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Cas Database

74-96-4

74-96-4

Identification

  • Product Name:Bromoethane

  • CAS Number: 74-96-4

  • EINECS:200-825-8

  • Molecular Weight:108.966

  • Molecular Formula: C2H5Br

  • HS Code:2903399090

  • Mol File:74-96-4.mol

Synonyms:Etylu bromek [Polish];Bromoethane (ethyl bromide);Ethyl bromide [UN1891] [Poison];NCI-C55481;Hydrobromic ether;Etylu bromek;Bromure dethyle;ethylbromide;Ethane,bromo-;Monobromoethane;NCI-554813;Ethyl Bromide;Halon 2001;Bromic ether;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):FlammableF, HarmfulXn

  • Hazard Codes: F:Flammable;

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H225 Highly flammable liquid and vapourH302 Harmful if swallowed H332 Harmful if inhaled H351 Suspected of causing cancer

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled Fresh air, rest. Refer for medical attention. In case of skin contact Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. Refer for medical attention . In case of eye contact First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention. If swallowed Refer for medical attention . Excerpt from ERG Guide 131 [Flammable Liquids - Toxic]: TOXIC; may be fatal if inhaled, ingested or absorbed through skin. Inhalation or contact with some of these materials will irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. (ERG, 2016) Basic treatment: Establish a patent airway. Suction if necessary. Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilations if necessary. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 10 to 15 L/min. Monitor for pulmonary edema and treat if necessary ... . Monitor for shock and treat if necessary ... . Anticipate seizures and treat if necessary ... . For eye contamination, flush eyes immediately with water. Irrigate each eye continuously with normal saline during transport ... . Do not use emetics. For ingestion, rinse mouth and administer 5 ml/kg up to 200 ml of water for dilution if the patient can swallow, has a strong gag reflex, and does not drool. Administer activated charcoal ... . Cover skin burns with dry sterile dressings after decontamination ... . /Bromine, methyl bromide, and related compounds/

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Keep run-off water out of sewers and water sources. Excerpt from ERG Guide 131 [Flammable Liquids - Toxic]: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a (P) may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. (ERG, 2016) Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Evacuate danger area! Consult an expert! Remove all ignition sources. Ventilation. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable metal containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. Personal protection: chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus. Absorb the spills with paper towels or the like materials. Place in hood to evaporate. Dispose by burning the towel.

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Fireproof. Separated from incompatible materials. Cool. Dry. Well closed. Ventilation along the floor.Outdoor or detached storage is preferable. Indoor storage should be in a standard flammable liquid storage room.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesAfter reviewing available published literature, NIOSH provided comments to OSHA on August 1, 1988, regarding the "Proposed Rule on Air Contaminants" (29 CFR 1910, Docket No. H-020). In these comments, NIOSH questioned whether the PELs proposed for ethyl bromide [TWA 200 ppm; STEL 250 ppm] were adequate to protect workers from recognized health hazards.Biological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 142 Articles be found

Verbascoside, synthetic derivatives and other glycosides from Argentinian native plant species as potential antitumoral agents

Garro, Hugo A.,Bruna-Haupt, Ezequiel,Cianchino, Valeria,Malizia, Florencia,Favier, Silvina,Menacho-Márquez, Mauricio,Cifuente, Diego,Fernández, Claudio O.,Pungitore, Carlos R.

, p. 4703 - 4708 (2021)

A phytochemical study was performed on three native plant species from the central-western zone of Argentina: Buddleja cordobensis Grisebach, Baccharis salicina Torr. & A. Gray and Nepeta cataria L. We could obtain verbascoside (1) from B. cordobensis. From N. cataria, we could obtain 1, 5, 9-epi-deoxyloganic acid (2) L. Finally, we could isolate 2-β-(L-rhamnopyranosyl)-3-angeloyloxy-15-acetyloxy-7,13(14)-E-dien-ent-labdane (3) and 2-β-(L-rhamnopyranosyl)-3-α-angeloyloxy-15-hydroxy-7,13(14)-E-dien-ent-labdane (4) from B. salicina. Moreover, three derivatives from 1, and one semi-synthetic derivative from 2, were prepared. PCR reaction was used to analyse the activity against DNA polymerase and cell culture to determine cytotoxicity and antitumoral activity. Verbascoside (1) was strongly active in the nanomolar scale (IC50 = 356 nM) against DNA polymerization. Moreover, verbascoside was also strongly active in the nanomolar scale against human melanoma cell line (IC50 = 256 nM) and human colorectal cell line (IC50 = 320 nM). Furthermore, derivatives 6 and 7 were cytotoxic against both cancer cell lines.

Lure et al.

, (1972)

Sixma et al

, p. 127,133,139 (1956)

Aditya,Willard

, p. 3367,3368 (1957)

Reactivity of mono-halogen carbene radical anions (CHX-; X = F, Cl and Br) and the corresponding carbanions (CH2X-; X = Cl and Br) in the gas phase

Born, Monique,Ingemann, Steen,Nibbering, Nico M. M.

, p. 2537 - 2547 (1996)

The gas-phase reactions of mono-halogen substituted carbene radical anions, CHX- (X = F, Cl and Br) and the corresponding carbanions, CH2X- (X = Cl and Br) with halomethanes and organic esters have been examined with the use of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. The chlorine and bromine containing (radical) anions react by SN2 substitution with the parent chloro- and bromo-methanes, whereas an SN2 and/or a BAC2 reaction occurs with the methyl ester of trifluoroacetic acid and dimethyl carbonate. The main features of the results are: (i) the SN2 substitution of a given carbene radical anion with CH3C1 or CH3Br is less efficient than this reaction of the corresponding carbanion, (ii) the radical anions react less efficiently with dimethyl carbonate than the carbanions, (iii) the SN2 substitution is less important for the radical anions than for the carbanions in the reactions with the two carbonyl compounds, (iv) for both types of ions, the BAC2 pathway becomes relatively more important as the halogen atom is changed from chlorine to bromine. These findings are discussed in terms of the thermodynamics of the overall processes in combination with considerations of the potential energy surfaces which can describe these gas-phase processes.

Synthesis of ethyl 4,5-bis(diethoxyphosphorylmethyl)-3-furoate

Pevzner

, p. 62 - 67 (2016)

Preparative procedure for 4,5-bis(diethoxyphosphorylmethyl)-3-furoate from 4-chloromethyl-3-furoate is developed. It includes substitution of chlorine with iodine, phosphorylation by means of the Arbuzov reaction, chloromethylation of 4-(diethoxyphosphorylmethyl)-3-furoate in the position 5 of the furan ring, substitution of chlorine with iodine in the obtained chloromethyl derivative, and repeated phosphorylation with triethyl phosphite. It was found that ethyl 4-(diethoxyphosphorylmethyl)-5(chloromethyl)-3-furoate reacts with sodium diethyl phosphite by two pathways. Besides usual nucleophilic substitution leading to phosphonate, transfer of the reaction center in the position 2 of the furan ring takes place. The ambident diethylphosphite anion in this case reacts at the oxygen to give tertiary phosphite. The latter is oxidized with the air oxygen to form ethyl 2-(diethoxyphosphoryloxy)-4-(diethoxyphosphorylmethyl)-5-methyl-3-furoate. Unlike that analogous iodomethyl phosphonate is phosphorylated selectively under the conditions of the Arbuzov reaction.

Young,Arch,Shyne

, p. 957 (1941)

The Ethyl Halides: Stable Neutral and Radical Cation Isomers where X = F, Cl, Br, I

Blanchette, Marcia C.,Holmes, John L.,Lossing, F. P.

, p. 701 - 709 (1987)

The following isomers of the ethyl halide molecular ions have all been shown to be stable species in the gas phase: +.; +.; (ΔH0f = 1012 kJ mol-1); +. (ΔH0f = 971 kJ mol-1); +.; +. (ΔH0f = 1058 kJ mol-1); +. (ΔH0f = 995 kJ mol-1) and +..Neutralization-reionization mass spectrometry, employing Xe as the electron transfer target gas and O2 as the target gas for reionization, indicated that the ylides CH3ClCH2 and CH3BrCH2 could not be generated by such means.However, the species CH3CHClH, CH2CH2ClH and CH2CH2BrH ( and posibly CH3CHBr ) were unambiguously identified.

Effects of Preferential Solvation and of Solvent-Solvent Interaction on the Rates of Nucleophilic Substitution involving Anions in Binary Mixed Solvents. Theoretical Approach

Kondo, Yasuhiko,Kusabayashi, Shigekazu

, p. 109 - 118 (1982)

Theoretical procedures for investigating rate constants and activation parameters measured in binary mixed solvents have been presented on the basis of the concept of ideal associated mixtures.In methanol+acetonitrile mixtures the behaviour of the rate constant and of activation parameters for the ethyl iodide plus bromide ion reaction were interpreted as resulting from the specific interaction of bromide ion with methanol.In methanol+NN-dimethylacetamide mixtures association complex formation between methanol and NN-dimethylacetamide makes a significant contribution to the activation parameters, and this factor must be taken into account in interpreting the observed rate behaviour.

Nucleophilic Substitution in Binary Mixed Solvents. Kinetics and Transfer Enthalpies of Anions in the Mixed Solvents Methanol+Propylene Carbonate and Methanol+N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone

Yasuhiko, Kondo,Kazumi, Yuki,Takeshi, Yoshida,Niichiro, Tokura

, p. 812 - 824 (1980)

Rate constants and activation enthalpies for the reaction of ethyl iodide with bromide ion have been determined in two solvent mixtures, i.e., methanol+propylene carbonate and methanol+N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone mixtures.Heats of solution have also been determined for ethyl iodide, tetra-n-butylammonium-bromide, -perchlorate and -tetra-n-butylborate in the two solvent mixtures.Judging from these transfer enthalpies, perchlorate ion seems to be a pertinent model compound for the activated complex of the reaction.Single ion transfer enthalpies have been evaluated on the basis of the (n-Bu)4NB(n-Bu)4 assumption in the two solvent mixtures.Transfer enthalpy against composition profiles for perchlorate ion are similar in the two solvent mixtures, whereas for bromide ion the corresponding profiles are quite different in the two solvent mixtures, i.e., a sharp minimum was observed for the profile in MeOH+PC mixtures.From these observations and from other evidence, it is concluded that bromide ion solvation involves both electrostatic interactions and specific interactions between solute and solvents.Model calculation performed on the basis of the above views reproduce the bromide ion profile in MeOH+PC mixtures well.

Process for desulpherization and hydrogen recovery

-

, (2021/11/13)

A process for removing hydrogen sulfide from a sour gas stream is presented. The method oxidizes hydrogen sulfide to sulfuric acid by reducing aqueous bromine to hydrobromic acid in solution. The aqueous bromine solution does not react with hydrocarbon components common to natural gas including methane and ethane. This allows the process to both sweeten sour gas and convert its hydrogen sulfide content to sulfuric acid in a single step. In the present process, sulfuric acid is concentrated to eliminate its bromine content prior to being removed from the system, while the remaining hydrobromic acid solution is electrolyzed to regenerate aqueous bromine and produce hydrogen. Hydrobromic acid electrolysis requires less than half the energy required by water electrolysis and is an inherently flexible load that can shed or absorb excess power to balance supply and demand.

Synthesis and mass spectra of rearrangement bio-signature metabolites of anaerobic alkane degradation via fumarate addition

Chen, Jing,Zhou, Lei,Liu, Yi-Fan,Hou, Zhao-Wei,Li, Wei,Mbadinga, Serge Maurice,Zhou, Jing,Yang, Tao,Liu, Jin-Feng,Yang, Shi-Zhong,Wu, Xiao-Lin,Gu, Ji-Dong,Mu, Bo-Zhong

, (2020/05/01)

Metabolite profiling in anaerobic alkane biodegradation plays an important role in revealing activation mechanisms. Apart from alkylsuccinates, which are considered to be the usual biomarkers via fumarate addition, the downstream metabolites of C-skeleton rearrangement can also be regarded as biomarkers. However, it is difficult to detect intermediate metabolites in both environmental samples and enrichment cultures, resulting in lacking direct evidence to prove the occurrence of fumarate addition pathway. In this work, a synthetic method of rearrangement metabolites was established. Four compounds, namely, propylmalonic acid, 2-(2-methylbutyl)malonic acid, 2-(2-methylpentyl)malonic acid and 2-(2-methyloctyl)malonic acid, were synthesized and determined by four derivatization approaches. Besides, their mass spectra were obtained. Four characteristic ions were observed at m/z 133 + 14n, 160 + 28n, 173 + 28n and [M - (45 + 14n)]+ (n = 0 and 2 for ethyl and n-butyl esters, respectively). For methyl esterification, mass spectral features were m/z 132, 145 and [M - 31]+, while for silylation, fragments were m/z 73, 147, 217, 248, 261 and [M - 15]+. These data provide basis on identification of potential rearrangement metabolites in anaerobic alkane biodegradation via fumarate addition.

Halogen-Dependent Surface Confinement Governs Selective Alkane Functionalization to Olefins

Zichittella, Guido,Scharfe, Matthias,Puértolas, Bego?a,Paunovi?, Vladimir,Hemberger, Patrick,Bodi, Andras,Szentmiklósi, László,López, Núria,Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

supporting information, p. 5877 - 5881 (2019/02/20)

The product distribution in direct alkane functionalization by oxyhalogenation strongly depends on the halogen of choice. We demonstrate that the superior selectivity to olefins over an iron phosphate catalyst in oxychlorination is the consequence of a surface-confined reaction. By contrast, in oxybromination alkane activation follows a gas-phase radical-chain mechanism and yields a mixture of alkyl bromide, cracking, and combustion products. Surface-coverage analysis of the catalyst and identification of gas-phase radicals in operando mode are correlated to the catalytic performance by a multi-technique approach, which combines kinetic studies with advanced characterization techniques such as prompt-gamma activation analysis and photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy. Rationalization of gas-phase and surface contributions by density functional theory reveals that the molecular level effects of chlorine are pivotal in determining the stark selectivity differences. These results provide strategies for unraveling detailed mechanisms within complex reaction networks.

An Activated TiC–SiC Composite for Natural Gas Upgrading via Catalytic Oxyhalogenation

Zichittella, Guido,Puértolas, Bego?a,Siol, Sebastian,Paunovi?, Vladimir,Mitchell, Sharon,Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

, p. 1282 - 1290 (2018/02/09)

Alkane oxyhalogenation has emerged as an attractive catalytic route for selective natural gas functionalization to important commodity chemicals, such as methyl halides or olefins. However, few systems have been shown to be active and selective in these reactions. Here, we identify a novel and highly efficient TiC–SiC composite for methane and ethane oxyhalogenation. Detailed characterization elucidates the kinetics and mechanism of the selective activation under reaction conditions to yield TiO2–TiC–SiC. This catalyst outperforms bulk TiO2, one of the best reported catalysts, reaching up to 85 % selectivity and up to 3 times higher titanium-specific space-time-yield of methyl halides or ethylene. This is attributed to the fact that the active TiO2 phase generated in situ is embedded in the thermally conductive SiC matrix, facilitating heat dissipation thus improving selectivity control.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

Acetyl bromide
506-96-7

Acetyl bromide

benzyl cellosolve
61911-33-9

benzyl cellosolve

ethyl bromide
74-96-4

ethyl bromide

2-ethoxyethyl acetate
111-15-9

2-ethoxyethyl acetate

ethylene glycol diacetate
111-55-7,27252-83-1

ethylene glycol diacetate

benzyl bromide
100-39-0

benzyl bromide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 92 ℃;
Ethyl isovalerate
108-64-5

Ethyl isovalerate

ethyl bromide
74-96-4

ethyl bromide

2-bromo-3-methyl-butyryl bromide
26464-05-1

2-bromo-3-methyl-butyryl bromide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With phosphorus; bromine;
orthoformic acid triethyl ester
122-51-0

orthoformic acid triethyl ester

ethyl bromide
74-96-4

ethyl bromide

ethyl trimethylsilyl ether
1825-62-3

ethyl trimethylsilyl ether

formic acid ethyl ester
109-94-4

formic acid ethyl ester

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With chloro-trimethyl-silane; sodium bromide; for 2h; Product distribution; Heating; Me3SiBr generated in situ;
92%
ethyl acetate
141-78-6

ethyl acetate

ethyl bromide
74-96-4

ethyl bromide

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

bromoacetic acid
79-08-3

bromoacetic acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 150 ℃;
bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

ethanethiol
75-08-1

ethanethiol

ethyl bromide
74-96-4

ethyl bromide

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

ethyl 3-ethoxy-2-butenoate
998-91-4

ethyl 3-ethoxy-2-butenoate

bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

ethyl bromide
74-96-4

ethyl bromide

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

Ethyl 2-bromopropionate
535-11-5,41978-69-2

Ethyl 2-bromopropionate

ethyl bromide
74-96-4

ethyl bromide

2,2-dibromopropionic acid
594-48-9

2,2-dibromopropionic acid

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 180 - 200 ℃;
carbon disulfide
75-15-0,12122-00-8

carbon disulfide

ethyl-carboximidoyl bromide
115197-42-7

ethyl-carboximidoyl bromide

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

ethyl bromide
74-96-4

ethyl bromide

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

ethylamine hydrobromide
593-55-5

ethylamine hydrobromide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

trimethylamine-dibromine
21412-52-2

trimethylamine-dibromine

ethyl bromide
74-96-4

ethyl bromide

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
aluminium bromide - diethylether

aluminium bromide - diethylether

ethyl bromide
74-96-4

ethyl bromide

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
bei der trocknen Destillation;

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