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7647-01-0

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Basic Information
CAS No.: 7647-01-0
Name: Hydrochloric acid
Article Data: 3083
Cas Database
Molecular Structure:
Molecular Structure of 7647-01-0 (Hydrochloric acid)
Formula: HCl
Molecular Weight: 36.4609
Synonyms: UN 2186 (refrigerated liquefied gas);Hydrochloric acid [JAN];Chlorwasserstoff [German];Chlorohydric acid;Hydrochloric acid 36% by weight or more HCl;Hygeia Creme Magic Bowl Cleaner;Aqueous hydrogen chloride;Hydrogen chloride (gas only);UN 1789 (solution);Anhydrous hydrochloric acid;Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous [UN1050] [Poison gas];Hydrochloric acid, solution [UN1789] [Corrosive];Chloruro de hidrogeno [Spanish];Hydrogen chloride (HCl);Muriatic acid;Wuest Bowl Cleaner Super Concentrated;Hydrochloride;Ethanol,2-[2-[2-[4-[(4-chlorophenyl)phenylmethyl]- 1-piperazinyl]ethoxy]ethoxy]-;Now South Safti-Sol Brand Concentrated Bowl Cleanse with Magic Actio;Chlorure dhydrogene [French];Percleen Bowl and Urinal Cleaner;Synthetic hydrochloric acid;Hydrogen Chloride Anhydrous;
EINECS: 231-595-7
Density: 1.2 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
Melting Point: -35 °C
Boiling Point: 57 °C
Flash Point: -40°C
Solubility: Miscible with water
Appearance: colourless gas
Hazard Symbols: ToxicT, CorrosiveC, FlammableF, IrritantXi, HighlyF+
Risk Codes: 36/37/38-37-34-35-23-20-11-67-66-22-19-12-10-40-20/22
Safety: 26-45-36/37/39-9-33-29-16-46
Transport Information: UN 2924 3/PG 2
PSA: 0.00000
LogP: 0.80200
Synthetic route
940-71-6

2,2,4,4,6,6-hexachloro-1,3,5-triaza-2,4,6-triphosphorine

7664-39-3

hydrogen fluoride

A

7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

ammonium hexafluorophosphate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In not given react. with HF;;A n/a
B 100%
107-06-2

1,2-dichloro-ethane

A

7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

75-01-4

chloroethylene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 450 - 550℃; under 10501.1 - 26252.6 Torr; for 0.00416667 - 0.00833333h;A n/a
B 99.52%
at 362 - 485℃; eine nahezu homogene Reaktion erster Ordnung, die wahrscheinlich von Chloratomen und 1.2-Dichlor-aethyl-Radikalen unterhalten wird.Thermolysis;
at 600℃; Conversion of starting material;
at 615℃; Rate constant;
at 650℃; Rate constant;

magnesium chloride hydrate

7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) dehydration at 120 - 165°C; hydrolysis at 450°C;;99%
67-56-1

methanol

1648-30-2

2-fluorosulfonyl-2,2-difluoroacetyl chloride

A

7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

680-15-9

2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent)A n/a
B 99%
12080-32-9

dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum(ll)

1,3-bis(diisopropylphosphinomethylene)mesitylene

A

7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

182918-33-8

Pt(Cl)(((C3H7)2PCH2)2C6HCH2(CH3)2)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran byproducts: cycloocta-1,5-diene; stirring (room temp., 12 h); filtering, concg., pptn. on pentane addn. (-30°C), drying (vac.);elem. anal.;A n/a
B 99%
325744-49-8

1,1'-dicarboxylic cobalticinium chloride monohydrate

A

7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

232598-14-0

Co(III)(η5-C5H4COOH)(η5-C5H4COO)

C

7732-18-5

water

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) heated at 440 K for 1 h at low pressure; XRD;A n/a
B 99%
C n/a
7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

7647-14-5

sodium chloride

A

7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

7681-38-1

sodium hydrogen sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In not given reaction mixture containing 28 % NaCl and 21 % SO3; reaction at 400 °C;;A n/a
B 98%
In not given reaction mixture containing 28 % NaCl and 21 % SO3; reaction at 400 °C;;A n/a
B 98%
In sulfuric acid
64-17-5

ethanol

1648-30-2

2-fluorosulfonyl-2,2-difluoroacetyl chloride

A

7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

756-21-8

ethyl 2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent)A n/a
B 98%
187544-74-7

(CO)2ReNH(CH3)C2H4(η(5)-C5H4)

931-59-9

benzenesulfenyl chloride

A

7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

201035-45-2

[(CO)2PhSReNH(CH3)CH2CH2(η(5)-C5H4)]Cl

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In dichloromethane Ar-atmosphere; stirring (0°C, 5 min); concg. (reduced pressure), pptn. on ether addn., washing (ether); elem. anal.;A n/a
B 98%
7647-14-5

sodium chloride

7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With clay In neat (no solvent) mixt. is treated with steam at dark-red heat;;97%
With aluminum oxide In neat (no solvent) byproducts: Na-aluminate; passing over steam at red heat;;
byproducts: Na2O; equil. react. with steam;
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Specification

The IUPAC name of Hydrochloric acid is chlorane. With the CAS registry number 7647-01-0 and EINECS 231-595-7, it is also named as Acide chlorhydrique. Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colourless solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water. It is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. Hydrochloric acid is found naturally in gastric acid.It is liquefied to colorless liquid at -85 °C. At -112 °C, it becames white crystal.

Physical properties about Hydrochloric acid are: (1)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 16.15 kJ/mol; (2)Boiling Point: -84.899 °C at 760 mmHg; (3)Vapour Pressure: 33917.87890625 mmHg at 25°C.

Preparation of Hydrochloric acid: It is obtained from four major methods:
1. It can be produced as a by-product in the chlorination of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons or from the thermal degradation of organic chlorine compounds, CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl  CH2ClCH2Cl → CH2=CHCl + HCl
2. It can be obtained from the reaction of sodium chloride (salt) and sulfuric acid, 2NaCl + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2HCl
3. It also can be prepared from the combustion of hydrogen and chlorine, C12 + H2 → 2HCl
4. It can be obtained by Hargreaves-type operations, 4NaCl + 2SO2 + O2 + 2H2O → 2Na2SO4 + 4HCl

The reaction between hydrogen and chlorine is highly exothermic and spontaneously goes to completion as soon as it is initiated. The equilibrium mixture contains about 4% by volume free chlorine. As the gases are cooled, the free chlorine and free hydrogen combine rapidly so that when 200 °C it is reached, the gas is almost pure hydrogen chloride. By carefully controlling the operating conditions, a gas containing 99% hydrogen chloride can be produced and it can be further purified by absorbing it in water in a tantalum or impervious or impregnated graphite absorber. The aqueous solution is stripped of hydrogen chloride under slight pressure, givimg strong gaseous hydrogen chloride that is dehydrated to 99.5% hydrogen chloride by cooling it to -12 °C.

Uses of Hydrochloric acid: It may be used to treat cotton to delint it, and to separate it from wool. In the semiconductor industry, it is used to both etch semiconductor crystals and to purify silicon via SiHCl3. It is also an important reagent in other industrial chemical transformations, e.g.: Hydrochlorination of rubber; Production of vinyl and alkyl chlorides. Large amounts of anhydrous hydrogen chloride are needed for preparing methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, vinyl chloride, and other such compounds. It is replacing sulfuric acid in some applications such as metal pickling, which is the cleaning of metal surfaces by acid etching. It leaves a cleaner surface than sulfuric acid, reacts more slowly, and can be recycled more easily. It is used in chemical manufacture especially for phenol and certain dyes and plastics. In oil well drilling, it increases the permeability of limestone by acidifying the drilling process.

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
It is extremely flammable, can cause burns and may form explosive peroxides, so people should keep it away from sources of ignition. It is not only harmful by inhalation and if swallowed, but also irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. It also has limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect. Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking. What's more, vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. When using it, people should take precautionary measures against static discharges. If you want to contact this product, you must wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.) If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
1. SMILES:Cl
2. InChI:InChI=1/ClH/h1H
3. InChIKey:VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYAT

The toxicity data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
guinea pig LCLo inhalation 4413ppm/30M (4413ppm) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

LIVER: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 24, Pg. 222, 1942.
human LCLo inhalation 1300ppm/30M (1300ppm)   "Practical Toxicology of Plastics," Lefaux, R., Cleveland, OH, Chemical Rubber Co., 1968Vol. -, Pg. 207, 1968.
human LCLo inhalation 3000ppm/5M (3000ppm)   Tabulae Biologicae. Vol. 3, Pg. 231, 1933.
man LDLo oral 2857ug/kg (2.857mg/kg) VASCULAR: BP LOWERING NOT CHARACTERIZED IN AUTONOMIC SECTION

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION

GASTROINTESTINAL: CHANGE IN STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION OF ESOPHAGUS
Medical Journal of Australia. Vol. 158, Pg. 28, 1993.
man LDLo unreported 81mg/kg (81mg/kg)   "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970Vol. 2, Pg. 73, 1970.
mouse LC50 inhalation 1108ppm/1H (1108ppm) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE

SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): "DERMATITIS, OTHER: AFTER SYSTEMIC EXPOSURE"

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION
Journal of Combustion Toxicology. Vol. 3, Pg. 61, 1976.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 40142ug/kg (40.142mg/kg)   Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, Academie des Sciences. Vol. 256, Pg. 1043, 1963.
rabbit LCLo inhalation 4413ppm/30M (4413ppm) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA

LIVER: FATTY LIVER DEGERATION

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 24, Pg. 222, 1942.
rabbit LD50 oral 900mg/kg (900mg/kg)   Biochemische Zeitschrift. Vol. 134, Pg. 437, 1923.
rat LC50 inhalation 3124ppm/1H (3124ppm) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER CHANGES: OLFACTION

SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: IRITIS: EYE
Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory Report. Vol. TR-74-78, Pg. 1974,
women LDLo oral 420uL/kg (0.42mL/kg) BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT

CARDIAC: PULSE RATE

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: HEMATURIA
Japanese Journal of Toxicology. Vol. 9, Pg. 351, 1996.