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Cas Database

10034-85-2

10034-85-2

Identification

  • Product Name:Hydriodic acid

  • CAS Number: 10034-85-2

  • EINECS:233-109-9

  • Molecular Weight:127.912

  • Molecular Formula: HI

  • HS Code:28111990

  • Mol File:10034-85-2.mol

Synonyms:Hydroiodic acid;Hydrogen iodide;Hydriodic Acid;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):CorrosiveC

  • Hazard Codes:C

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Artificial respiration may be needed. Refer for medical attention. In case of skin contact First rinse with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, then remove contaminated clothes and rinse again. In case of eye contact First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention. If swallowed Rinse mouth. Give one or two glasses of water to drink. Refer for medical attention . Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. (ERG, 2016)Excerpt from ERG Guide 125 [Gases - Corrosive]: TOXIC; may be fatal if inhaled, ingested or absorbed through skin. Vapors are extremely irritating and corrosive. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution. (ERG, 2016) Basic treatment: Establish a patent airway (oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal airway, if needed). Suction if necessary. Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist respirations if needed. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 10 to 15 L/min. Monitor for pulmonary edema and treat if necessary ... . Monitor for shock and treat if necessary ... . For eye contamination, flush eyes immediately with water. Irrigate each eye continuously with 0.9% saline (NS) during transport ... . Do not use emetics. Activated charcoal is not effective. For ingestion, rinse mouth and administer 5 ml/kg up to 200 ml of water for dilution if the patient can swallow, has a strong gag reflex, and does not drool ... . Do not attempt to neutralize because of exothermic reaction. Cover skin burns with dry, sterile dressings after decontamination ... . /Inorganic acids and related compounds/

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Do not apply water to point of leak in tank car or container. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Do not use water on material itself. If large quantities of combustibles are involved, use water in flooding quantities as spray and fog. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. /Hydrogen Iodide, anhyrous/ Excerpt from ERG Guide 154 [Substances - Toxic and/or Corrosive (Non-Combustible)]: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. For electric vehicles or equipment, ERG Guide 147 (lithium ion batteries) or ERG Guide 138 (sodium batteries) should also be consulted. (ERG, 2016)Excerpt from ERG Guide 125 [Gases - Corrosive]: Some may burn but none ignite readily. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. Some of these materials may react violently with water. Cylinders exposed to fire may vent and release toxic and/or corrosive gas through pressure relief devices. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket. For UN1005: Anhydrous ammonia, at high concentrations in confined spaces, presents a flammability risk if a source of ignition is introduced. (ERG, 2016) Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Personal protection: filter respirator for inorganic gases and vapours adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Do NOT absorb in saw-dust or other combustible absorbents. Sweep spilled substance into covered sealable containers. If appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. Evacuate and restrict persons not wearing protective equipment from area of spill or leak until cleanup is complete. Remove all ignition sources. Ventilate area of spill or leak. Neutralize with chemically basic substances such as sodium bicarbonate, soda ash, or slaked lime. Absorb liquids in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, peat, carbon, or a similar material and deposit in sealed containers. Keep this chemical out of confined spaces, such as a sewer, because of the possibility of an explosion, unless the sewer is designed to prevent the build up of explosive concentrations. It may be necessary to contain and dispose of this chemical as a hazardous waste. If material or contaminated runoff enters waterways, notify downstream users of potentially contaminated waters. Contact your Department of Environmental Protection or your regional office of the federal EPA for specific recommendations. If employees are required to clean-up spills, they must be properly trained and equipped. OSHA 1910.120(q) may be applicable.

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Separated from incompatible materials. See Chemical Dangers. Well closed. Ventilation along the floor.Hydroidic acid must be stored to avoid contact with strong acids (such as hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric), chemically active metals (such as potassium, sodium, magnesium and zinc), and strong oxidizers (such as chlorine, bromine, and fluorine) since violent reactions occur. Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, well vented area away from heat and moisture. Protect storage containers from physical damage. Procedures for the handling, use and storage of cylinders should be in compliance with OSHA 1910.101 and 1910.169 as with the recommendations of the Compressed Gas Association.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesBiological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 45 Articles be found

Lewis, W. C. McC.

, p. 471 - 471 (1918)

-

Macauley, R. M.

, p. 552 - 556 (1922)

-

Spin-orbit transitions (2P1/2←2P3/2) of iodine and bromine atoms in solid rare-gases

Pettersson, Mika,Nieminen, Janne

, p. 1 - 6 (1998)

Infrared absorptions of iodine and bromine atoms in solid rare-gases are presented. The isolated atoms are produced by UV-photolysis of HI or HBr in solid Ar, Kr and Xe. The absorptions are characterised by sharp zero-phonon lines and broad structured phonon side bands. Some of the zero-phonon lines are resolved and split into two components, separated by a few wavenumbers. The production of the atoms follow second-order kinetics indicating that the primary hydrogen atom undergoes a secondary reaction with the hydrogen halide producing a halogen atom and a hydrogen molecule. This is supported by the observation of the infrared absorptions of hydrogen molecules in concentrated matrices after photolysis.

Free radicals formed by reaction of germane with hydrogen atoms in xenon matrix at very low temperatures

Nakamura, K.,Masaki, N.,Okamoto, M.,Sato, S.,Shimokoshi, K.

, p. 4949 - 4951 (1987)

The radicals formed by the reaction of GeH4 with H in the Xe matrix were investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy at very low temperatures.The radicals observed were identified as GeH3 and GeH5.The newly observed radical GeH5 is consider

Janz,Danyluk

, p. 3850,3851 (1959)

Hendrixson, W. S.

, p. 2013 - 2017 (1923)

Kassel, L. S.

, p. 261 - 261 (1930)

-

Jones et al

, p. 9,14 (1958)

-

Bartlett

, p. 2853 (1932)

Generation of NBr(a1Δ) by the reaction of N3 radicals with Br atoms: A flow reactor source for quenching rate constant measurements

Hewett, Kevin B.,Setser

, p. 335 - 342 (1998)

The reaction between azide radicals (N3) and Br atoms is shown to produce electronically excited NBr(a1Δ) molecules in a room temperature flow reactor. This chemical system provides adequate concentration of NBr(a1Δ) so that this molecule can be systematically studied. The yield of NBr(b1Σ+) is minor. The quenching reactions of NBr(a) with HCl, HBr, HI, NH3, Br2, CF2Br2, and O2 were examined; the rate constants are (22 ± 5) × 10-14, (280 ± 30) × 10-14, (2300 ± 200) × 10-14, (35 ± 3) × 10-14, (2600 ± 300) × 10-14, (37 ± 6) × 10-14, and (230 ± 30) × 10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively.

Catalytic cycle of a divanadium complex with salen ligands in O2 reduction: Two-electron redox process of the dinuclear center (salen = N,N′-ethylenebis(salicylideneamine))

Yamamoto, Kimihisa,Oyaizu, Kenichi,Tsuchida, Eishun

, p. 12665 - 12672 (1996)

In an attempt to provide confirmation for the postulated mechanism of O2 reduction in vanadium-mediated oxidative polymerization of diphenyl disulfide, a series of divanadium complexes containing salen ligand (salen = N,N′-ethylenebis(salicylideneamine)) were prepared, characterized, and subjected to reactivity studies toward dioxygen. A divanadium(III, IV) complex, [(salen)VOV(salen)][I3] (II), was yielded both by treatments of solutions of [(salen)VOV(salen)][BF4]2 (I) in acetonitrile with excess tetrabutylammonium iodide and by electroreduction of I followed by anion exchange with tetrabutylammonium triiodide. The complex II was characterized by a near-infrared absorption at 7.2 × 103 cm-1 (∈ = 60.1 M-1 cm-1 in acetonitrile) assigned to an intervalence transfer band. A crystallographically determined V(III)-V(IV) distance of 3.569(4) A? is consonant with the classification of II as a weakly coupled Type II mixed-valence vanadium (α = 3.0 × 10-2). Oxidation of the cation [(salen)VOV(salen)]+ with O2 in dichloromethane yielded spontaneously the deep blue, mixed valent, divanadium(IV, V) species [(salen)VOVO(salen)]+ which was structurally characterized both as its triiodide (III) and perchlorate (IV) salts. Crystal data for III: triclinic space group P1 (no. 2), a = 14.973(2) A?, b = 19.481(2) A?, c = 14.168(2) A?, α = 107.00 (1)°, β= 115.56(1)°, γ = 80.35(1)°, V = 3561.3(9) A?3, Z = 4, Dcalc = 1.953 g/cm3, μ (MoKα) = 31.74 cm-1, final R = 0.057 and Rw = 0.065. Crystal data for IV: triclinic space group P1 (no. 2), a = 11.923(3) A?, b = 14.25(1) A?, c = 11.368(7) A?, α = 112.92(5)°, β = 92.76(4)°, γ = 99.13(4)°, V = 1743(1) A?3, Z = 2, Dcalc = 1.537 g/cm3, μ (CuKα) = 57.69 cm-1, final R = 0.042 and Rw = 0.061. The complexes III and IV were deoxygenated in strongly acidic nonaqueous media to produce [(salen)VOV(salen)]3+ as a high-valent complex whose reversible two-electron redox couple (VOV3+/VOV+) at 0.44V vs Ag/AgCl has been confirmed. Its ability to serve as a two-electron oxidant provided a unique model of a multielectron redox cycle in oxidative polymerization.

Pickering, S. U.

, p. 128 - 140 (1880)

Nicholas, John E.,Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam

, (1986)

Giauque, W. F.,Wiebe, R.

, p. 1441 - 1449 (1929)

Morgan, K. J.

, p. 123 - 146 (1954)

Revealing the structural chemistry of the group 12 halide coordination compounds with 2,2′-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline

Swiatkowski, Marcin,Kruszynski, Rafal

, p. 642 - 675 (2017)

The coordination compounds of group 12 halides with 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 2[CdF2(bpy)2]·7H2O (1), [ZnI(bpy)2]+·I3 ? (2), [CdI2(bpy)2] (3), [Cd(SiF6)H2O(phen)2]·[Cd(H2O)2(phen)2]2+·F–·0.5(SiF6)2–·9H2O (4), [Hg(phen)3]2+·(SiF6)2–·5H2O (5), [ZnBr2(phen)2] (6), 6[Zn(phen)3]2+·12Br–·26H2O (7) and [ZnI(phen)2]+·I– (8), have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, IR spectroscopy, elemental and thermal analysis. Structural investigations revealed that metal : ligand stoichiometry in the inner coordination sphere is 1 : 2 or 1 : 3. A diversity of intra- and intermolecular interactions exists in structures of 1–8, including the rare halogen?halogen and halogen?π interactions. The thermal and spectroscopic properties were correlated with the molecular structures of 1–8. Structural review of all currently known coordination compounds of group 12 halides with bpy and phen is presented.

Reaction of the closo-decaborate anion B10H 10 2- with dichloroethane in the presence of hydrogen halides

Drozdova,Zhizhin,Malinina,Polyakova,Kuznetsov

, p. 996 - 1001 (2007)

The reactions of the closo-decaborate anion with hydrogen halides and dichloroethane have been studied. Irrespective of the hydrogen halide used (HCl, HBr, HI), chlorination to give mono-, di-, and trihalosubstituted products is the major process. The product ratio depends on the hydrogen halide used and on the synthesis temperature and time. The products have been identified by 11B NMR, IR, and ESI mass spectra. The structure of (Ph 3(NaphCH2)P)2B10H8Cl 2 has been studied by X-ray diffraction. The geometry distortion of the closo-decaborate core found in the chlorinated derivatives is retained on further chemical transformations of the compound.

Complexation and reactions of molecular iodine with dimethyl and diethyl sulfoxides

Markaryan,Grigoryan,Sarkisyan,Asatryan,Adamyan

, p. 1801 - 1803 (2006)

The complexation and reactions of molecular iodine with dimethyl sulfoxide and diethyl sulfoxide in the neat sulfoxides and in their mixtrues with water were studied by conductometry, pH-metry, argentometric titration, UV spectroscopy, and GLC analysis. According to the results obtained, molecular iodine initially forms a charge-transfer complex with the sulfoxide, which subsequently undergoes chemical transformations to hydrogen iodide and the corresponding sulfones. A possible reaction mechanism was suggested.

Griffith,McKeown,Winn

, p. 368,386 (1933)

UV-photolysis of HI···CO2 complexes in solid parahydrogen: Formation of CO and H2O

Fushitani, Mizuho,Shida, Tadamasa,Momose, Takamasa,Raesaenen, Markku

, p. 3635 - 3641 (2000)

The photochemistry of (HI)m···(CO2)n (m, n = 1, 2, ...) complexes trapped in solid parahydrogen was studied by Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. Photolysis of the HI in the HI···(CO2)n/su

Chattaway, F. D.,Wadmore, J. D.

, p. 191 - 203 (1902)

Mitchell, A. D.

, p. 1322 - 1335 (1920)

Photodissociation of a surface-active species at a liquid surface: A study by time-of-flight spectroscopy

Furlan, Alan

, p. 1550 - 1557 (1999)

The photochemistry at a gas-liquid interface was investigated by time-of-flight/quadrupole mass spectroscopy (TOF/QMS). A thin liquid film of 4-iodobenzoic acid (IBA), dissolved in glycerol, was irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses at 275 nm. Atomic and molecular iodine were the only photoproducts leaving the liquid after a low-fluence laser pulse (2). The amount of released I atoms was 2 orders of magnitude larger than the amount of desorbed I2. Model calculations were carried out that take into account laser photolysis of IBA, diffusion, and surface evaporation of I and I2, and the condensed-phase kinetics of radical reactions. Ejection of hyperthermal I atoms by direct photodissociation of surface layer molecules is also considered. The quantitative analysis is restricted to low laser fluence conditions at which laser-induced heating of the illuminated liquid is negligible. The results of the model calculations were compared to previously obtained TOF data of an alkyl iodide (C18H37I) dissolved in the apolar liquid squalane (C30H62). The velocity distribution of the iodine atoms from the alkyl iodide solution corresponds to the temperature of the liquid (278 K). The contribution of I atoms from depths greater than 1 nm is large (>99%). In contrast, I atoms desorbing from IBA/glycerol are hyperthermal (Ttrans=480 K) and originate almost exclusively from the topmost molecular layer (1 nm). TOF measurements with a fast chopper wheel in front of the surface provide the time-dependent desorption flux from the surface and confirm that the contribution from deeper layers in the alkyl iodide solution is much larger than in the aryl iodide solution. Model calculations predict the behavior of the two solutions correctly if differences in caging of the geminate pair, diffusion coefficients of the free radicals, and the set of bulk radical reactions in the two solutions are taken into account. The hyperthermal energies of the ejected I atoms from the IBA solution are discussed in terms of the surface orientation of excited IBA molecules. The dependence of the TOF spectra on laser power and IBA concentration is interpreted by a surface excess of IBA. The result is compared to temperature-dependent surface tension measurements of IBA solutions in glycerol and water. The response of the surface tension to an accumulation of IBA at the surface is very weak.

Boriev, I. A.,Gordon, E. B.,Efimenko, A. A.

, p. 486 - 490 (1985)

Control of Biohazards: A High Performance Energetic Polycyclized Iodine-Containing Biocide

Zhao, Gang,He, Chunlin,Zhou, Wenfeng,Hooper, Joseph P.,Imler, Gregory H.,Parrish, Damon A.,Shreeve, Jean'Ne M.

, p. 8673 - 8680 (2018)

Biohazards and chemical hazards as well as radioactive hazards have always been a threat to human health. The search for solutions to these problems is an ongoing worldwide effort. In order to control biohazards by chemical methods, a synthetically useful fused tricyclic iodine-rich compound, 2,6-diiodo-3,5-dinitro-4,9-dihydrodipyrazolo [1,5-a:5′,1′-d][1,3,5]triazine (5), with good detonation performance was synthesized, characterized, and its properties determined. This compound which acts as an agent defeat weapon has been shown to destroy certain microorganisms effectively by releasing iodine after undergoing decomposition or combustion. The small iodine residues remaining will not be deleterious to human life after 1 month.

Lewis, B.,Rideal, E. K.

, p. 2553 - 2553 (1926)

Bodenstein, M.,Jost, W.

, p. 1416 - 1416 (1927)

Riegler, E.

, p. 205 - 214 (1904)

Electron attachment on HI and DI in a uniform supersonic flow: Thermalization of the electrons

Goulay,Rebrion-Rowe,Carles,Le Garrec,Rowe

, p. 1303 - 1308 (2004)

The attachment of electron on HI and DI was studied in the 48-170 K range using the CRESU (Cinetique de Reaction en Ecoulement Supersonic Uniforme) technique. The attachment to HI was found to be exothermic and was expected to be fast and to proceed at a rate closed to the capture limit. The attachment to DI was found to be endothermic, where a positive temperature dependence was expected to occur if the electrons were thermal. A model, based on electron heating by superelastic collisions with the buffer gas was proposed.

Lindner, J.

, (1912)

Wang, Dianxun,Li, Ying,Li, Sheng,Zhao, Hengqi

, p. 167 - 170 (1994)

-

Bunbury et al.

, p. 6228 (1956)

-

Iodobismuthates Containing One-Dimensional BiI4- Anions as Prospective Light-Harvesting Materials: Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structure, and Optical Properties

Yelovik, Natalie A.,Mironov, Andrei V.,Bykov, Mikhail A.,Kuznetsov, Alexey N.,Grigorieva, Anastasia V.,Wei, Zheng,Dikarev, Evgeny V.,Shevelkov, Andrei V.

, p. 4132 - 4140 (2016)

Four iodobismuthates, LiBiI4·5H2O (1), MgBi2I8·8H2O (2), MnBi2I8·8H2O (3), and KBiI4·H2O (4), were prepared by a facile solution route and revealed thermal stability in air up to 120 °C. Crystal structures of compounds 1-4 were solved by a single crystal X-ray diffraction method. 1: space group C2/c, a = 12.535(2), b = 16.0294(18), c = 7.6214(9) ?, β = 107.189(11)°, Z = 4, R = 0.029. 2: space group P21/c, a = 7.559(2), b = 13.1225(15), c = 13.927(4) ?, β = 97.14(3)°, Z = 2, R = 0.031. 3: space group P21/c, a = 7.606(3), b = 13.137(3), c = 14.026(5) ?, β = 97.14(3)°, Z = 2, R = 0.056. 4: space group P21/n, a = 7.9050(16), b = 7.7718(16), c = 18.233(4) ?, β = 97.45(3)°, Z = 4, R = 0.043. All solid state structures feature one-dimensional (BiI4)- anionic chains built of [BiI6] octahedra that share two opposite edges in such a fashion that two iodine atoms in cis-positions remain terminal. The calculated electronic structures and observed optical properties confirmed that compounds 1-4 are semiconductors with direct band gaps of 1.70-1.76 eV, which correspond to their intense red color. It was shown that the cations do not affect the optical properties, and the optical absorption is primarily associated with the charge transfer from the I 5p orbitals at the top of the valence band to the Bi 6p orbitals at the bottom of the conduction band. Based on their properties and facile synthesis, the title compounds are proposed as promising light-harvesting materials for all-solid solar cells.

The mechanism of formation and infrared-induced decomposition of HXeI in solid Xe

Pettersson, Mika,Nieminen, Janne,Khriachtchev, Leonid,Raesaenen, Markku

, p. 8423 - 8431 (1997)

Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of HI-doped xenon matrix dissociates the precursor and leads to the formation and trapping of neutral atoms. After UV photolysis, annealing of the matrix mobilizes the hydrogen atoms at about 38 K. The mobilized hydrogen atoms react with I/Xe centers forming HXeI molecules in a diffusion controlled reaction. The formed molecules can be photolyzed with infrared (IR) irradiation at 2950-3800 cm-1 and quantitatively regenerated thermally. The formation of HXeI from neutral atoms is proved by the quantitative correlation between neutral iodine atoms and HXeI molecules in selective IR photodissociation and thermal regeneration experiments. Kinetic measurements show that the formation of HXeI from atoms is prevented by a potential barrier, which is estimated to be 700 cm-1 in magnitude. The potential barrier is proposed to originate from the avoided crossing between neutral H+Xe+I and ionic (HXe)++I- singlet surfaces. The dissociation energy D0 of HXeI with respect to the top of the potential barrier is estimated to be 2950 cm-1 and De about 4070 cm-1 in solid Xe. The weak IR photodissociation profile of HXeI around 3000 cm-1 is measured by irradiating the sample with tunable IR source and monitoring the changes in the fundamental region. The formation mechanism from neutral atoms is believed to be valid for other similar rare-gas compounds.

Griffith, R. O.,Keown, A. Mc,Winn, A. G.

, p. 369 - 369 (1933)

Warburg, E.

, p. 372 - 380 (1924)

Berthoud

, p. 393 (1933)

Batley, A.

, p. 438 - 438 (1928)

Linert, Wolfgang

, p. 449 - 456 (1987)

Hayward, P.,Yost, D. M.

, p. 915 - 919 (1949)

Thermal decomposition of cadmium thiourea coordination compounds

Semenov,Naumov

, p. 495 - 499 (2001)

Thermal decomposition of cadmium thiourea coordination compounds was considered. Cadmium sulfide is the final product for all the compounds, whereas the composition of other products of the thermolysis substantially depends on the nature of the acido ligand or the outer-sphere anion. Thermal stability parameters of the coordination compounds under study and effective activation energies of their thermolysis were determined, and a mechanism of the thermolysis was proposed.

Not available

EGGERT

, p. 692 - 702 (1949)

-

The Reaction of N(24S3/2) with Hydrogen Halides and Deuterium Iodide

Umemoto, Hironobu,Uchida, Teruo,Tsunashima, Shigeru,Sato, Shin

, p. 1641 - 1644 (1987)

The bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of ground state atomic nitrogen with hydrogen halides and deuterium iodide were measured by employing a pulse radiolysis-resonance absorption technique.As for the reactions of hydrogen iodide and deuterium iodide, the temperature dependence was also measured; it was found that the rate constants were well expressed by the following Arrhenius expressions: k(N+HI)=(3.6+/-0.6)E5 exp; k(N+DI)=(1.0+/-0.4) exp, in units of m3mol-1s-1.The preexponential factors for these reactions are much smaller than the semiempirically calculated ones.These small preexponential factors suggest that these reactions proceed non-adiabatically.The rate constants for hydrogen bromide and hydrogen chloride were found to be very small.

Parsons, L. B.

, p. 1820 - 1830 (1925)

Dhar,Bhattacharya,Mukerji

, p. 840 (1933)

Rao, M. R. A.,Rao, B. S.

, (1933)

Photodecomposition and thermal decomposition in methylammonium halide lead perovskites and inferred design principles to increase photovoltaic device stability

Juarez-Perez, Emilio J.,Ono, Luis K.,Maeda, Maki,Jiang, Yan,Hawash, Zafer,Qi, Yabing

, p. 9604 - 9612 (2018)

Hybrid lead halide perovskites have emerged as promising active materials for photovoltaic cells. Although superb efficiencies have been achieved, it is widely recognized that long-term stability is a key challenge intimately determining the future development of perovskite-based photovoltaic technology. Herein, we present reversible and irreversible photodecomposition reactions of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). Simulated sunlight irradiation and temperature (40-80 °C) corresponding to solar cell working conditions lead to three degradation pathways: (1) CH3NH2 + HI (identified as the reversible path), (2) NH3 + CH3I (the irreversible or detrimental path), and (3) a reversible Pb(0) + I2(g) photodecomposition reaction. If only the reversible reactions (1) and (3) take place and reaction (2) can be avoided, encapsulated MAPbI3 can be regenerated during the off-illumination timeframe. Therefore, to further improve operational stability in hybrid perovskite solar cells, detailed understanding of how to mitigate photodegradation and thermal degradation processes is necessary. First, encapsulation of the device is necessary not only to avoid contact of the perovskite with ambient air, but also to prevent leakage of volatile products released from the perovskite. Second, careful selection of the organic cations in the compositional formula of the perovskite is necessary to avoid irreversible reactions. Third, selective contacts must be as chemically inert as possible toward the volatile released products. Finally, hybrid halide perovskite materials are speculated to undergo a dynamic formation and decomposition process; this can gradually decrease the crystalline grain size of the perovskite with time; therefore, efforts to deposit highly crystalline perovskites with large crystal sizes may fail to increase the long-term stability of photovoltaic devices.

Holmberg

, p. 59,83,86 ()

Durup-Ferguson, M.,Brenot, J. C.,Fayeton, J. A.,Provost, K.,Barat, M.

, p. 389 - 398 (1987)

Dancaster,Walsh

, p. 578 (1979)

Regio- And Stereoselective Hydroiodination of Internal Alkynes with Ex Situ-Generated HI

Nozawa-Kumada, Kanako,Noguchi, Koto,Akada, Tomoya,Shigeno, Masanori,Kondo, Yoshinori

supporting information, p. 6659 - 6663 (2021/09/08)

Herein, we report an efficient and practical hydroiodination of internal alkynes using HI generated ex situ from the readily available triethylsilane and I2. This system offers high regio- and stereoselectivity to afford (E)-vinyl iodides in good yields under mild conditions. Furthermore, the hydroiodination reaction shows high functional group tolerance toward alkyl, methoxy, halogen, trifluoromethyl, cyano, ester, halomethyl, acid-sensitive silyl ether, and acetal moieties.

Reaction Mechanism of Iodine-Catalyzed Michael Additions

Von Der Heiden, Daniel,Bozkus, Seyma,Klussmann, Martin,Breugst, Martin

supporting information, p. 4037 - 4043 (2017/04/28)

Molecular iodine, an easy to handle solid, has been successfully employed as a catalyst in different organic transformations for more than 100 years. Despite being active even in very small amounts, the origin of this remarkable catalytic effect is still unknown. Both a halogen bond mechanism as well as hidden Br?nsted acid catalysis are frequently discussed as possible explanations. Our kinetic analyses reveal a reaction order of 1 in iodine, indicating that higher iodine species are not involved in the rate-limiting transition state. Our experimental investigations rule out hidden Br?nsted acid catalysis by partial decomposition of I2 to HI and suggest a halogen bond activation instead. Finally, molecular iodine turned out to be a similar if not superior catalyst for Michael additions compared with typical Lewis acids.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

cyanuric iodide
5637-87-6

cyanuric iodide

water
7732-18-5

water

hydrogen iodide
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

isocyanuric acid
108-80-5

isocyanuric acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 125 ℃;
2-chloro-4,6-diiodo-1,3,5-triazine
29633-72-5

2-chloro-4,6-diiodo-1,3,5-triazine

water
7732-18-5

water

hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0,15364-23-5

hydrogenchloride

hydrogen iodide
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

isocyanuric acid
108-80-5

isocyanuric acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 125 ℃;
ethyl iodide
75-03-6

ethyl iodide

hydrogen iodide
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 192 ℃; die thermische Dissoziation beginnt;
Blitz-Photolyse.Photolysis;
iodo-succinic acid
20629-30-5

iodo-succinic acid

water
7732-18-5

water

mercaptoacetic acid
68-11-1

mercaptoacetic acid

succinic acid
110-15-6

succinic acid

hydrogen iodide
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
water
7732-18-5

water

1-Nitropropane
108-03-2

1-Nitropropane

hydrogen iodide
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 25 ℃; Equilibrium constant;
ethyl iodide
75-03-6

ethyl iodide

hydrogen iodide
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at -190 ℃; 253 nm.Photolysis;
ethyl iodide
75-03-6

ethyl iodide

ethane
74-84-0

ethane

ethene
74-85-1

ethene

hydrogen iodide
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
mit UV-Licht; Produkt5: Wasserstoff.Irradiation;
at 25 ℃; mit Licht (lambda: 253.7 mmy); weitere Produkte: Methan und Wasserstoff.Irradiation;
at 25 ℃; mit Licht (lambda: 202.6 mmy); weitere Produkte: Methan und Wasserstoff.Irradiation;
Photolysis;
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

ethyl iodide
75-03-6

ethyl iodide

ethane
74-84-0

ethane

ethene
74-85-1

ethene

hydrogen iodide
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
Irradiation;
ethyl iodide
75-03-6

ethyl iodide

ethane
74-84-0

ethane

ethene
74-85-1

ethene

hydrogen iodide
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
Photolysis;
diphenylphosphane
829-85-6

diphenylphosphane

methyl iodide
74-88-4

methyl iodide

hydrogen iodide
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

dimethyldiphenylphosphonium iodide
1017-88-5

dimethyldiphenylphosphonium iodide

Conditions
Conditions Yield

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