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Glycolic acid

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Glycolic acid

EINECS 201-180-5
CAS No. 79-14-1 Density 1.416 g/cm3
Solubility H2O: 0.1 g/mL, clear Melting Point 75-80 °C(lit.)
Formula C2H4O3 Boiling Point 265.6 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 76.06 Flash Point 128.7 °C
Transport Information Appearance Light yellow to amber liquid
Safety 26-36/37/39-45-23 Risk Codes 34-22
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 79-14-1 (Glycolic acid) Hazard Symbols CorrosiveC
Synonyms

Aceticacid, hydroxy- (9CI);Glycolic acid (7CI,8CI);2-Hydroxyacetic acid;2-Hydroxyethanoic acid;GlyPure;GlyPure 70;GlyPure 99;Glycocide;Hydroxyaceticacid;Hydroxyethanoic acid;NSC 166;a-Hydroxyacetic acid;

 

Glycolic acid Chemical Properties

Product Name: Glycolic acid (CAS NO.79-14-1)

Molecular Formula: C2H4O3
Molecular Weight: 76.05g/mol
Mol File: 79-14-1.mol
EINECS: 201-180-5
Appearance: colourless crystalline solid
Melting Point: 75-80 °C(lit.)
Boiling point: 265.6 °C at 760 mmHg
Flash Point: 128.7 °C
Density: 1.416 g/cm3
Refractive index: n20/D 1.424
Water Solubility: SOLUBLE
Sensitive: Hygroscopic
Stability: Stable. Incompatible with bases, oxidizing agents and reducing agents
Index of Refraction: 1.449 
Molar Refractivity: 14.41 cm
Molar Volume: 53.6 cm3 
Surface Tension: 61.3 dyne/cm
Enthalpy of Vaporization: 58.47 kJ/mol
Vapour Pressure: 0.00125 mmHg at 25°C
XLogP3-AA: -1.1
H-Bond Donor: 2
H-Bond Acceptor: 3
Structure Descriptors of Glycolic acid (CAS NO.79-14-1):
  IUPAC Name: 2-hydroxyacetic acid
  Canonical SMILES: C(C(=O)O)O
  InChI: InChI=1S/C2H4O3/c3-1-2(4)5/h3H,1H2,(H,4,5) 
  InChIKey: AEMRFAOFKBGASW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Categories: Pharmaceutical Intermediates; Roxatidine Acetate; omega-Hydroxycarboxylic Acids; omega-Functional Alkanols, Carboxylic Acids, Amines & Halides; Hydroxycarboxylic Acids (for High-Performance Polymer Research); Functional Materials; Reagent for High-Performance Polymer Research; Cosmetic Ingredients & Chemicals

Glycolic acid Uses

 Glycolic acid (CAS NO.79-14-1)  can be used in various skin-care products.Due to its excellent capability to penetrate skin.
Glycolic acid is also a useful intermediate for organic synthesis, in a range of reactions including: oxidation-reduction, esterification and long chain polymerization.    It is also used as a monomer in the preparation of polyglycolic acid and other biocompatible copolymers. Glycolic acid is often included into emulsion polymers, solvents and additives for ink and paint in order to improve flow properties and impart gloss.Other uses :in the textile industry as a dyeing and tanning agent, in food processing as a flavoring agent and as a preservative.

Glycolic acid Production

  Glycolic acid (CAS NO.79-14-1)  is prepared by the reaction of chloroacetic acid with sodium hydroxide followed by re-acidification as follows:
ClCH2CO2H + NaOH → HOCH2CO2H + NaCl
In this way, a few million kilograms are produced annually. Other methods, include hydrogenation of oxalic acid and the hydrolysis of the cyanohydrin derived from formaldehyde.but not apparently in use. Glycolic acid can be isolated from natural sources, such as sugar beets, sugarcane, canteloupe, pineapple, and unripe grapes.
Glycolic acid,we can also  using an enzymatic biochemical process,compared to traditional chemical synthesis,it produces fewer impurities , requires less energy in production and produces less co-product.

Glycolic acid Toxicity Data With Reference

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
cat LD50 intravenous 1gm/kg (1000mg/kg)   "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986Vol. -, Pg. 656, 1986.
guinea pig LD50 oral 1920mg/kg (1920mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.
rat LC50 inhalation 7100ug/m3/4H (7.1mg/m3) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER CHANGES: OLFACTION

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Inhalation Toxicology. Vol. 9, Pg. 435, 1997.
rat LD50 oral 1950mg/kg (1950mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.

Glycolic acid Consensus Reports

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Glycolic acid Safety Profile

Moderately toxic by ingestion. A severe eye irritant. A skin and mucous membrane irritant. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
Safety Information of Glycolic acid (CAS NO.79-14-1):
Hazard Codes: CCorrosive
Risk Statements: 34-22   
R34: Causes burns. 
R22: Harmful if swallowed.
Safety Statements: 26-36/37/39-45-23
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. 
S36/37/39: Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. 
S45: In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.) 
S23: Do not breathe vapour.
RIDADR: UN 3265 8/PG 3
WGK Germany: 1
RTECS: MC5250000
HazardClass: 8
PackingGroup: II

Glycolic acid Specification

 Glycolic acid , its CAS NO. is 79-14-1, the synonyms are 2-Hydroxyacetic acid ; Acetic acid, hydroxy- ; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 000101 ; Glycollic acid ; Hydroxyacetic acid ; Hydroxyethanoic acid ; Kyselina glykolova ; Kyselina hydroxyoctova .

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