ChEBI: The ethyl ester of 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid. It is an intravenous general anaesthetic with no analgesic activity.
Etomidate is an ultra-short effect non-barbiturate intravenous anesthetic agent allowed to be used in China , it belongs to imidazole derivatives, the appearance is white crystalline powder, melting point 115 ℃, easily soluble in water, methanol, ethanol and propylene glycol, soluble in chloroform, insoluble in acetone, insoluble in ether. Its effects on the central nervous system is similar to barbiturates. Hypnotic effect of Etomidate is strong , and its efficacy is about 12 times higher than thiopental, it has no analgesic effect. It has a rapid onset of anesthesia, after 20 seconds of intravenous injection, it produces anesthesia, anesthesia is maintained for about 5 minutes, it is quick to wake up , increasing the dose will increase the duration of action accordingly. Compared with thiopental ,its anesthesia strength is larger and it has smaller effects on the respiratory and circulatory systems. It is suitable for induction of anesthesia. Intravenous anesthesia, can increase 19% of coronary blood flow and resistance is reduced by 19%. Its obvious advantage is having no negative impact on the cardiovascular system, and it has low toxicity,it has little effect on the respiratory and circulatory system, there is a brief respiratory depression,which makes systolic blood pressure decrease slightly, and make heart rate slightly faster, compared with thiopental, above effects are less, and it has no histamine release effect. It may affect the liver and kidney function and reduce brain oxygen consumption, reduce cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure. Clinical generally use amount is 0.1~0.4mg/kg, natural wake is 7 to 14 minutes. Distribution half-life is 2.8 minutes, and elimination half-life is 160 minutes. Hydrolyze in the liver and plasma , and the vast majority of metabolites are excreted by the kidneys. The main disadvantages of etomidate is the inhibition of adrenal cortex function, especially after long-term medication.
Induction of anesthesia: quiet, comfortable, heart rate, blood pressure are stable. The usual dose is 0.2~0.3mg/kg. Elderly, frail or critically ill patients can be reduced to 0.1~0.15mg/kg, intravenous drip.It is more suitable for cardiovascular disease, poor cardiac reserve and critically ill patients. Maintenance of intravenous anesthesia or inhalation anesthesia in short surgery or short time heart surgery : intravenous, 0.1~0.2mg/(kg · h). Outpatient minor surgery or special tests: intravenous injection, 0.2~0.3mg/kg.
After the use of the product, there will be clonic muscle contraction, using droperidol or fentanyl before anesthesia can reduce the incidence of myoclonus; if etomidate is used as inducing halothane anesthesia, the amount of halothane should be reduced .
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Tian Ye.
General anesthetic with GABA modulatory and GABA-mimetic actions; selectively interacts with β 2- and β 3-subunit containing GABA A receptors. Short acting and potent hypnotic, with low toxicity.
Etomidate is a hypnotic.
A GABAA receptors agonist.
Short-time intravenous anesthetics.