Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
Ammonium hydroxide solutions are alkaline solutions, meaning they have high pH level. As a result, ammonium hydroxide is a severe eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritant, and readily burns tissue with which it comes in contact. Splashes to the eye may be serious, as contact may cause severe burns, irritation pain and possibly blindness. Direct contact with skin may cause severe burns if the chemical is not quickly rinsed away with copious amounts of water. Inhaling mists of ammonium hydroxide may result in irritation of the nose and throat with symptoms including burning, coughing, choking and pain. Inhaling concentrated mist may result in pulmonary edema and shock. Ingesting ammonium hydroxide may cause pain and burns of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract.
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
Ammonium hydroxide,NH40H, is a hydrate of anunonia and exists in crystalline form at -79°C. Normally, it is only found in an aqueous solution also known as aquaanunonia and anunonia water. It is prepared by dissolving NH3 inH20. Reagent grade anunonium hydroxide contains from 28 to 30% NH3 at 15.6 °C. Industrial sales specify the concentration of NH3 in solution in terms of specific gravity. Common concentrations are 20 °Be, which would bea concentration of 17.8% NH3 (specific gravity 0.933) and 26 °Be (specific gravity 0.897), or a concentration of 29.4% NH3. Ammonium hydroxide is an excellent medium for the reaction of NH3 (which becomes the NH4 radical in solution) with other compounds for the preparation of anunonium salts and other nitrogen-containing chemicals. It is an ingredientin deodorants, etching compounds, and cleaning and bleaching materials. Ammoniumhydroxide, as aqua ammonia, finds wide use as a neutralizing agent,because it is inexpensive and strongly alkaline.
Ammonium hydroxide reacts exothermically with acids. Evolves toxic gaseous ammonia with strong bases. Reacts extremely violently with dimethyl sulfate [NFPA 491M 1991]. Reacts with aqueous silver nitrate sodium hydroxide to give a black precipitate of silver nitride. Such a precipitate can explode on stirring [MCA Case History 1554 1968]. Aqueous ammonia and Hg react to form an explosive solid, likely a fulminate. (Thodos, G. Amer. Inst. Chen. Engrs. J., 1964, 10, 274.).
Air & Water Reactions
Water soluble. Generates a small amount of heat when diluted with water.
Ammonium hydroxide is utilized in numerous applications:
- Ammonium hydroxide is used as a cleaning agent and sanitizer in many household and industrial cleaners.
- Ammonium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of products such as fertilizer, plastic, rayon and rubber.
- Aqueous ammonia is corrosive to aluminum alloys, copper, copper alloys, and galvanized surfaces.
- Aqueous ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer.
- In furniture making, ammonium hydroxide is used to darken or stain wood containing tannic acid.
- In food production, ammonium hydroxide is used as a leavening agent or acidity regulator and is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Its pH control abilities make it an effective antimicrobial agent. Ammonium hydroxide is also used to treat straw, producing "ammoniated straw" that is edible for cattle.
- In the tobacco industry, ammonium hydroxide is used for flavor enhancement and as a processing aid.
- Aqueous ammonia is used in the laboratory most often as a complexant and base in inorganic analysis. It can dissolve silver residues, and when used with copper (II) solutions, provides a deep blue coloration.
||Baked goods, cheeses, chocolates, other confectionery (e.g., caramel), and puddings
||Leavening agent, pH control agent and surface-finishing agent/safe and weakly alkaline
||Antimicrobial agent/ lowers the acidity of meet, making it difficult for pathogens to survive
||Household and industrial cleansers
||Cleansing ingredient/ helps to kill microbial agents like bacteria
||Main ingredient/disinfects sarin
||Manufacture of fertilizers
||Source of nitrogen
||Manufacture of alkyl amine
||Precursor/source of amino
||Hair dyes and colors
||pH adjusters/alkaline and safe
||Determination of certain elements such as copper and nickel
||Precipitant/ helps to precipitate various elements
||Amide coupling reactions
||Reagent/source of NH3
|Catalytic reduction of nitriles
||Stain agent/better for the wood containing tannic acids
|Circuit board manufacturing
||Etching agent/has high alkalinity which makes it very corrosive to certain metals
||Processing aid/enhances tobacco flavor
|Treatment of straw for cattle
||Produce "ammoniated straw" which is more edible for cattle
|Coagulation of natural rubber latex
||pH adjusters/helps to stabilize the natural rubber lattices
Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless aqueous solution. Concentration of ammonia ranges up to approximately 30%. Ammonia vapors (which arise from the solution) irritate the eyes.
Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless, liquid solution with a characteristic and pungent odor. It is ammonia combined with water. Ammonia (NH3) is a compound consisting of nitrogen and hydrogen. Both ammonia and ammonium hydroxide are very common compounds, found naturally in the environment (in air, water, and soil) and in all plants and animals, including humans. Ammonia is a source of nitrogen, an essential element for plants and animals. Ammonia is also produced by the human body – by our organs and tissues and by beneficial bacteria living in our intestines.
Ammonia plays an important role in protein synthesis in the human body. In brief summary, all living things need proteins, which are comprised of some 20 different amino acids. While plants and microorganisms can synthesize most amino acids from the nitrogen in the atmosphere, animals cannot. For humans, some amino acids cannot be synthesized at all and must be consumed as intact amino acids. Other amino acids, however, can be synthesized by microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract with the help of ammonia ions. Thus, ammonia is a key player in the nitrogen cycle and in protein synthesis. Ammonia also helps maintain the body's pH balance.