Xylazine is an agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors (Ki = 194 nM).1 It is an analog of clonidine, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist used to reduce blood pressure. Xylazine is used for sedation, anesthesia, and analgesia in non-human mammals.2,3 This product is also available as an analytical reference standard (Item No. 22641).
Antinociceptive;Alpha-2 adrenergic agonist
Xylazine is an α2 class of adrenergic receptor agonist. Xylazine is a clonidine analoque that acts on presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors as an a 2-adrenergic agonist.
2,6-Dimethylphenyl isothiocyanate, 31.0 g (0.2 mole), prepared from 2,6-
dimethylaniline with thiophosgene, were added dropwise during 15 min to a
well-stirred suspension of 15.0 g (0.2 mole) of 3-aminopropanol-1 in 100 ml
of ether. The ether started to boil. Stirring under reflux was continued for 30
min, and the ether was then distilled off. The residue was treated with 100 ml
of concentrated hydrochloric acid and boiled under reflux for 30 min. After
cooling, it was diluted with water, filtered free from impurities, and the base
was precipitated by the addition of concentrated sodium hydroxide solution.
When recrystallized from benzene-ligroin, the resulting compound 2-(2,6-
dimethyl-phenylamino)-4H-5,6-dihydro-1,3-thiazine, melting point 140-142°C
(yield 90% of the theoretical).
Xylazine is soluble in methanol (50 mg/ml), yielding a clear, colorless solution. It is also soluble in dilute HCl acid and in chloroform. Xylazine is practically insoluble in water and in alkali solutions.
Xylazine when used along with ketamine is considered to be a potent and safe anaesthetic in experimental animal. It is known to elevate the hepatic release of glucose, which aggravates to hyperglycemia.
Poison by ingestion,
subcutaneous, and intravenous routes.
Human systemic effects: change in motor
activity, fall in blood pressure, miosis,
pleural thickening, pulse rate decrease,
somnolence. When heated to decomposition
it emits very toxic fumes of NOx and SOx.