Welcome to LookChem.com Sign In|Join Free
  • or

108-88-3

Post Buying Request

108-88-3 Suppliers

Recommended suppliersmore

This product is a nationally controlled contraband, and the Lookchem platform doesn't provide relevant sales information.

108-88-3 Usage

General Description

A clear colorless liquid with a characteristic aromatic odor. Flash point 40°F. Less dense than water (7.2 lb / gal) and insoluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors heavier than air. May be toxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact. Used in aviation and automotive fuels, as a solvent, and to make other chemicals.

Purification Methods

Dry toluene with CaCl2, CaH2 or CaSO4, and dry further by standing with sodium, P2O5 or CaH2. It can be fractionally distilled from sodium or P2O5. Unless specially purified, toluene is likely to be contaminated with methylthiophenes and other sulfur-containing impurities. These can be removed by shaking with conc H2SO4, but the temperature must be kept below 30o if sulfonation of toluene is to be avoided. A typical procedure consists of shaking toluene twice with cold conc H2SO4 (100mL of acid per L), once with water, once with aqueous 5% NaHCO3 or NaOH, again with H2O, then drying successively with CaSO4 and P2O5, with final distillation from P2O5 or over LiAlH4 after refluxing for 30minutes. Alternatively, the treatment with NaHCO3 can be replaced by boiling under reflux with 1% sodium amalgam. Sulfur compounds can also be removed by prolonged shaking of the toluene with mercury, or by two distillations from AlCl3, the distillate then being washed with water, dried with K2CO3 and stored with sodium wire. Other purification procedures include refluxing and distillation of sodium dried toluene from diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, and from SnCl2 (to ensure freedom from peroxides). It has also been co-distilled with 10% by volume of ethyl methyl ketone, and again fractionally distilled. [Brown & Pearsall J Am Chem Soc 74 191 1952.] For removal of carbonyl impurities see *benzene. Toluene has been purified by distillation under nitrogen in the presence of sodium benzophenone ketyl. Toluene has also been dried with MgSO4, after the sulfur impurities have been removed, and then fractionally distilled from P2O5 and stored in the dark [Tabushi et al. J Am Chem Soc 107 4465 1985]. Toluene can be purified by passage through a tightly packed column of Fuller's earth. Rapid purification: Alumina, CaH2 and 4A molecular sieves (3% w/v) may be used to dry toluene (6hours stirring and standing). Then the toluene is distilled, discarding the first 5% of distillate, and is stored over molecular sieves (3A, 4A) or Na wire. [Beilstein 5 H 280, 5 I 144, 5 II 209, 5 III 651, 5 IV 766.]

Reaction

  • Toluene is more easily substituted than benzene, and the substituted product is mainly a derivative that is in ortho and para positions with the methyl group. For example, toluene reacts with mixed acid (mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid) - nitrification:

  • Sulfonation
Reaction Temp. O-toluenesulfonic acid p-toluenesulfonic acid M-toluene sulfonic acid
At 0°C (%) 43   53 4
At 100°C (%)   13 79 8
  • In the presence of iron or ferric chloride, the chlorination reaction takes place on the benzene ring, and chlorination takes place on the methyl group in the presence of light or heating:
  • Toluene can be oxidized by an oxidant such as potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate or the like, or can be oxidized by air in the presence of a catalyst to produce benzoic acid.

Uses

Toluene is a component of gasoline, paints, inks, lacquers, paint thinners, adhesives, fingernail polish, cleaning agents, and rubber. BTX (a mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene) is added to gasoline to improve octane ratings. Toluene is used to produce benzene, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nylon, plastics, and polyurethanes. It is also used in production of drugs of abuse. Toluene is a favorite of solvent abusers, who intentionally inhale high concentrations to achieve a euphoric effect. It is used in the production of pharmaceuticals, dyes, and cosmetic nail products. It is used against roundworms and hookworms.

Detailed applications are summarized here:
Industry Applications Role/Benefit
Chemical manufacture Production of benzene and dimethyl benzene Main feedstock
Production of benzoic acid The oxidation products of toluene
Production of benzene chloromethane or benzene trichloromethane The chlorination products of toluene
Production of p-nitrotoluene or o-nitrotoluene The nitration products of toluene
Production of o-toluenesulfonic acid or p-toluenesulfonic acid The sulfonation products of toluene
Gasoline High-octane gasoline Used as octane booster to increase the octane value of gasoline
Adhesives manufacture Carpet adhesive solvents Good solubility for adhesive
Chemical analysis ICP-AES, AAS, AFS, ICP-MS and ion chromatography Stander material
Titration analysis Stander solution
Biology Hemoglobin extraction Help to break or disrupt red blood cells
Cosmetic and personal care Nail products Added to help the evaporation of solvents
Others Paint, varnish, lacquer, adhesive,nitrocellulose and ink Solvents and diluents
Production of saccharin, dyes, drugs and explosives,etc. Raw material

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Toluene reacts vigorously with allyl chloride or other alkyl halides even at minus 70° C in the presence of ethyl aluminum dichloride or ethyl aluminum sesquichloride. Explosions have been reported [NFPA 491M 1991]. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. When added to a tank of sulfur dichloride, the tank over pressurized and ruptured in a reaction thought to be catalyzed by iron or iron(III) chloride [Chem. Eng. News, 1988, 66(32), 2].

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.

Uses

In manufacture of benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, explosives, dyes, and many other organic Compounds; as a solvent for paints, lacquers, gums, resins; thinner for inks, perfumes, dyes; in the extraction of various principles from plants; as gasoline additive.

Hazards & Heath Effects

Metabolism in body
80% of Toluene absorbed in the body is oxidized to benzyl alcohol in the presence of NADP (transconjugase II), oxidized to benzaldehyde in the presence of NAD (transconjugase I), and then oxidized to benzoic acid. Then, it is combined with glycine to form hippuric acid in the presence of adenosine triphosphate. Therefore, 16%-20% of toluene absorbed into the body is exhaled by the respiratory tract, and 80% are excreted in the form of hippuric acid through the kidneys.

Human Health Effects
People are most likely to be exposed to toluene by smoking or using consumer products containing toluene (paints, varnish, nail polish, paint cleaners, stain removers, etc.) especially if there is not good ventilation.
Eye and upper airway irritation occurred after a 6.5 hr exposure to an air level of 100 ppm (377 mg/cu m) toluene, and lacrymation was seen at 500 mg/cu m. Volunteers exposed to 100 ppm (377 mg/cu m) toluene for 6 hr/day for four days suffered from subjective complaints of headache, dizziness and a sensation of intoxication. In subjects exposed to 750 mg/cu m for 8 hr, fatigue, muscular weakness, confusion, impaired coordination, enlarged pupils and accommodation disturbances were experienced; at about 3000 mg/cu m, severe fatigue, pronounced nausea, mental confusion, considerable in coordination with staggering gait and strongly affected pupillary light reflexes were observed. After exposure at the high level, muscular fatigue, nervousness and insomnia lasted for several days. Heavy accidental exposure leads to coma.
There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of toluene in humans. There is evidence suggesting lack of carcinogenicity of toluene in experimental animals. Therefore, Toluene is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.

Introduction

Toluene (molecular formula: C7H8) is a homologue of benzene, also known as "methyl benzene" and "phenyl methane". It is a colorless, volatile liquid with a special aroma. Toluene is a member of aromatic hydrocarbons. In the air, toluene can only incompletely burn and the flame is yellow. Many of its properties are similar to those of benzene and have aromatic odors similar to those of benzene. In practice, they are often used as organic solvents instead of the rather toxic benzene.
Toluene is prone to chlorination and produces benzene-chloromethane or benzene-trichloromethane, both of which are good industrial solvents; it can extract bromine from the bromine water, but cannot react with bromine water; it is also easy to nitrify and produce nitrotoluene or o-nitrotoluene, both of which are the raw materials of dyes; one part of toluene and three parts of nitric acid are nitrated to give trinitrotoluene (common name TNT); it is also easily sulfonated to generate o-toluenesulfonic acid or p-toluenesulfonate which are the raw materials for making dyes or making saccharin. Toluene vapor mixes with air to form explosive substances, so it can make TNT explosives.

Hazard

Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Explosive limits in air 1.27–7%. Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption. Visual impairment, female reproductive effects, and pregnancy loss. Questionable carcinogen.

Health Hazard

Vapors irritate eyes and upper respiratory tract; cause dizziness, headache, anesthesia, respiratory arrest. Liquid irritates eyes and causes drying of skin. If aspirated, causes coughing, gagging, distress, and rapidly developing pulmonary edema. If ingested causes vomiting, griping, diarrhea, depressed respiration.

Description

Toluene is a clear, colourless liquid with a sweet, benzene-like odour. Toluene occurs naturally in crude oil and in the toluene tree. It is also produced in the process of making gasoline and other fuels from crude oil and making coke from coal. Toluene is used in making paints, paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, adhesives, and rubber and in some printing and leather tanning processes. Toluene is also used in the production of polymers used to make nylon, plastic soda bottles, and polyurethanes and for pharmaceuticals, dyes, cosmetic nail products, and the synthesis of organic chemicals.
Toluene has been reported as the most commonly abused hydrocarbon solvent, primarily through ‘glue sniffing’. The common possibilities of exposure to high levels of toluene include indoor air from the use of household products such as paints, paint thinners, adhesives, synthetic fragrances, and many other sources.

Definition

ChEBI: The simplest member of the class toluenes consisting of a benzene core which bears a single methyl substituent.

Chemical Properties

Also known as methyl benezne or phenyl methane, C6H5CH3 is a flammable, toxic, colorless liquid. Insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol and ether, it is used in explosives,high-octane gasoline,and organic synthesis.

Production

The crude benzene fraction of coking coke contains 15-20% of toluene, which was once the main source of toluene, and can generate 1.1-1.3kg of toluene per ton of coke. Since the 1950s, the main source of toluene in the world has changed from coking by-products to catalytic reforming and hydrocarbon cracking. In 1982, petroleum toluene accounted for more than 96% of total production. Catalytic reforming oil contains 50-60% aromatics ( by volume), of which the toluene content can reach 40-45%; the content of aromatics in pyrolysis gasoline is about 70% (by mass), of which 15-20% is toluene.
InChI:InChI=1/C7H8/c1-7-5-3-2-4-6-7/h2-6H,1H3

108-88-3SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name toluene

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names methylbenzol

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only.
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:108-88-3 SDS

108-88-3Synthetic route

benzyl chloride
100-44-7

benzyl chloride

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; Lindlar's catalyst In benzene under 760 Torr; for 0.5h; Ambient temperature;100%
With sulfuric acid; aluminium; nickel dichloride In water at 25℃; Product distribution;98%
With sodium tetrahydroborate; cetyltributylphosphonium bromide In water; toluene at 40℃; for 0h; Product distribution;96%
benzyl alcohol
100-51-6

benzyl alcohol

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride; aluminium; nickel dichloride In ethanol at 25℃; Product distribution;100%
With palladium dichloride In methanol at 40℃; for 24h; Green chemistry; chemoselective reaction;99%
With palladium on activated charcoal; hydrogen In tetrahydrofuran at 25℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 1.5h;99%
ortho-methylphenyl iodide
615-37-2

ortho-methylphenyl iodide

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With (1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene)palladium(II) dichloride; cesium fluoride In 2-pentanol at 100℃; for 12h; Inert atmosphere;100%
With lithium aluminium tetrahydride In 1,2-dimethoxyethane at 35℃; for 5h; ultrasonic acceleration of reduction;95%
With 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile); poly(n-hexylsilane) In benzene-d6 at 82 - 85℃; for 3h; sealed;99 % Spectr.
para-chlorotoluene
106-43-4

para-chlorotoluene

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water; sodium iodide; nickel dichloride; zinc; sonication In N,N,N,N,N,N-hexamethylphosphoric triamide at 60℃; for 3h;100%
With water; sodium iodide; nickel dichloride; zinc; sonication In N,N,N,N,N,N-hexamethylphosphoric triamide at 60℃; for 3h; Product distribution;100%
With palladium on ceria; sodium hydroxide In isopropyl alcohol at 40℃; for 24h; Temperature; Solvent; Irradiation; Inert atmosphere; Sealed tube;97%
para-bromotoluene
106-38-7

para-bromotoluene

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium hydroxide; isopropyl alcohol; polymer supported Na2PdCl4 at 82℃; for 0.666667h; Rate constant; further catalysts; influence of the nature of catalyst on the rate of dehalogenation;100%
With tetrakis(triphenylphosphine) palladium(0); formaldehyd; caesium carbonate In dimethyl sulfoxide at 80℃; for 12h;99%
With lithium aluminium tetrahydride In 1,2-dimethoxyethane at 35℃; for 5h; ultrasonic acceleration of reduction;97%
benzyl bromide
100-39-0

benzyl bromide

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium tetrahydroborate; cetyltributylphosphonium bromide In water; toluene at 18℃; for 0h; Product distribution;100%
With ammonium chloride; zinc In tetrahydrofuran; water at 20℃; for 4h;97%
With sodium tetrahydroborate In tetrahydrofuran for 0.0833333h; Ambient temperature;90%
1-Phenyl-5-p-tolyloxy-1H-tetrazole
77924-17-5

1-Phenyl-5-p-tolyloxy-1H-tetrazole

A

1-phenyl-5-hydroxytetrazole
5097-82-5

1-phenyl-5-hydroxytetrazole

B

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrazine hydrate; palladium on activated charcoal In ethanol; water; benzene for 3.5h; Ambient temperature;A n/a
B 100%
With hydrazine hydrate; palladium on activated charcoal In ethanol; benzene Mechanism; Ambient temperature;A n/a
B 100%
With sodium hypophosphite; palladium on activated charcoal In ethanol; benzene at 80℃; Relative steady-state rates of cleavage, relative extrapolated interceps;
bromobenzene
108-86-1

bromobenzene

(3-dimethylaminopropyl)dimethylgallium

(3-dimethylaminopropyl)dimethylgallium

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium dichloride In benzene at 80℃; for 7h;100%
4-bromo-benzaldehyde
1122-91-4

4-bromo-benzaldehyde

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; palladium on activated charcoal In water; isopropyl alcohol at 20℃; under 5171.62 Torr; for 1h;100%
cis-{(PhCH2)2Co(III)(2,2'-bipyridine)2}ClO4

cis-{(PhCH2)2Co(III)(2,2'-bipyridine)2}ClO4

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With perchloric acid In acetonitrile Kinetics;100%
(η6-toluene)bis(η1-pentafluorophenyl)cobalt(II)
60528-58-7

(η6-toluene)bis(η1-pentafluorophenyl)cobalt(II)

A

decafluorobiphenyl
434-90-2

decafluorobiphenyl

B

cobalt
7440-48-4

cobalt

C

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) pyrolysis at 150°C;A 93%
B n/a
C 100%
1-methyl-7-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid anhydride
6345-56-8

1-methyl-7-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid anhydride

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With zeolite Y with a silica-alumina at 250℃; for 5h; Temperature; Inert atmosphere;100%
(benzyloxy)benzene
946-80-5

(benzyloxy)benzene

A

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

B

cyclohexanol
108-93-0

cyclohexanol

C

phenol
108-95-2

phenol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Ni0.85Rh0.15; hydrogen In water at 95℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 16h; Reagent/catalyst;A 100%
B 5%
C 79%
With isopropyl alcohol at 150℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 48h; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;A 100%
B 12.2%
C 87.5%
With isopropyl alcohol at 150℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 3h; Catalytic behavior; Temperature; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;A 100%
B 73.1%
C 22.4%
With Ru0.6Ni0.4; hydrogen In water at 95℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 16h; Reagent/catalyst;A 98%
B 61%
C 6%
With hydrogen In n-heptane at 140℃; under 750.075 Torr; for 6h; Catalytic behavior;A 34 %Chromat.
B 12 %Chromat.
C 22 %Chromat.
Benzyl acetate
140-11-4

Benzyl acetate

A

acetic acid
64-19-7

acetic acid

B

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In n-heptane at 160℃; under 750.075 Torr; for 6h; Catalytic behavior;A 96 %Chromat.
B 100%
benzaldehyde
100-52-7

benzaldehyde

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In water; ethyl acetate at 50℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 5h;99%
With hydrogen In water at 25℃; for 1h;99%
With palladium on activated charcoal; hydrogen In methanol at 25℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 0.833333h;99%
(benzyloxy)benzene
946-80-5

(benzyloxy)benzene

A

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

B

phenol
108-95-2

phenol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Ni0.85Ru0.15; hydrogen In water at 95℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 16h; Reagent/catalyst;A 99%
B 45%
With 0.5%Pd/TiO2; isopropyl alcohol In water at 24.84℃; for 2h; Inert atmosphere; Sealed tube; Irradiation;A 99%
B 99%
With formic acid In water at 120℃; Green chemistry;A 98%
B 96%
benzyl bromide
100-39-0

benzyl bromide

A

1,1'-(1,2-ethanediyl)bisbenzene
103-29-7

1,1'-(1,2-ethanediyl)bisbenzene

B

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With copper nickel; pyrographite In 1,2-dimethoxyethane at 85℃; for 20h;A 99%
B 1%
With titanium(III) citrate; Tris buffer; tetra(n-butyl)ammonium hydroxide; vitamin B-12 In ethanol for 1h; pH=8;A 98%
B 1%
With potassium phosphate; (4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-dipyridyl)-bis-(2-phenylpyridine(-1H))-iridium(III) hexafluorophosphate; diethyl 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 20℃; for 4h; Inert atmosphere; Irradiation;A 85%
B 6%
3-(4-Chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy)-benzo[d]isothiazole 1,1-dioxide
132636-69-2

3-(4-Chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy)-benzo[d]isothiazole 1,1-dioxide

A

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

B

saccharin
81-07-2

saccharin

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hypophosphite; palladium on activated charcoal In water; benzene for 3h; Heating;A 99%
B n/a
4-methoxyphenyl benzyl ether
6630-18-8

4-methoxyphenyl benzyl ether

A

4-methoxy-phenol
150-76-5

4-methoxy-phenol

B

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With formic acid In water at 120℃; Green chemistry;A 97%
B 99%
With 9,10-dihydroanthracene at 224.84℃; Kinetics; Product distribution;
With hydrogen In hexane at 260℃; under 5250.53 Torr; for 10h; Autoclave;A 93.6 %Chromat.
B 82.9 %Chromat.
With isopropyl alcohol at 260℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 4h; Autoclave; Inert atmosphere; Green chemistry;A 85 %Chromat.
B 88 %Chromat.
{bis(triphenylphosphine)nitrogen}{HW(CO)5}
78709-76-9

{bis(triphenylphosphine)nitrogen}{HW(CO)5}

benzyl bromide
100-39-0

benzyl bromide

A

bromopentacarbonyl tungstate(0)(1-)
15131-04-1

bromopentacarbonyl tungstate(0)(1-)

B

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran Kinetics; 26.0°C, 20-fold excess of alkyl halide; second-order rate const. is given; anal. of the reaction mixt. by gas chromy.;A n/a
B 99%
phenylytterbium iodide
26138-28-3

phenylytterbium iodide

A

ytterbium(II) iodide

ytterbium(II) iodide

B

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With methyl iodide; bis(triphenylphosphine)nickel(II) chloride In tetrahydrofuran addn. of Ni-catalyst and alkyl halide to soln. of PhYbI (prepd. in situ from Yb metal and PhI in THF), agitation (25°C); GLC;A n/a
B 99%
With methyl iodide; tetrakis(triphenylphosphine) palladium(0) In tetrahydrofuran addn. of Ni-catalyst and alkyl halide to soln. of PhYbI (prepd. in situ from Yb metal and PhI in THF), agitation (25°C); GLC;A n/a
B 97%
benzyl methyl ether
538-86-3

benzyl methyl ether

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With palladium dichloride In methanol at 40℃; for 12h; Inert atmosphere; Green chemistry; chemoselective reaction;99%
With methanol; toluene-4-sulfonic acid at 25℃; for 7.5h; Reagent/catalyst; Inert atmosphere; Sealed tube; UV-irradiation;95%
With samarium diiodide; water In tetrahydrofuran; decane at 20℃;
With diisobutylaluminium hydride; sodium t-butanolate; bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel(0); 1,3-bis[(2,6-diisopropyl)phenyl]imidazolinium chloride In tetrahydrofuran at 80℃; for 16h; Product distribution / selectivity; Inert atmosphere;82 %Chromat.
(benzyloxy)benzene
946-80-5

(benzyloxy)benzene

A

methyl cyclohexane
82166-21-0

methyl cyclohexane

B

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

C

cyclohexanol
108-93-0

cyclohexanol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In isopropyl alcohol at 120℃; for 2h;A 28%
B 72%
C 99%
With Rh0.6Ni0.4; hydrogen In water at 95℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 16h; Reagent/catalyst;A 35%
B 63%
C 95%
With 10% Pd/C; hydrogen In hexane at 160℃; under 30003 Torr; for 2h; Autoclave;
With isopropyl alcohol at 170℃; for 15h; Sealed tube;A 0.68 mmol
B 0.28 mmol
C 0.94 mmol
para-bromotoluene
106-38-7

para-bromotoluene

isopropyl alcohol
67-63-0

isopropyl alcohol

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide at 24.84℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 6h; Inert atmosphere; UV-irradiation; Sealed tube;99%
2-methylchlorobenzene
95-49-8

2-methylchlorobenzene

isopropyl alcohol
67-63-0

isopropyl alcohol

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide at 24.84℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 6h; Inert atmosphere; UV-irradiation; Sealed tube;99%
2-benzyloxynaphthalene
613-62-7

2-benzyloxynaphthalene

A

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

B

β-naphthol
135-19-3

β-naphthol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 0.5%Pd/TiO2; isopropyl alcohol In water at 24.84℃; for 2h; Inert atmosphere; Sealed tube; Irradiation;A 99%
B 97%
benzyl 1-butyl ether
588-67-0

benzyl 1-butyl ether

A

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

B

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 0.5%Pd/TiO2; isopropyl alcohol In water at 24.84℃; for 2h; Inert atmosphere; Sealed tube; Irradiation;A 99%
B 99%
4-benzyloxybenzonitrile
52805-36-4

4-benzyloxybenzonitrile

A

4-cyanophenol
767-00-0

4-cyanophenol

B

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 0.5%Pd/TiO2; isopropyl alcohol In water at 24.84℃; for 2h; Inert atmosphere; Sealed tube; Irradiation;A 99%
B 99%
4-Benzyloxyphenol
103-16-2

4-Benzyloxyphenol

A

1,4-Cyclohexanediol
556-48-9

1,4-Cyclohexanediol

B

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In n-heptane at 140℃; under 750.075 Torr; for 6h; Catalytic behavior;A 99%
B 99%
2-Methylcyclohexanol
583-59-5

2-Methylcyclohexanol

A

ortho-cresol
95-48-7

ortho-cresol

B

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
platinum; potassium oxide at 360℃;A 98%
B 2%
platinum; potassium oxide at 360℃; Product distribution; other content of catalyst;A 98%
B 2%
4-methylvaleroyl chloride
38136-29-7

4-methylvaleroyl chloride

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

4-methyl-1-(4'-methylphenyl)pentan-1-one
21847-98-3

4-methyl-1-(4'-methylphenyl)pentan-1-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Friedel Crafts Acylation;100%
With aluminium trichloride at 75 - 80℃; for 1h;35%
With aluminium trichloride
Friedel-Crafts reaction;
toluene
108-88-3

toluene

Desyl chloride
447-31-4

Desyl chloride

1,2-diphenyl-2-p-tolylethanone
50353-99-6

1,2-diphenyl-2-p-tolylethanone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With gallium(III) trichloride at 20℃; for 24h;100%
With aluminium trichloride at 20℃; for 24h;68%
With aluminium trichloride Behandeln bei Siedetemperatur;
toluene
108-88-3

toluene

benzyl bromide
100-39-0

benzyl bromide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With bromine In tetrachloromethane for 1.5h; Ambient temperature;100%
With manganese(IV) oxide; bromine In dichloromethane at 0℃; for 1h; Product distribution; Further Variations:; Solvents; Temperatures; reaction time;100%
With bromine; sodium t-butanolate In cyclohexane Heating;100%
toluene
108-88-3

toluene

benzaldehyde
100-52-7

benzaldehyde

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With laccase from Coriolus versicolor MTCC-138; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt In 1,4-dioxane for 0.5h; pH=4.5; Green chemistry; Enzymatic reaction;100%
With nickel-doped graphene carbon nitride nanoparticles; air In ethanol at 25℃; for 8h; Reagent/catalyst; Solvent; Irradiation; Green chemistry;98%
With water at 20℃; for 3h; Reagent/catalyst;98%
toluene
108-88-3

toluene

methyl cyclohexane
82166-21-0

methyl cyclohexane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; [(norbornadiene)rhodium(I)chloride]2; phosphinated polydiacetylene In n-heptane at 30℃; under 60800 Torr; for 1.5h;100%
With hydrogen; Ni-Tc on γ-Al2O3 at 175 - 250℃; under 760 Torr; Product distribution; dependence of catalytic activity on the reduction temperature; enhanced activity of bimetallic catalysts;100%
With hydrogen; Rh on carbon In methanol at 20℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 0.5h;100%
toluene
108-88-3

toluene

1,1'-(1,2-ethanediyl)bisbenzene
103-29-7

1,1'-(1,2-ethanediyl)bisbenzene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With methyl cyanoformate; sodium decatungstate In acetonitrile at 8℃; for 90h; Irradiation;100%
With di-tert-butyl peroxide; sodium acetate at 120℃; for 10h; Schlenk technique; Green chemistry;94%
With di-tert-butyl peroxide; sodium acetate at 120℃; for 10h;94%
n-docosanoic acid
112-85-6

n-docosanoic acid

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

1-p-Tolyl-docosan-1-one
101493-90-7

1-p-Tolyl-docosan-1-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Ce3+ exchanged Y-fanjasite at 150℃; for 48h;100%
m-anisoyl chloride
1711-05-3

m-anisoyl chloride

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

(4-methylphenyl)-(3-methoxyphenyl)methanone
82520-37-4

(4-methylphenyl)-(3-methoxyphenyl)methanone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: m-anisoyl chloride; toluene With aluminum (III) chloride In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 4h;
Stage #2: With hydrogenchloride In dichloromethane; water
100%
With aluminium trichloride84%
With aluminium trichloride In nitromethane for 0.75h; Ambient temperature;84%
With aluminium trichloride In 1,2-dichloro-benzene
With aluminium trichloride In dichloromethane at 20℃;
toluene
108-88-3

toluene

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With α-manganese oxide; oxygen at 290℃; Temperature; [1,2]-Wittig Rearrangement; Inert atmosphere;100%
With oxygen at 258℃; under 760.051 Torr; Kinetics; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Inert atmosphere;100%
With oxygen at 230 - 240℃; for 0.5h; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Inert atmosphere;99.9%
chloro-trimethyl-silane
75-77-4

chloro-trimethyl-silane

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

3-methyl-2-methylene-3-phenyloxetane
183245-70-7

3-methyl-2-methylene-3-phenyloxetane

3-methyl-3,5-diphenyl-2-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-1-pentene

3-methyl-3,5-diphenyl-2-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-1-pentene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: toluene; 3-methyl-3-phenyl-2-methyleneoxetane With n-butyllithium; N,N,N,N,-tetramethylethylenediamine In hexane at 0℃; for 1.5h;
Stage #2: chloro-trimethyl-silane In hexane at 0℃; for 0.55h;
100%
toluene
108-88-3

toluene

4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1,3,2]-dioxaboralane
25015-63-8

4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1,3,2]-dioxaboralane

p-tolylboronic pinacol ester
195062-57-8

p-tolylboronic pinacol ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
[Ir(COD)(1,3-dicyclohexylimidazolidin-2-ylidene)2]CF3CO2 at 40℃; for 10h;100%
(η4-1,5-cyclooctadiene)bis(1,3-dimethylimidazolin-2-ylidene)iridium(I) trifluoracetate In toluene byproducts: H2; (N2); using Schlenk techniques; dissolving of 2 mmol pinacolborane and 1.5 mol% of Ir(COD)(C3H2N2Me2)2CF3CO2 in toluene; stirring and heating at40°C for 12 h; monitoring by GC-MS; removal of solvent under vac. at room temp.; chromy. over silica gel, eluting with CH2Cl2;100%
(η4-1,5-cyclooctadiene)(1,1'-dimethyl-3,3'-o-xylylene-diimidazolin-2,2'-diylidene)iridium(I) trifluoroacetate In toluene (N2); using Schlenk techniques; dissolving of 2 mmol pinacolborane and 1.5 mol% of Ir(COD)(1,1'-dimethyl-3,3'-o-xylylene-diimidazolin-2,2'-diylidene)2(CF3CO2) in toluene; stirring and heating at 40°C for 12 h; monitoring by GC-MS; removal of solvent under vac. at room temp.; chromy. over silica gel, eluting with CH2Cl2;100%
chromium(0) hexacarbonyl
199620-14-9, 13007-92-6

chromium(0) hexacarbonyl

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

tricarbonyl(η(6)-toluene)chromium
12083-24-8

tricarbonyl(η(6)-toluene)chromium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With catalyst: dimethyl succinate In decalin byproducts: CO; refluxing for 2.3 h (catalyst: dimethyl succinate); freezing out at -18°C or quick chromy. of the decaline soln. on a SiO2 column;100%
With catalyst: butyl acetate In decalin byproducts: CO; refluxing for 3 h (catalyst: butyl acetate); freezing out at -18°C or quick chromy. of the decaline soln. on a SiO2 column;99%
With acetic acid In decalin refluxing of toluene with the Cr compd. (4:1) and 25 microliter AcOH for 4 h;98.7%
heptafluoropropane-2-sulphenic acid chloride
51031-50-6

heptafluoropropane-2-sulphenic acid chloride

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

A

bis(perfluoroisopropyl) disulfide
754-62-1

bis(perfluoroisopropyl) disulfide

B

heptafluoropropane-2-thiol
68408-97-9

heptafluoropropane-2-thiol

C

benzyl perfluoroisopropyl sulfide
68409-03-0

benzyl perfluoroisopropyl sulfide

D

benzyl chloride
100-44-7

benzyl chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
A n/a
B n/a
C 4%
D 100%
A n/a
B n/a
C 4%
D 100%
nonafluoro-tert-butanesulfenyl chloride
32308-83-1

nonafluoro-tert-butanesulfenyl chloride

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

A

nonafluoro-tert-butanethiol
32308-82-0

nonafluoro-tert-butanethiol

B

benzyl chloride
100-44-7

benzyl chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
A 100%
B 100%
A 100%
B 100%
dimanganese decacarbonyl
10170-69-1

dimanganese decacarbonyl

trimethylamine-N-oxide dihydrate
62637-93-8

trimethylamine-N-oxide dihydrate

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

{{Mn(μ3-OH)(CO)3}4}*2toluene

{{Mn(μ3-OH)(CO)3}4}*2toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran; toluene stirring Mn2(CO)10 with Me3NO*2H2O in THF (18 h), solvent removal; recrystn. (hot toluene);100%
In toluene byproducts: trimethylammonium carbonate; treatment of Mn2(CO)10 with 6 equivs. of Me3NO, boiling of product in MePh; hot filtration, crystn. (5°C); second crop from mother liquor; elem. anal.;98%
bis(pentafluorophenyl)(η6-anisole)cobalt(II)
86197-44-6

bis(pentafluorophenyl)(η6-anisole)cobalt(II)

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

(η6-toluene)bis(η1-pentafluorophenyl)cobalt(II)
60528-58-7

(η6-toluene)bis(η1-pentafluorophenyl)cobalt(II)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In chloroform-d1 byproducts: anisole; mol. ratio 1/10; not isolated, detected by NMR;100%
In chloroform-d1 byproducts: anisole; mol. ratio 1/1; not isolated, detected by NMR;85%
3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole
121-00-6

3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole

titanium tetrachloride
7550-45-0

titanium tetrachloride

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

trichloromono(2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenoxide)titanium(IV)*0.0625(toluene)

trichloromono(2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenoxide)titanium(IV)*0.0625(toluene)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In toluene byproducts: HCl; under N2; 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol in toluene added to TiCl4 (molar ratio 1:1) in toluene; refluxed for 13 h; filtered; solvent removed; dried under vac. for 4 h; elem. anal.;100%
tris(pentafluorophenyl)borate
1109-15-5

tris(pentafluorophenyl)borate

trimethylaluminum
75-24-1

trimethylaluminum

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

tris(pentafluorophenyl)aluminum*(toluene)0.5

tris(pentafluorophenyl)aluminum*(toluene)0.5

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In hexane100%
In hexane; toluene B(C6F5)3 and AlMe3 in 1:3 toluene/hexanes mixt.;99%
In hexane; toluene (inert atm.); reaction of borane deriv. with trimethylaluminium in hexane/toluene (3:1);99%
[Rh(C8H12)(PO2C12H4C16H36)2C8H12O5](1+)*BF4(1-)*0.5CH2Cl2=[Rh(C8H12)(PO2C12H4C16H36)2C8H12O5]BF4*0.5CH2Cl2

[Rh(C8H12)(PO2C12H4C16H36)2C8H12O5](1+)*BF4(1-)*0.5CH2Cl2=[Rh(C8H12)(PO2C12H4C16H36)2C8H12O5]BF4*0.5CH2Cl2

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

[Rh(C7H8)(PO2C12H4C16H36)2C8H12O5](1+)*BF4(1-)*C7H8=[Rh(C7H8)(PO2C12H4C16H36)2C8H12O5]BF4*C7H8

[Rh(C7H8)(PO2C12H4C16H36)2C8H12O5](1+)*BF4(1-)*C7H8=[Rh(C7H8)(PO2C12H4C16H36)2C8H12O5]BF4*C7H8

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In toluene 100 mL vessel filled with a soln. of Rh(C8H12)diphosphiteBF4 in toluene, placed into an autoclave, autoclave purged 3 times with H2 and pressurised to the appropriate pressure (5 bar), after react. time of 3 h at room temp. autoclave depressurised; concentration to dryness, elem. anal.;100%

108-88-3Downstream Products

108-88-3Related news

Effect of CeO2 morphologies on Toluene (cas 108-88-3) catalytic combustion08/19/2019

Catalytic combustion is an efficient and economic technology to eliminate toluene, and CeO2 shows very good performance in this kind of reactions. In this work, three kinds of CeO2 catalysts with different morphologies (rod, hollow sphere and cube) have been prepared, and there performances for ...detailed