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7647-01-0 Usage

Reference

Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals

Chemical Properties

Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a colorless, fuming, highly toxic gas that is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. It is used in polymerization, isomerization, and the synthesis of vinyl chloride and alkyl chloride.

Uses

Hydrochloric acid is one of the most important industrial chemicals and has numerous applications. Both anhydrous hydrogen chloride and aqueous acid are used to produce a large number of chloride salts. The acid also is a common laboratory reagent. Some major applications of hydrochloric acid include processing of ores and extraction of metals from their minerals; in metal cleaning, particularly in steel pickling to dissolve oxide impurities; production of alumina, titanium dioxide, and other metal oxides by various hydrometallurgical processes; production of hydrogen; synthesis of chlorine dioxide; removal of heavy metal impurities from carbon black; activation of bentonite clays; etching of concrete surfaces for finishing operations; and as a catalyst in several organic reactions such as inversion of sugar, hydrolysis of starch to obtain sugar syrup, and esterification of aromatic acids.
Anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas is used to produce phosphonium chloride, PH4Cl, which is a flame retardant for cotton textiles. Other major applications include manufacture of a number of high purity metal chlorides, ammonium chloride, chlorosulfuric acid; recovery of waste metals; preparation of alkyl chlorides and chloroacetic acids; and as a chlorinating agent in organic syntheses.

Uses

In the production of chlorides; refining ore in the production of tin and tantalum; for the neutralization of basic systems; as laboratory reagent; hydrolyzing of starch and proteins in the preparation of various food products; pickling and cleaning of metal products; as catalyst and solvent in organic syntheses. Also used for oil- and gas-well treament and in removing scale from boilers and heat-exchange equipment. Pharmaceutic aid (acidifier).

Air & Water Reactions

Fumes strongly in moist air. Soluble in water with evolution of heat.

Definition

ChEBI: A mononuclear parent hydride consisting of covalently bonded hydrogen and chlorine atoms.

Reactivity Profile

ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE is an anhydrous (no water) strong acid. Reacts rapidly and exothermically with bases of all kinds (including amines and amides). Reacts exothermically with carbonates (including limestone and building materials containing limestone) and hydrogen carbonates to generate carbon dioxide. Reacts with sulfides, carbides, borides, and phosphides to generate toxic or flammable gases. Reacts with many metals (including aluminum, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, tin and all of the alkali metals) to generate flammable hydrogen gas. Reacts violently with acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, calcium phosphide, chlorosulfonic acid, 1,1-difluoroethylene, ethylenediamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, perchloric acid, b-propiolactone, propylene oxide, silver perchlorate/carbon tetrachloride mixture, sodium hydroxide, uranium(IV) phosphide, vinyl acetate, calcium carbide, rubidium carbide, cesium acetylide, rubidium acetylide, magnesium boride, mercury(II) sulfate [Lewis]. Undergoes a very energetic reaction with calcium phosphide [Mellor 8:841(1946-1947)]. Corrosive to metals and tissues and irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. Corrodes galvanized or copper-alloy metals (brass, bronze); fittings of stainless steel or mild or cast steel must therefore be used. Reacts with calcium carbide with incandescence [Mellor 5:862(1946-1947]. Absorption on mercuric sulfate becomes violent at 125°C. [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:462(1956)].

Purification Methods

Pass it through conc H2SO4, then over activated charcoal and silica gel. It fumes in moist air. Hydrogen chloride in gas cylinders contains ethylene, 1,1-dichloroethane and ethyl chloride. The latter two may be removed by fractionating the HCl through a trap cooled to -112o. Ethylene is difficult to remove. HCl fumes in moist air. HARMFUL VAPOURS. Its solubility in H2O is 82% at 0o. A constant boiling aqueous solution (azeotrope) has b 108.6o/760mm with an HCl concentration of ~20%, and is called Hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) (see above). [Schmeisser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 280-282 1963.]

History

Basilus Valentinus of Italy was first to isolate the acid and reported it under the name spiritus salis in the fifteenth century. Glauber prepared this acid by the reaction of sulfuric acid with common salt in 1648. Lavoisier proposed the name muriatic acid in 1789 after muriate, the term referring to a chlorine-containing inorganic substance. Sir Humphrey Davy proved the gas was composed of only hydrogen and chlorine in 1810. Subsequently, the gas was named hydrogen chloride.
Dilute hydrochloric acid occurs in the stomachs of mammals. Gaseous hydrogen chloride occurs in trace concentrations in the atmosphere.

Fire Hazard

Fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Containers may explode in heat of fire. At high temperatures, Hydrochloric acid decomposes into hydrogen and chlorine. The following materials should be avoided: Mercuric sulfate -- violent reaction with gaseous hydrochloric acid at 250F. Sodium -- reacts vigorously with gaseous hydrochloric acid. Acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene diamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, propiolactone, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, and vinyl acetate -- increase in temperature and pressure when mixed with hydrochloric acid. Calcium phosphide -- energetic reaction with hydrochloric acid. Silver perchlorate and carbon tetrachloride -- when mixed in combination with hydrochloric acid forms a compound that detonates at 105F. Formaldehyde -- when mixed with hydrochloric acid forms a human carcinogen. Material reacts violently with bases and is corrosive with the generation of heat. Reacts with base metals, forming combustible gas (hydrogen). Reacts violently with strong oxidants forming toxic gas (chlorine). Avoid heat; at high temperatures Hydrochloric acid will decompose into hydrogen and chlorine.

Health Hazard

Gas concentrations of 50 to 100 ppm are tolerable for 1 hour. Concentrations of 1,000 to 2,000 ppm are dangerous, even for brief exposures. More severe exposures will result in serious respiratory distress and prolonged exposures will result in death. Mists of hydrochloric acid are considered less harmful than anhydrous hydrochloric acid, because droplets have no dehydrating action. Individuals with respiratory problems and digestive diseases may be adversely affected by low level exposures to the gas or mist.

Production

Hydrochloric acid can be produced by several methods. It is obtained from the reaction of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid in a cast iron retort at elevated temperature. Although reaction starts at 150°C, the complete reaction occurs at about 600°C:
2NaCl + H2SO4→ Na2SO4 + 2HCl
Hydrochloric acid also is made by the Hargreaves process in which a mixture of salt, sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water are heated at elevated temperatures, between 430 to 540°C. The reaction is exothermic and becomes selfsustaining:
4NaCl + SO2 + O2 + 2H2O→ 2Na2SO4 + 4HCl
Hydrochloric acid may be produced by hydrolysis of metal chlorides such as titanium(IV) chloride:
TiCl4 + 2H2O →TiO2 + 4HCl
High purity HCl for commerce is made directly from hydrogen and chlorine:
H2 + Cl2→ 2HCl
The above reaction is highly exothermic. The stoichiometric proportion of gaseous mixture at equilibrium flame temperature is cooled to 200°C, whereupon the elements combine rapidly to form HCl with over 99% yield.
HCl also may be prepared by several other methods including thermal dissociation of aluminum chloride hexahydrate, AlCl3•6H2O, and as a by-product of manufacturing many organic compounds.
Crude HCl gas mixture may be purified by cooling and drying over concentrated sulfuric acid, which also removes organic unsaturated contaminants.
Organic contaminants may be removed further by adsorption over molecular sieves, polystyrene foam, active carbon, or scrubbing with a high-boiling point organic liquid.
Commercial grade, concentrated hydrochloric acid is about 37.5% HCl by weight and has a normality of 12 and specific gravity 1.19.
Hydrogen chloride gas may be stored in steel cylinders free of contaminants. Monel, pure nickel, or its alloy, inconel, may also be used for storage and transportation up to 500°C. Hydrochloric acid may be stored in glass bottles or in containers made up of tantalum or tantalum-molybdenum alloys, or other alloys of zirconium, molybdenum, and tungsten.
InChI:InChI=1/2ClH/h2*1H

7647-01-0SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name hydrogen chloride

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names HCL

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Inorganic substances
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:7647-01-0 SDS

7647-01-0Synthetic route

2,2,4,4,6,6-hexachloro-1,3,5-triaza-2,4,6-triphosphorine
940-71-6

2,2,4,4,6,6-hexachloro-1,3,5-triaza-2,4,6-triphosphorine

hydrogen fluoride
7664-39-3

hydrogen fluoride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

ammonium hexafluorophosphate

ammonium hexafluorophosphate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In not given react. with HF;;A n/a
B 100%
1,2-dichloro-ethane
107-06-2

1,2-dichloro-ethane

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

chloroethylene
75-01-4

chloroethylene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 450 - 550℃; under 10501.1 - 26252.6 Torr; for 0.00416667 - 0.00833333h;A n/a
B 99.52%
at 362 - 485℃; eine nahezu homogene Reaktion erster Ordnung, die wahrscheinlich von Chloratomen und 1.2-Dichlor-aethyl-Radikalen unterhalten wird.Thermolysis;
at 600℃; Conversion of starting material;
at 615℃; Rate constant;
at 650℃; Rate constant;
magnesium chloride hydrate

magnesium chloride hydrate

water
7732-18-5

water

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) dehydration at 120 - 165°C; hydrolysis at 450°C;;99%
methanol
67-56-1

methanol

2-fluorosulfonyl-2,2-difluoroacetyl chloride
1648-30-2

2-fluorosulfonyl-2,2-difluoroacetyl chloride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate
680-15-9

2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent)A n/a
B 99%
dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum(ll)
12080-32-9

dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum(ll)

1,3-bis(diisopropylphosphinomethylene)mesitylene

1,3-bis(diisopropylphosphinomethylene)mesitylene

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

Pt(Cl)(((C3H7)2PCH2)2C6HCH2(CH3)2)
182918-33-8

Pt(Cl)(((C3H7)2PCH2)2C6HCH2(CH3)2)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran byproducts: cycloocta-1,5-diene; stirring (room temp., 12 h); filtering, concg., pptn. on pentane addn. (-30°C), drying (vac.);elem. anal.;A n/a
B 99%
1,1'-dicarboxylic cobalticinium chloride monohydrate
325744-49-8

1,1'-dicarboxylic cobalticinium chloride monohydrate

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

Co(III)(η5-C5H4COOH)(η5-C5H4COO)
232598-14-0

Co(III)(η5-C5H4COOH)(η5-C5H4COO)

C

water
7732-18-5

water

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) heated at 440 K for 1 h at low pressure; XRD;A n/a
B 99%
C n/a
sulfuric acid
7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

sodium chloride
7647-14-5

sodium chloride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

sodium hydrogen sulfate
7681-38-1

sodium hydrogen sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In not given reaction mixture containing 28 % NaCl and 21 % SO3; reaction at 400 °C;;A n/a
B 98%
In not given reaction mixture containing 28 % NaCl and 21 % SO3; reaction at 400 °C;;A n/a
B 98%
In sulfuric acid
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

2-fluorosulfonyl-2,2-difluoroacetyl chloride
1648-30-2

2-fluorosulfonyl-2,2-difluoroacetyl chloride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

ethyl 2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate
756-21-8

ethyl 2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent)A n/a
B 98%
(CO)2ReNH(CH3)C2H4(η(5)-C5H4)
187544-74-7

(CO)2ReNH(CH3)C2H4(η(5)-C5H4)

benzenesulfenyl chloride
931-59-9

benzenesulfenyl chloride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

[(CO)2PhSReNH(CH3)CH2CH2(η(5)-C5H4)]Cl
201035-45-2

[(CO)2PhSReNH(CH3)CH2CH2(η(5)-C5H4)]Cl

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In dichloromethane Ar-atmosphere; stirring (0°C, 5 min); concg. (reduced pressure), pptn. on ether addn., washing (ether); elem. anal.;A n/a
B 98%
water
7732-18-5

water

sodium chloride
7647-14-5

sodium chloride

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With clay In neat (no solvent) mixt. is treated with steam at dark-red heat;;97%
With aluminum oxide In neat (no solvent) byproducts: Na-aluminate; passing over steam at red heat;;
byproducts: Na2O; equil. react. with steam;
water
7732-18-5

water

chlorine
7782-50-5

chlorine

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With catalyst: 20percent MgO, 25percent MgCl2, 25percent CaO; In neat (no solvent) at 900°C;; 38.65% HCl with 0.05% Cl2;;97%
With iron(III) oxide; pyrographite In neat (no solvent)
With pyrographite In neat (no solvent) byproducts: CO2; apparatus described;;
hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

chlorine
7782-50-5

chlorine

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With catalyst:glass In neat (no solvent) combustion of Cl2 and H2 in presence of glass at 390 - 540°C;;97%
With water In neat (no solvent) combustion of Cl2 and H2 in presence of glass at 390 - 540°C;;97%
water In neat (no solvent) passing over a slow stream of Cl2 and H2 over quartz;;
hypochloric acid
14989-30-1

hypochloric acid

hypochloric acid
13898-47-0

hypochloric acid

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

chlorine dioxide
10049-04-4, 25052-55-5

chlorine dioxide

C

water
7732-18-5

water

D

chloric acid
7790-93-4

chloric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water reaction of HClO2 and HClO in weakly acidic or neutral soln. at ambient temp.;; removing of ClO2 with air;;A n/a
B 97%
C n/a
D n/a
In water reaction of HClO2 and HClO in aq. soln. at ambient temp.; influence of pH;;
In water reaction of HClO2 and HClO in weakly acidic or neutral soln. at ambient temp.; acceleration on low concn. of ClO2(1-); no influence of ClO3(1-);;
In water reaction of HClO2 and HClO in weakly acidic or neutral soln. at ambient temp.;;
In water Kinetics; reaction of HClO2 and HClO in aq. soln. at ambient temp.;;
trichlorogallium * ethanethiol
98773-05-8, 115958-66-2

trichlorogallium * ethanethiol

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

dichloro(ethylthio)gallane

dichloro(ethylthio)gallane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) decompn. at 96°C, 0.1 Torr; elem. anal.;A n/a
B 97%
(2-chlorovinyl)dichloroborane
5035-74-5

(2-chlorovinyl)dichloroborane

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

ethyl-dichloro-borane
1739-53-3

ethyl-dichloro-borane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With catalyst : PdA n/a
B 97%
With catalyst : PdA n/a
B 97%
Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol
97-99-4

Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol

titanium tetrachloride
7550-45-0

titanium tetrachloride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

titanium(IV) trichloride(tetrahydrofuran-2-methanolate)

titanium(IV) trichloride(tetrahydrofuran-2-methanolate)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In hexane N2-atmosphere; alcohol dropvise addn. with stirring (pptn.); washing (n-hexane), drying (vac.); elem. anal.;A n/a
B 97%
Ferulic acid

Ferulic acid

zirconium(IV) chloride
10026-11-6

zirconium(IV) chloride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

(C7H7)2ZrCl2

(C7H7)2ZrCl2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In benzene reflux of benzene soln. of ZrCl4/C7H8 (molar ratio: 1:2) until evolution of HCl ceases; cooling to room temp.;;A n/a
B 95%
2-fluorosulfonyl-2,2-difluoroacetyl chloride
1648-30-2

2-fluorosulfonyl-2,2-difluoroacetyl chloride

isopropyl alcohol
67-63-0

isopropyl alcohol

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

difluoro-fluorosulfonyl-acetic acid isopropyl ester
2927-22-2

difluoro-fluorosulfonyl-acetic acid isopropyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent)A n/a
B 95%
Conditions
ConditionsYield
In gaseous matrix Kinetics; Cl concn. 3E11 - 3E12 molecule/cm3, HO2 concn. 1E10 - 5E11 molecule/cm3,236 K, 1 Torr of He;A 94.5%
B n/a
In gaseous matrix Kinetics; Cl concn. 3E11 - 3E12 molecule/cm3, HO2 concn. 1E10 - 5E11 molecule/cm3,256 K, 1 Torr of He;A 79.4%
B n/a
In gaseous matrix Kinetics; Cl concn. 3E11 - 3E12 molecule/cm3, HO2 concn. 1E10 - 5E11 molecule/cm3,276 K, 1 Torr of He;A 74.8%
B n/a
In gaseous matrix Kinetics; Cl concn. 3E11 - 3E12 molecule/cm3, HO2 concn. 1E10 - 5E11 molecule/cm3,296 K, 1 Torr of He;A 70.4%
B n/a
chlordifluoroacetyl chloride
354-24-5

chlordifluoroacetyl chloride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

chlorodifluoroacetyl fluoride
354-27-8

chlorodifluoroacetyl fluoride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With tri-n-butylamine * 2.6 (hydrofluoride) at -30 - 50℃;A 1.4%
B 91.7%
water
7732-18-5

water

calcium chloride

calcium chloride

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With silica gel In neat (no solvent) at 670 - 700°C;;90%
With feldspar In neat (no solvent) heating with some more than 2 equiv. of feld spar;;66%
With silica gel In neat (no solvent) heating with 1 equiv. SiO2;;63.9%
sodium hydrogen sulfate
7681-38-1

sodium hydrogen sulfate

sodium chloride
7647-14-5

sodium chloride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

sodium sulfate
7757-82-6

sodium sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) at 200 - 450°C;;A 90%
B n/a
In sulfuric acid
phosgene
75-44-5

phosgene

phenol
108-95-2

phenol

A

bis(phenyl) carbonate
102-09-0

bis(phenyl) carbonate

B

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: phenol; pyridine at 50 - 150℃; Heating / reflux;
Stage #2: phosgene at 150℃;
A 89.9%
B n/a
Bis(trifluormethyl)-monothiophosphinigsaeure
1486-19-7

Bis(trifluormethyl)-monothiophosphinigsaeure

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

bis(trifluoromethyl)chlorophosphine
650-52-2

bis(trifluoromethyl)chlorophosphine

C

mercury sulfide

mercury sulfide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With HgCl2A n/a
B 88%
C n/a
phosphorus pentachloride
10026-13-8, 874483-75-7

phosphorus pentachloride

phosphoramidic acid
14700-20-0, 2817-45-0

phosphoramidic acid

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

dichlorophosphinylphosphorimidic trichloride
13966-08-0

dichlorophosphinylphosphorimidic trichloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In further solvent(s) heating a suspension of PO(OH)2NH2 in tetrachlorethane with PCl4 on refluxing under exclusion of H2O for 4 h;; filtration of insol. products; continous removal of HCl with stream of dry air; expelling POCl3 and solvent at 90 °C and 14 Torr; solidification in high vac. at 55-58 °C;;A n/a
B 88%
C n/a
In further solvent(s) heating a suspension of PO(OH)2NH2 in tetrachlorethane with PCl4 on refluxing under exclusion of H2O for 4 h;; filtration of insol. products; continous removal of HCl with stream of dry air; expelling POCl3 and solvent at 90 °C and 14 Torr; solidification in high vac. at 55-58 °C;;A n/a
B 88%
C n/a
In further solvent(s) react. with PCl5 in tetrachlorethane;;
In further solvent(s) react. with PCl5 in tetrachlorethane;;
potassium ethyl xanthogenate
140-89-6

potassium ethyl xanthogenate

bis(salicylidene)-4,4'-biphenylenediamine
3172-43-8

bis(salicylidene)-4,4'-biphenylenediamine

N,N-dimethyl-formamide
68-12-2, 33513-42-7

N,N-dimethyl-formamide

nickel dichloride

nickel dichloride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

2Ni(2+)*OC6H4CHNC6H4C6H4NCHC6H4O(2-)*2C2H5OCS2(1-)*4HC(O)N(CH3)2=[Ni2(OC6H4CHNC12H8NCHC6H4O)(C2H5OCS2)2(HC(O)N(CH3)2)4]

2Ni(2+)*OC6H4CHNC6H4C6H4NCHC6H4O(2-)*2C2H5OCS2(1-)*4HC(O)N(CH3)2=[Ni2(OC6H4CHNC12H8NCHC6H4O)(C2H5OCS2)2(HC(O)N(CH3)2)4]

C

potassium chloride

potassium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In N,N-dimethyl-formamide addn. of soln. of MCl2 in DMF to hot soln. of Schiff base in DMF (stirring), addn. of soln. of xanthate in water (stirring), pptn. on addn. of vater; filtration, washing (DMF), drying (over P4O10); elem. anal.;A n/a
B 87%
C n/a
manganese(II) chloride dihydrate

manganese(II) chloride dihydrate

sulfuric acid
7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

manganese hydrogen sulfate

manganese hydrogen sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 20℃; for 1h;A n/a
B 86%
potassium butylxanthate
871-58-9

potassium butylxanthate

bis(salicylidene)-4,4'-biphenylenediamine
3172-43-8

bis(salicylidene)-4,4'-biphenylenediamine

N,N-dimethyl-formamide
68-12-2, 33513-42-7

N,N-dimethyl-formamide

cobalt(II) chloride
7646-79-9

cobalt(II) chloride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

2Co(2+)*OC6H4CHNC6H4C6H4NCHC6H4O(2-)*2C4H9OCS2(1-)*4HC(O)N(CH3)2=[Co2(OC6H4CHNC12H8NCHC6H4O)(C4H9OCS2)2(HC(O)N(CH3)2)4]

2Co(2+)*OC6H4CHNC6H4C6H4NCHC6H4O(2-)*2C4H9OCS2(1-)*4HC(O)N(CH3)2=[Co2(OC6H4CHNC12H8NCHC6H4O)(C4H9OCS2)2(HC(O)N(CH3)2)4]

C

potassium chloride

potassium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In N,N-dimethyl-formamide addn. of soln. of MCl2 in DMF to hot soln. of Schiff base in DMF (stirring), addn. of soln. of xanthate in water (stirring), pptn. on addn. of vater; filtration, washing (DMF), drying (over P4O10); elem. anal.;A n/a
B 85%
C n/a
potassium ethyl xanthogenate
140-89-6

potassium ethyl xanthogenate

bis(salicylidene)-4,4'-biphenylenediamine
3172-43-8

bis(salicylidene)-4,4'-biphenylenediamine

N,N-dimethyl-formamide
68-12-2, 33513-42-7

N,N-dimethyl-formamide

cobalt(II) chloride
7646-79-9

cobalt(II) chloride

A

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

B

2Co(2+)*OC6H4CHNC6H4C6H4NCHC6H4O(2-)*2C2H5OCS2(1-)*4HC(O)N(CH3)2=[Co2(OC6H4CHNC12H8NCHC6H4O)(C2H5OCS2)2(HC(O)N(CH3)2)4]

2Co(2+)*OC6H4CHNC6H4C6H4NCHC6H4O(2-)*2C2H5OCS2(1-)*4HC(O)N(CH3)2=[Co2(OC6H4CHNC12H8NCHC6H4O)(C2H5OCS2)2(HC(O)N(CH3)2)4]

C

potassium chloride

potassium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In N,N-dimethyl-formamide addn. of soln. of MCl2 in DMF to hot soln. of Schiff base in DMF (stirring), addn. of soln. of xanthate in water (stirring), pptn. on addn. of vater; filtration, washing (DMF), drying (over P4O10); elem. anal.;A n/a
B 83%
C n/a
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

2-(2-(4-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-4-yl)-3-methyl-6-(4-pyridyl)-pyrimidin-4-one

2-(2-(4-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-4-yl)-3-methyl-6-(4-pyridyl)-pyrimidin-4-one

2-(2-(4-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-4-yl)-3-methyl-6-(4-pyridyl)-3H-pyrimidin-4-one dihydrochloride

2-(2-(4-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-4-yl)-3-methyl-6-(4-pyridyl)-3H-pyrimidin-4-one dihydrochloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In 1,4-dioxane; dichloromethane for 0.25h;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

1,1-dimethylethyl 4,7-dihydro-1-methyl-4-[(2-propenyloxy)amino]-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-6(5H)-carboxylate
478623-93-7

1,1-dimethylethyl 4,7-dihydro-1-methyl-4-[(2-propenyloxy)amino]-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-6(5H)-carboxylate

1-methyl-N-(2-propenyloxy)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin-4-amine hydrochloride
478623-94-8

1-methyl-N-(2-propenyloxy)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridin-4-amine hydrochloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In AcOEt at 0℃; for 0.5h;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

N-{3-amino-4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ylmethyl)amino]phenyl}-N-methylacetamide
849351-11-7

N-{3-amino-4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ylmethyl)amino]phenyl}-N-methylacetamide

N-{3-amino-4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ylmethyl)amino]phenyl}-N-methylacetamide hydrochloric acid salt
849426-73-9

N-{3-amino-4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ylmethyl)amino]phenyl}-N-methylacetamide hydrochloric acid salt

Conditions
ConditionsYield
100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

bismuth(III) oxide
1304-76-3

bismuth(III) oxide

bismuth(III) chloride
7787-60-2

bismuth(III) chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetic acid byproducts: H2O;100%
In acetic acid byproducts: H2O;100%
In neat (no solvent) volatilization of Bi2O3 in HCl-stream at 130 °C;;> 99
In neat (no solvent) volatilization of Bi2O3 in HCl-stream at 130 °C;;> 99
In perchloric acid aq. HClO4; prepn. by dissolving Bi2O3 in 6 M HCl;
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

water
7732-18-5

water

iron(II) chloride tetrahydrate

iron(II) chloride tetrahydrate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water soln. of Fe in concd. HCl was refluxed; ppt. filtered off, washed with Et2O, dried in vac.;100%
In hydrogenchloride evapn. a soln. of iron filings in dild. aq. HCl over iron filings until the hot soln. starts foaming; crystn. on cooling;; filtn.; crystn.; drying in a stream of dry air at 30-40°C;;
In hydrogenchloride evapn. a soln. of iron filings in dild. aq. HCl over iron filings until the hot soln. starts foaming; crystn. on cooling;; filtn.; crystn.; drying in a stream of dry air at 30-40°C;;
In water slight excess of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid added to iron powder, heated to dissolution; evapd.;
In hydrogenchloride iron powder and aq. HCl;
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

rubidium magnesium monophosphate

rubidium magnesium monophosphate

rubidium chloride

rubidium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium hydroxide In water byproducts: CaCl2, alkaline earth carbonates; stirring of a soln. of RbMgPO4 in HCl (D=1.055) with Ca(OH)2 suspended in H2O;; introduction of CO2 into the filtrated soln.; separation of Mg- and Ca-carbonates; evapn. of the filtrate; impurities: small amounts of CaCl2;;100%
With Ca(OH)2 In water
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

Pd(PPh3)(CO)
24670-32-4

Pd(PPh3)(CO)

trans-bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium dichloride
28966-81-6

trans-bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium dichloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetonitrile (CO); Pd compd. addn. to solvent with HCl, heating in autoclave (70°C, 2 h); cooling, depressurizing, ppt. filtration, washing, drying; identified byIR;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

N(CH3)4(1+)*AuCl2(1-) = [N(CH3)4][AuCl2]
219611-35-5

N(CH3)4(1+)*AuCl2(1-) = [N(CH3)4][AuCl2]

tetramethylammonium tetrachloroaurate(III)
53514-38-8

tetramethylammonium tetrachloroaurate(III)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With O2; O3 In hydrogenchloride bubbling O2/O3 through a soln. of (Me4N)AuCl2 in aq. HCl (pH 2) for 30 min; filtration, washing (cold H2O); elem. anal.;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

tungstic acid

tungstic acid

tungsten(IV) chloride
13470-13-8

tungsten(IV) chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
strong HCl;100%
strong HCl;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

methyl(carbonyl)bis(trimethylphosphine)iridium(I)

methyl(carbonyl)bis(trimethylphosphine)iridium(I)

cis,trans-{IrHCl2(CO)(PMe3)2}
20790-91-4

cis,trans-{IrHCl2(CO)(PMe3)2}

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In benzene-d6 bubbling HCl through soln. of Ir complex; NMR;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

(tris(diisopropylamino)triphosphine)diiron hexacarbonyl
101997-82-4

(tris(diisopropylamino)triphosphine)diiron hexacarbonyl

(((CH3)2CH)2NP)2P(Cl)Fe2(CO)6
101997-84-6

(((CH3)2CH)2NP)2P(Cl)Fe2(CO)6

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In hexane inert-atmosphere; reaction of Fe-compound with anhydrous HCl for 5 min;; filtration; solvent removed; elem. anal.;;100%
With catalyst: acetic acid In hexane boiling in presence of catalytic amounts of acetic acid for several hours;;>99
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

sodium tetrasulfitodioxygenosmate

sodium tetrasulfitodioxygenosmate

sodium hexachloroosmate(IV)

sodium hexachloroosmate(IV)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Na6{OsO2(SO3)4}*5H2O is heated to red heat in a stream of dry HCl;;100%
Na6{OsO2(SO3)4}*5H2O is heated to red heat in a stream of dry HCl;;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

CF3NGeHON(CF3)2
123591-18-4

CF3NGeHON(CF3)2

A

F3CNGeHCl
123591-20-8

F3CNGeHCl

B

N,N-bis(trifluoromethyl)hydroxylamine
359-63-7

N,N-bis(trifluoromethyl)hydroxylamine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Elem. anal.;A 53%
B 100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

CF3NGe(ON(CF3)2)2
123591-19-5

CF3NGe(ON(CF3)2)2

A

F3CNGeCl2
123591-21-9

F3CNGeCl2

B

N,N-bis(trifluoromethyl)hydroxylamine
359-63-7

N,N-bis(trifluoromethyl)hydroxylamine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Elem. anal.;A 57%
B 100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

{PtF5Cl}(2-)
56848-21-6

{PtF5Cl}(2-)

trans-{PtF4Cl2}(2-)
137636-15-8, 56848-18-1

trans-{PtF4Cl2}(2-)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In dichloromethane HCl-gas is bubbled through a soln. of educt in dichlormethane at -30°C;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

bis(indenyl)zirconium dimethyl

bis(indenyl)zirconium dimethyl

bis(indenyl)zirconium(IV) dichloride
12148-49-1

bis(indenyl)zirconium(IV) dichloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In diethyl ether; di-isopropyl ether; toluene (N2); a soln. of HCl in Et2O added to a soln. of Zr complex in toluene and iPr2O, stirred at room temp. for 2 h, evapd. (vac.), treated with ether, toluene and a soln. of HCl in Et2O, stirred for 2 h; evapd. (vac.);100%
In diethyl ether byproducts: CH4; (N2); Zr complex dissolved in Et2O, a soln. of HCl/Et2O added at room temp., stirred for 2 h, stirred for 5 h, addnl. HCl in Et2O added; evapd. (vac.);96%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

(biphenyl-2,2'-diyl)zirconocene

(biphenyl-2,2'-diyl)zirconocene

zirconocene dichloride
1291-32-3

zirconocene dichloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In diethyl ether Zr-complex dissolved in HCl in Et2O; evapd., residue triturated with hexane, recrystd. from THF;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

[(trifluoroacetyl)imino]tris-(2-methylphenyl)-λ(5)-bismuthane
233257-02-8

[(trifluoroacetyl)imino]tris-(2-methylphenyl)-λ(5)-bismuthane

tris(2-methylphenyl)bismuth dichloride
6729-60-8

tris(2-methylphenyl)bismuth dichloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In dichloromethane aq. HCl, 1 h;100%
In dichloromethane; water under Ar; to a CH2Cl2 soln. of the bismuthane was added aq. HCl, the mixt. was vigorously stirred at 25°C for 1 h; the org. layer was sepd. and the aq. phase was extd. with CH2Cl2, the org. layers were dried over MdSO4, concd. under vac., the oily residue wasrecrystd. from hexane/CH2Cl2;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

2,3-bis(acetonitrile)-1,1,1,1,2,2,2,3,3,3-decacarbonyl-2,3-μ-hydrido-triangulo-triosmium tricarbonyltrichloro-osmate(1-)

2,3-bis(acetonitrile)-1,1,1,1,2,2,2,3,3,3-decacarbonyl-2,3-μ-hydrido-triangulo-triosmium tricarbonyltrichloro-osmate(1-)

[Os3(CO)10(μ-H)(μ-Cl)]

[Os3(CO)10(μ-H)(μ-Cl)]

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In hexane HCl bubbled through claster soln., refluxed for 4 h; solvent removed under N2, recrystd. (CH2Cl2/hexane);100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

nitridophthalocyaninato(2-)rhenium(V)
98499-51-5

nitridophthalocyaninato(2-)rhenium(V)

acetone
67-64-1

acetone

Re(phthalocyaninato)(OH)(NC6H11O)

Re(phthalocyaninato)(OH)(NC6H11O)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetone stirring (room temp., several days);100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

bis[tris(trimethylsilyl)germyl]zinc

bis[tris(trimethylsilyl)germyl]zinc

tris(trimethylsilyl)germane
104164-54-7

tris(trimethylsilyl)germane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In diethyl ether; water Et2O soln. of ((Me3Si)3Ge)2Zn, excess amt. of concd. HCl, and nonadecaneas internal std. stirred in Schlenk tube under Ar at room temp. for 2 h; products identified by GC, GC-MS, and NMR;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

(207)Pb(2+)*CO3(2-)=(207)PbCO3

(207)Pb(2+)*CO3(2-)=(207)PbCO3

(207)lead dichloride

(207)lead dichloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water byproducts: CO2; N2 atmosphere, addn. of aq. HCl to (207)PbCO3, stirring (20°C, 10min); removement of solvent (reduced pressure), drying (100°C, 4 h); 92.8% (207)Pb-enrichment;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

hexaphenyldigermane
2816-39-9

hexaphenyldigermane

1,1,2,2-tetrachlorodiphenyldigermane
32284-98-3

1,1,2,2-tetrachlorodiphenyldigermane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) High Pressure; pressure react. of dry HCl and Ph6Ge2 in autoclave (molar ratio HCl/Ph6Ge2 = 44.0), room temp., initial pressure 47 atm, 8h; rinsing react. mixt. with pentane into retort; evapn.; addn. of pentane; cooling to -15°C; crystn. overnight; filtration; recrystn. (petroleum ether); elem. anal.;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

potassium perrhenate
10466-65-6

potassium perrhenate

cesium chloride

cesium chloride

A

dipotassium oxopentachlororhenate(5+)

dipotassium oxopentachlororhenate(5+)

B

2Cs(1+)*{ReOCl5}(2-)=Cs2{ReOCl5}

2Cs(1+)*{ReOCl5}(2-)=Cs2{ReOCl5}

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydroquinone In acetic anhydride; acetic acid under N2 at room temp.; passing HCl gas through soln. of KReO4 in acetic acid and (Ac)2O till clear soln. (rhenate), mixed with hydroquinone inacetic acid, pptn. of KReOCl5, to mother liquor addn. of CsCl in AcOH contg. (Ac)2O, pptn.; filtered, washed (acetic acid), kept in vacuo for 5 h;A 100%
B 99%
quinoline
91-22-5

quinoline

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

potassium perrhenate
10466-65-6

potassium perrhenate

A

dipotassium oxopentachlororhenate(5+)

dipotassium oxopentachlororhenate(5+)

B

2C9H7NH(1+)*ReOCl5(2-)=(C9H7NH)2(ReOCl5)

2C9H7NH(1+)*ReOCl5(2-)=(C9H7NH)2(ReOCl5)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydroquinone In acetic anhydride; acetic acid under N2 at room temp.; passing HCl gas through soln. of KReO4 in acetic acid and acetic anhydride till clear soln. (rhenate), mixed with hydroquinone in acetic acid, pptn. of KReOCl5, to mother liquor addn. of quinoline in AcOH contg. (Ac)2O, pptn.; filtered, washed (acetic acid), kept in vacuo for 5 h; elem. anal.;A 100%
B 94%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

per-rhenic acid
207984-93-8

per-rhenic acid

tetraphenyl phosphonium chloride
2001-45-8

tetraphenyl phosphonium chloride

(C6H5)4P(1+)*ReOCl5(1-)=(C6H5)4P[ReOCl5]
57437-75-9

(C6H5)4P(1+)*ReOCl5(1-)=(C6H5)4P[ReOCl5]

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In hydrogenchloride; sulfuric acid aq. H2SO4; molar ratio Re:Ph4PCl=1:1; addn. of concd. HCl to mixt. of HReO4, Ph4PCl, concd. H2SO4 and concd. HCl (pptn.); extn. (CHCl3), crystn. (1-2 h), washing (CHCl3), drying (vac., over NaOH); elem. anal.;100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

potassium perrhenate
10466-65-6

potassium perrhenate

rubidium chloride

rubidium chloride

A

dipotassium oxopentachlororhenate(5+)

dipotassium oxopentachlororhenate(5+)

B

rubidium oxopentachlororhenate(V)

rubidium oxopentachlororhenate(V)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydroquinone In acetic anhydride; acetic acid under N2 at room temp.; passing HCl gas through soln. of KReO4 in acetic acid and (Ac)2O till clear soln. (rhenate), mixed with hydroquinone inacetic acid, pptn. of KReOCl5, to mother liquor addn. of RbCl in AcOH contg. (Ac)2O, pptn.; filtered, washed (acetic acid), kept in vacuo for 5 h;A 100%
B 98%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

oxalyl dichloride
79-37-8

oxalyl dichloride

(5,7,12,14-tetramethyldibenzo[b,i][1,4,8,11]tetraazacyclotetradecinate(2-))V=O

(5,7,12,14-tetramethyldibenzo[b,i][1,4,8,11]tetraazacyclotetradecinate(2-))V=O

[(5,7,12,14-tetramethyldibenzo[b,i][1,4,8,11]tetraazacyclotetradecinate(1-))VCl2]Cl
79820-76-1

[(5,7,12,14-tetramethyldibenzo[b,i][1,4,8,11]tetraazacyclotetradecinate(1-))VCl2]Cl

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In 1,2-dichloro-ethane (Ar); react. (5-10 min, pptn.);100%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

1,10-Phenanthroline
66-71-7

1,10-Phenanthroline

potassium perrhenate
10466-65-6

potassium perrhenate

A

dipotassium oxopentachlororhenate(5+)

dipotassium oxopentachlororhenate(5+)

B

o-phenanthrolinium oxopentachlororhenate(V)
17428-51-2

o-phenanthrolinium oxopentachlororhenate(V)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydroquinone In acetic anhydride; acetic acid under N2 at room temp.; passing HCl gas through soln. of KReO4 in acetic acid and (Ac)2O till clear soln. (rhenate), mixed with hydroquinone inacetic acid, pptn. of KReOCl5, to mother liquor addn. of phenanthrolinen AcOH contg. (Ac)2O, pptn.; filtered, washed (acetic acid), kept in vacuo for 5 h; elem. anal.;A 100%
B 100%