Aeroseb-Dex (Allergan); Decadron (Merck); Dexone
(Solvay Pharmaceuticals); Hexadrol (Organon); Maxidex
(Alcon); Mymethasone (Morton Grove).
Flash point data for Dexamethasone are not available; however, Dexamethasone is probably combustible.
Dexamethasone may be sensitive to prolonged exposure to light. Dexamethasone is incompatible with strong oxidizers, strong acids, acid chlorides and acid anhydrides. Oxidation may occur with bases.
Odorless white to off-white crystalline powder with a slightly bitter taste.
Dexamethasone is a artificially synthetic glucocorticoid, belonging to a long-term glucocorticoid drugs. Glucocorticoids can promote the metabolism of the three major nutrients while preventing protein synthesis with long-term topical being able to causing more serious consequences. However, the adverse effects should be much smaller than oral medication. Common side effects of systemic corticosteroid include:
It can cause stomach discomfort and increased sensitivity to stomach ulcers.
It can Increase the appetite and results in a significant increase in body weight.
Potential patients with diabetes: glucose intolerance in patients with aggravating existing diabetes.
It can cause mental illness including personality changes, irritability, agitation, and mania.
It can be used for the long-term treatment of osteoporosis: pathological fractures (such as hip).
It can cause elevated liver enzymes, fatty liver degeneration (usually reversible).
For patients of nephrotic syndrome, applying long-term high-dose medication is likely to cause large side effects such as gastrointestinal ulcers and avascular necrosis. For treatment of nephrotic syndrome, it is better to apply prednisone acetate tablets.
Dexamethasone can be used for the treatment of high altitude cerebral edema and pulmonary edema. Upon climbing expeditions, people can apply it to alleviate altitude sickness.
Combination with marbofloxacin and clotrimazole, etc. can be used for treating the ear infection and allergies of a dog or a bird.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
Glucocorticoid; anti-inflammatory. Reduces levels of activated NF- κ B in immature dendritic cells (DCs) and inhibits differentiation into mature DCs.
Dexamethasone is an Anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid that is used to treat inflammatory and autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and bronchospasm. It is useful to study apoptosis, cell signaling pathways and gene expression. It is associated with marbofloxacin and clotrimazole and finds application in veterinary medicine to treat difficult ear infections in dogs. It is also used to treat horses with swelling of of distal limbs and general bruising in combination with trichlormethiazide.
Dexamethasone induces the production of phospholipase A2 inhibitory protein (lipocortin). It also inhibits induction of nitric oxide synthase (IC50=5 nM). Dexamethasone has been shown to cause reduction in cyclin A and Cd k2 activity, inhibition of G1/S transition in osteoblasts and inhibition of phosphorylation of Rb protein in vitro. Dexamethasone has been observed to induce apoptosis in human thymocytes and eosinophils, but inhibits apoptosis in neutrophils in vitro. Dexamethasone is an activator of IDO.
Dexamethasone Inhibits the expression of the inducible but not the constitutive nitric oxide synthase in vascular endothelial cells (IC50=5 nM). Dexamethasone regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation.Enhances active cation transport in aortic smooth muscle cells by stimulating the Na+-K+ pump. Has anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic properties. Induces apoptosis in human thymocytes. In general, 500-1000 nM of dexamethasone is sufficient to induce apoptosis following a 6-hour incubation at 37°C.
Air & Water Reactions
Insoluble in water.
Dexamethasone has been recrystallised from Et2O or small volumes of EtOAc. Its solubility in H2O is 10 mg/100mL at 25o; and is freely soluble in Me2CO, EtOH and CHCl3. [Arth et al. J Am Chem Soc 80 3161 1958; for the -methyl isomer see Taub et al. J Am Chem Soc 82 4025 1960, see Beilstein 8 IV 3501.]
Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid known as a glucocorticoid. Corticosteroids are meant to resemble a naturally occurring hormone produced in the adrenal cortex, cortisol. Corticosteroids act on the immune system by blocking the production of substances that trigger inflammatory and immune responses.
Dexamethasone may react with these drugs: