White crystals. Odorless or faintly aromatic odor. Sweet taste.
ChEBI: A 1,2-benzisothiazole having a keto-group at the 3-position and two oxo substituents at the 1-position. It is used as an artificial sweetening agent.
An amide. Acid to litmus. pH of 0.35% aqueous solution: 2.0. Organic amides/imides react with azo and diazo compounds to generate toxic gases. Flammable gases are formed by the reaction of organic amides/imides with strong reducing agents. Amides are very weak bases (weaker than water). Imides are less basic yet and in fact react with strong bases to form salts. That is, they can react as acids. Mixing amides with dehydrating agents such as P2O5 or SOCl2 generates the corresponding nitrile. The combustion of these compounds generates mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx).
Usually used in high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous separation and determination of acesulfame potassium, saccharine and aspartame;and also used in sweet preference test of rats.
Flash point data for Saccharin are not available; however, Saccharin is probably combustible.
Purify saccharin by recrystallisation from Me2CO [solubility 7.14% at 0o, 14.4% at 50o], or aqueous isoPrOH to give a fluorescent solution. It sublimes in vacuo. It is an artificial sweetner and is 500 times sweeter than sucrose. [DeGarmo et al. J Am Pharm Assoc (Sci Ed) 41 17 1952, Beilstein 27 H 168, 870, 27 I 266, 27 II 214, 27 III/IV 2649.]
It is a non-nutritive sweetener; pharmaceutic aid (flavor). Saccharin was formerly listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen; delisted because the cancer data are not sufficient to meet the current criteria for this listing.
white crystalline solid
Saccharin is stable when heated and does not chemically react with other food ingredients, therefore, it stores well. When blended with other sweeteners, saccharin often compensates for each sweetener’s faults and weakness. Commonly, saccharin is used with aspartate in diet carbonated soft drinks.
Saccharin is insoluble in water in its acid form. Its majorly used form as an artificial sweetener is its sodium salt.
Safety and Health Effects
The utilization of saccharin in human food has raised numerous health and safety concerns. In the 1970s, saccharin was linked with the development of bladder in rodents in various laboratory studies on rats. Consequently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pushed for its ban, sighting that it is carcinogenic to humans.
However, after strong objection from the public regarding the ban, American Congress intervened and allowed the compound to remain in the food supply as long as all the manufactures libel it with a warning when packaging.
Saccharin gas been classified to have no nutritional or food energy value, as such, it safe for patients with diabetes.
Air & Water Reactions
Slightly soluble in water.
Saccharin was discovered in 1879 by chemists Constantin Fahlberg and Ira Remsen as they were researching about the oxidation of o-toluenesulfonamide. While eating, Fahlberg noticed the presence of sweetness in his food due to his arms and hands that contained saccharin. As he checked his laboratory apparatus by taste tests, Fahlberg found out that the source of this sweetness was from saccharin. Saccharin is still made of toluenesulfonamide and from phthalic anhydride.
Sweeta (Bristol-Myers Squibb).
Saccharin is an organic compound that is normally used as a non-nutritive sweetening agent. Also known as ortho-sulfobenzoic acid imide, saccharin occurs in the form of various salts, mainly calcium and sodium.