|Type: Halogen||Atomic weight:79.904|
|Density @ 293 K:3.122 g/cm3||Atomic volume:23.5 cm3/mol|
Bromine was discovered by A.J. Balard in 1826 in Montpellier, France. The name comes from the Greek word "bromos" meaning "stench".
|State (s, l, g):liquid|
|Melting point:277 K (-7 °C)||Boiling point:332 K (58.9 °C)|
|Specific heat capacity:0.473 J g-1 K-1||Heat of atomization:112 kJ mol-1|
|Heat of fusion:10.57 kJ mol-1 of Br2||Heat of vaporization :29.96 kJ mol-1 of Br2|
|1st ionization energy:1139.9 kJ mol-1||2nd ionization energy:2103.4 kJ mol-1|
|3rd ionization energy:3473.4 kJ mol-1||Electron affinity:324.7 kJ mol-1|
|Shells:2,8,18,7||Electron configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5|
|Minimum oxidation number: -1||Maximum oxidation number:7|
|Min. common oxidation no.: -1||Max. common oxidation no.:5|
|Electronegativity (Pauling Scale):2.96||Polarizability volume:3.1 Å3|
|Structure:layers of Br2||Color:red-brown|
Bromine is poisonous and causes skin burns.
Pure bromine is diatomic, Br2.
Bromine compounds are used as pesticides, dyestuffs, water purification compounds, and as a flame-retardants in plastics.
|Reaction with air:none||Reaction with 6 M HCl:none, dissolves Br2(aq)|
|Reaction with 15 M HNO3:||Reaction with 6 M NaOH:mild, ⇒ OBr-, Br-|
|Oxide(s):Br2O, BrO2||Chloride(s): BrCl|
|Atomic radius:115 pm||Ionic radius (1+ ion):pm|
|Ionic radius (2+ ion):pm||Ionic radius (3+ ion):pm|
|Ionic radius (2- ion):pm||Ionic radius (1- ion):182 pm|
|Thermal conductivity:0.12 W m-1 K-1||Electrical conductivity:1.0 x 10-10 S m-1|
|Abundance earth's crust:2.4 parts per million, 0.6 by moles|
|Abundance solar system:parts per billion by weight, parts per billion by moles|
|Cost, pure: $5 per 100g|
|Cost, bulk:$0.15 per 100g|
Bromine is obtained from natural brine deposits. Some bromine is still extracted today from seawater, which contains only about 70 ppm.
26 whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers 68 to 94. Of these, only two are stable: 79Br and 81Br.