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Zinc

EINECS 231-175-3
CAS No. 7440-66-6 Density 7.14 g/mL at 25 °C
Solubility soluble in water Melting Point 420 °C(lit.)
Formula Zn Boiling Point 907 °C(lit.)
Molecular Weight 65.39 Flash Point 1 °F
Transport Information UN 3264 8/PG 3 Appearance silver or blueish-white foil or powder
Safety 26-61-60-46-43-36 Risk Codes 52/53-50/53-17-15-36/37/38-51/53-36/37-22-19
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 7440-66-6 (Zinc) Hazard Symbols DangerousN, FlammableF, IrritantXi, HarmfulXn
Synonyms

Lead refinery vacuum zinc;Zinc (metallic);Zinc (dust or fume);zinc(0);F 2000 (metal);Asarco L 15;Electrowinningzinc Zinc;Nutrition,plantzinc Zinc;Zinc, elemental;Zn(II);Ecka 4;Rheinzink;NC-Zinc;Blue powder;LS 2;Zn;LS 5 (metal);Emanay zinc dust;Smeltingzinc Zinc;F 1000 (metal);Zn(0);Granular zinc;Zinc powder;

 

Zinc Chemical Properties

Molecular Structure of Zinc (CAS NO.7440-66-6):

IUPAC Name: zinc 
Empirical Formula: Zn
Molecular Weight: 65.409
EINECS: 231-592-0
H bond acceptors: 0
H bond donors: 0
Freely Rotating Bonds: 0
Polar Surface Area: 0 Å2
Melting point: 692.68 K, 419.53 °C, 787.15 °F
Density: 7.14 g/mL at 25 °C
Boiling point: 1180 K, 907 °C, 1665 °F
Heat of fusion: 7.32 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 123.6 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (25 °C): 25.470 J·mol-1·K-1
Stability: Stable. Incompatible with amines, cadmium, sulfur, chlorinated solvents, strong acids, strong bases. Air and moisture sensitive. Zinc powder is very flammable.
Classification Code: Growth Substances; Human Data; Micronutrients; Mutation data; Skin / Eye Irritant; Trace Elements

Zinc History

1. Ancient use
Various isolated examples of the use of impure zinc in ancient times have been discovered.Ornaments made of alloys that contain 80–90% zinc with lead, iron, antimony, and other metals making up the remainder, have been found that are 2500 years old.
2. Early studies and naming
Zinc was distinctly recognized as a metal under the designation of Fasada in the medical Lexicon ascribed to the Hindu king Madanapala and written about the year 1374. Smelting and extraction of impure zinc by reducing calamine with wool and other organic substances was accomplished in the 13th century in India.The Chinese did not learn of the technique until the 17th century.
Some alchemists called zinc oxide lana philosophica, Latin for "philosopher's wool".a Swiss-born German alchemist referred to the metal as "zincum" or "zinken" in his book Liber Mineralium II, in the 16th century. The metal was also called Indian tin, tutanego, calamine, and spinter.
3. Isolation of the pure element
William Champion's brother, John, patented a process in 1758 for calcining zinc sulfide into an oxide usable in the retort process. Prior to this only calamine could be used to produce zinc. In 1798, Johann Christian Ruberg improved on the smelting process by building the first horizontal retort smelter. Jean-Jacques Daniel Dony built a different kind of horizontal zinc smelter in Belgium, which processed even more zinc.
Italian doctor Luigi Galvani discovered in 1780 that connecting the spinal cord of a freshly dissected frog to an iron rail attached by a brass hook caused the frog's leg to twitch.The galvanic cell and the process of galvanization were both named for Luigi Galvani and these discoveries paved the way for electrical batteries, galvanization and cathodic protection.
Galvani's friend, Alessandro Volta, continued researching this effect and invented the Voltaic pile in 1800.The basic unit of Volta's pile was a simplified galvanic cell.
The non-magnetic character of zinc and its lack of color in solution delayed discovery of its importance to biochemistry and nutrition. This changed in 1940 when carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that scrubs carbon dioxide from blood, was shown to have zinc in its active site. The digestive enzyme carboxypeptidase became the second known zinc-containing enzyme in 1955.

Zinc Uses

 Zinc (CAS NO.7440-66-6) metal is most commonly used as an anti-corrosion agent. The zinc metal was used for galvanization, which is used on chain-link fencing, guard rails, suspension bridges, lightposts, metal roofs, heat exchangers, and car bodies. Zinc is also used to cathodically protect metals that are exposed to sea water from corrosion. With an electrochemical potential of ?0.7618 volts, zinc makes a good material for the negative terminus or anode in batteries.Powdered zinc is used in this way in alkaline batteries and sheets of zinc metal form the cases for and act as anodes in zinc-carbon batteries.
 A widely used alloy of zinc is brass, which is useful in communication equipment, hardware, musical instruments, and water valves. Other widely used alloys that contain zinc include nickel silver, typewriter metal, soft and aluminum solder, and commercial bronze.Zinc is also used in contemporary pipe organs as a substitute for the traditional lead/tin alloy in pipes. Alloys of primarily zinc with small amounts of copper, aluminium, and magnesium are useful in die casting as well as spin casting, especially in the automotive, electrical, and hardware industries.
 Zinc oxide is widely used as a white pigment in paints, and as a catalyst in the manufacture of rubber. It is also used as a heat disperser for the rubber and acts to protect its polymers from ultraviolet radiation. Zinc chloride can be used as a wood preservative.It is also used to make other chemicals. Zinc methyl (Zn(CH3)2) is used in a number of organic syntheses.Zinc sulfide (ZnS) is used in luminescent pigments such as on the hands of clocks, X-ray and television screens, and luminous paints.Crystals of ZnS are used in lasers that operate in the mid-infrared part of the spectrum. Zinc sulphate is a chemical in dyes and pigments. Zinc pyrithione is used in antifouling paints. Zinc powder is sometimes used as a propellant in model rockets.Zinc sheet metal is used to make zinc bars.
 Zinc is included in most single tablet over-the-counter daily vitamin and mineral supplements. Zinc gluconate glycine and zinc acetate are used in throat lozenges or tablets to reduce the duration and the severity of cold symptoms. Zinc lactate is used in toothpaste to prevent halitosis.

Zinc Production

Roasting converts the zinc sulfide concentrate produced during processing to zinc oxide: 2ZnS + 3 O2 → 2ZnO + 2SO2
Pyrometallurgy processing reduces zinc oxide with carbon or carbon monoxide at 950 °C (1,740 °F) into the metal, which is distilled as zinc vapor.
2 ZnO + C → 2 Zn + CO2
2 ZnO + 2CO → 2 Zn + 2 CO2

Zinc Toxicity Data With Reference

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
duck LDLo oral 388mg/kg (388mg/kg) AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: OTHER (DIRECT) PARASYMPATHOMIMETIC

BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA

BLOOD: CHANGES IN LEUCOCYTE (WBC) COUNT
Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Vol. 36, Pg. 111, 2000.
human TCLo inhalation 124mg/m3/50M (124mg/m3) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: COUGH

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): SWEATING: OTHER
Archiv fuer Hygiene. Vol. 72, Pg. 358, 1910.

Zinc Consensus Reports

  Zinc (CAS NO.7440-66-6) and its compounds are on the Community Right-To-Know List. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.

Zinc Safety Profile

Hazard Codes: DangerousN,FlammableF,IrritantXi,HarmfulXn
Risk Statements: 52/53-50/53-17-15-36/37/38-51/53-36/37-22-19
R52/53:Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. 
R50/53:Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. 
R17:Spontaneously flammable in air. 
R15:Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases. 
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. 
R51/53:Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. 
R36/37:Irritating to eyes and respiratory system. 
R22:Harmful if swallowed. 
R19:May form explosive peroxides.
Safety Statements: 26-61-60-46-43-36
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. 
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets. 
S60:This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste. 
S46:If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label. 
S43:In case of fire use ... (there follows the type of fire-fighting equipment to be used.) 
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing.
RIDADR: UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany: 3
RTECS: ZH1400000
F: 3
HazardClass: 8
PackingGroup: III
 Human systemic effects by ingestion: cough, dyspnea, and sweating. A human skin irritant. Pure zinc powder, dust, and fume are relatively nontoxic to humans by inhalation. The difficulty arises from oxidation of zinc fumes immediately prior to inhalation or presence of impurities such as Cd, Sb, As, Pb. Inhalation may cause sweet taste, throat dryness, cough, weakness, generalized aches, chills, fever, nausea, vomiting.
 Flammable in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame. May ignite spontaneously in air when dry. Explosive in the form of dust when reacted with acids. Incompatible with NH4NO3, BaO2, Ba(NO3)2, Cd, CS2, chlorates, Cl2, ClF3, CrO3, (ethyl acetoacetate + tribromoneopentyl alcohol), F2, hydrazine mononitrate, hydroxylamine, Pb(N3)2, (Mg + Ba(NO3)2 + BaO2), MnCl2, HNO3, performic acid, KClO3, KNO3, K2O2, Se, NaClO3, Na2O2, S, Te, H2O, (NH4)2S, As2O3, CS2, CaCl2, NaOH, chlorinated rubber, catalytic metals, halocarbons, o-nitroanisole, nitrobenzene, nonmetals, oxidants, paint primer base, pentacarbonyliron, transition metal halides, seleninyl bromide. To fight fire, use special mixtures of dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of ZnO.

Zinc Standards and Recommendations

DOT Classification:  4.3; Label: Dangerous When Wet, Spontaneously Combustible; DOT Class: 4.3; Label: Dangerous When Wet (UN 1435)

Zinc Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use NIOSH: Zinc, 7030; Welding and Brazing Fume, 7200; Elements, 7300.

Zinc Specification

  Zinc , with CAS number of 7440-66-6, can be called Asarco L 15 ; Blue powder ; CCRIS 1582 ; Emanay zinc dust ; Granular zinc ; Lead refinery vacuum zinc ; Rheinzink ; Merrillite .

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