improving fruit quality, hardness and fruit set rate, and promoting fruit ripening.
- Increase the sugar content of plant cells, reduce energy consumption, reduce transpiration, which is beneficial to reduce physiological diseases.
- Promote the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, which is beneficial to improve the color of the fruit and prevent the fruit from decolorizing during storage. Daminozide can be quickly decomposed by microorganisms in the soil.
Daminozide may be heat sensitive. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, and bases. Also incompatible with wetting agents, alkaline materials, oils and copper-containing compounds. May corrode metals . May generate toxic gases with acids, aldehydes, amides, carbamates, cyanides, inorganic fluorides, halogenated organics, isocyanates, ketones, metals, nitrides, peroxides, phenols, epoxides, acyl halides, and strong oxidizing or reducing agents. May generate flammable gases with alkali metals. Explosive reactions can occur with strong oxidizing agents, metal salts, peroxides, and sulfides.
Plant cell culture, tested.
Daminozide is one of the first plant growth retardants[PGRs] registered for use on agricultural crops. It was first registered in 1963 for use on potted chrysanthemums in the US and was later approved for use on food crops[1-2]. Although it is still allowed for used on ornamentals plants, its use on food crops was withdrawn in 1990 by the United States environmental protection agency[USEPA] due to its possible health risks such as cancer inducing risks[1-2]. Two major commercial products available in the United States and Canada that contain daminozide: B-Nine[from OHP] and Dazide[from Fine Americas]. Both come as a water-soluble granule containing 85 percent of the active ingredient[3-4]. Based on research conducted by Jim Barrett at the University of Florida, these products are only effective as a foliar spray; if applied as a drench, the chemical is rapidly broken down by the growing media. A typical application spray volume for daminozide is the same as that for other PGRs: 2 quarts per 100 square feet of growing area. B-Nine and Dazide are water-soluble PGRs that permeate leaf surfaces relatively slowly. Movement into leaf tissue only occurs while the leaf surface is still wet with the PGR solution and therefore, the absorption and activity of daminozide increases under slow-drying conditions. Compared with other PGR products, daminozide has a fairly short residual effect, typically lasting one to two weeks but sometimes up to four weeks depending on crop and rate[3-6].