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1310-73-2

Basic Information
CAS No.: 1310-73-2
Name: Sodium hydroxide
Article Data: 1069
Molecular Structure:
Molecular Structure of 1310-73-2 (Sodium hydroxide)
Formula: NaOH
Molecular Weight: 39.9971
Synonyms: Sodium oxidanide;Caustic soda;Lye;Ascarite;Aetznatron;Hydroxyde de sodium;Natrium causticum;Soda, hydrate;Soda lye;UN 1823 (solid);UN 1824 (solution);caustic soda pearls;caustic soda flakes 99.9% .sodium hydroxide,NAOH;Caustic Soda Flakes;
EINECS: 215-185-5
Density: 2.13 g/cm3
Melting Point: 318 °C, 591 K, 604 °F
Boiling Point: 1388 °C, 1661 K, 2530 °F
Flash Point: 176-178 °C
Solubility: 1 M at 20 °C in water
Appearance: White opaque crystals
Hazard Symbols: CorrosiveC,IrritantXi
Risk Codes: 36/38-35-34
Safety: 26-45-37/39-24/25-36/37/39
Transport Information: UN 1823 8/PG 2
PSA: 23.06000
LogP: -0.17680
Synthetic route
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

calcium hydroxide

A

calcium carbonate

B

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water stirring Ca(OH)2-milk with Na2CO3-lye at 35°C with a turbo-mixer;;A n/a
B 96%
In water byproducts: Na2CO3*10H2O; caustification of concd. Na2CO3 lye with Ca(OH)2; cooling down to 0 to -15°C by pptn. of Na2CO3*10H2O;; lye containing 15 - 25% NaOH and not more than 1% Na2CO3;;
In water PARNELL process;;
7647-14-5

sodium chloride

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With clay; sodium carbonate In water byproducts: NaAlO2; reaction of bricks of NaCl and clay with hot gases and overheated vapor in a shaft furnace; melting residue (acidic sodium silicon aluminate) with Na2CO3; product leached with water;; NaOH contains some Na2CO3 and NaAlO2;;90%
With clay; sodium carbonate In water byproducts: NaAlO2; reaction of bricks of NaCl and clay with hot gases and overheated vapor in a shaft furnace; melting residue (acidic sodium silicon aluminate) with Na2CO3; product leached with water;; NaOH contains some Na2CO3 and NaAlO2;;90%
With water byproducts: HCl; H2O steam; 1000°C;
7647-14-5

sodium chloride

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) reaction with steam gives 6% conversion in 1.5 h and 12.6% in 12 h;;
silica gel In neat (no solvent) byproducts: HCl; at 810°C;;
Electrolysis; electrolysis of moist NaCl;;

Na2[B(CN)3]

584-08-7

potassium carbonate

A

K[HB(CN)3]

B

497-19-8

sodium carbonate

C

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With tetrahydrofuranA 100%
B n/a
C n/a
7647-14-5

sodium chloride

calcium hydroxide

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With lead(II) oxide In water byproducts: basic lead chlorides; repeated grinding NaCl with PbO, Ca(OH)2 and a small amount of H2O;; evapn. of lye and sucking off pptd. NaCl; recycling basic lead chlorides (by heating to 170°C with boiling Ca(OH)2 soln. to form PbO);;50%
In water at ambient temp., equilibrium;;3%
With Ca-aluminate or bauxite In water byproducts: Ca-chloroaluminate; autoclave or 100°C, increase of yield with bauxite or Ca-aluminate;;
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

A

144-55-8

sodium hydrogencarbonate

B

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With H2O In water hydrolysis equilibrium investigated;;
7631-99-4

sodium nitrate

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydroxide In neat (no solvent) redn. with C or P and a hydroxide of the second-row elements by heating;;
With H2 or H2/N2; nickel In neat (no solvent) byproducts: NH3; treatment with H2 or H2/N2-mixture at 100-800°C in presence of a catalyst; increase of yield with increase of H2-pressure;;
With H2 or H2/N2; copper In neat (no solvent) byproducts: NH3; treatment with H2 or H2/N2-mixture at 100-800°C in presence of a catalyst; increase of yield with increase of H2-pressure;;
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

calcium hydroxide

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With barium carbonate at 100℃; for 5h;
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water Electrolysis; electrolysis of a Na2CO3 soln. in the cold with Hg cathode; decompn. of formed amalgam in paraffined tube in presence of CO2-free air and Pt with dest. H2O;;
at 800°C; equiv. content 97.5% Na2CO3, 2.5% NaOH;
In water Electrolysis; electrolysis of a concd. Na2CO3-soln., Hg-cathode, react. of the generated Na-amalgame with H2O, evapn. in vac. over H2SO4 at ambinet temp., dehydration of NaOH*H2o in vac. or in a dry N2-stream at 200-300°C;; pure NaOH; Na2CO3-content: 0.015-0.04%, H2O-content <0.1%;;
In neat (no solvent) reaction of Na2CO3 with H2O-vapor;;
at 800°C; equiv. content 97.5% Na2CO3, 2.5% NaOH;
7631-99-4

sodium nitrate

sodium amide

A

sodium azide

B

7664-41-7

ammonia

C

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) adding at 175°C powdered NaNO3 to cautiously heated pure NaNH2 in Ni crucible;;A 65.7%
B n/a
C n/a
In neat (no solvent) adding at 175°C powdered NaNO3 to cautiously heated pure NaNH2 in Ni crucible;;A 65.7%
B n/a
C n/a
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Specification

Sodium hydroxide, with the CAS register number 1310-73-2, is also called as Lye and Caustic soda. The substance is white opaque crystals. It should be stored in a tightly closed container, and in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. In addition,Sodium hydroxide should be kept away from metals, acids and moisture. Its containers must be tightly closed to prevent the conversion of NaOH to sodium carbonate by the CO2 in air. Sodium hydroxide is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents. It is very soluble in water with liberation of heat. Sodium hydroxide also can dissolve in ethanol and methanol, though it exhibits lower solubility in these solvents than does potassium hydroxide. It is hygroscopic which readily absorbs water from the air, so it should be stored in an airtight container.

Properties of Sodium hydroxide: Sodium hydroxide is predominantly ionic, containing sodium cations and hydroxide anions. The hydroxide anion makes Sodium hydroxide a strong base which reacts with acids, both organic and inorganic, to form water and the corresponding salts. Heating with a mixture of methyl alcohol and trichlorobenzene during an attempted synthesis, it will led to a sudden increase in pressure and an explosion. Sodium hydroxide will readily absorb moisture from the air to give caustic semi-solids that attacks aluminum and zinc with the evolution of flammable hydrogen gas.

Catalyzes the polymerization of acetaldehyde and other polymerizable compounds these reactions can occur violently, for example, acrolein polymerizes with extreme violence when put in contact with alkaline materials such as sodium hydroxide. Hot and concentrated NaOH can cause hydroquinone to decompose exothermically at elevated temperature.

Preparation of Sodium hydroxide: Of historic interest is the Leblanc process, which produced sodium carbonate, followed by roasting to create carbon dioxide and sodium oxide, which readily absorbs water to create Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide is produced along with chlorine and hydrogen via the chloralkali process. This involves the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. The Sodium hydroxide builds up at the cathode, where water is reduced to hydrogen gas and hydroxide ion. The Cl– ions are oxidized to chlorine gas at the anode.

2 Na+Cl- + 2 H2O + 2 e- → H2 + 2 Cl- + 2 NaOH

Sodium hydroxide is industrially produced as a 50 % solution by variations of the electrolytic chloralkali process. Solid sodium hydroxide is obtained from this solution by the evaporation of water. Sodium hydroxide may be formed by the metathesis reaction between calcium hydroxide and sodium carbonate:

Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3 → CaCO3 + 2 NaOH

Uses of  Sodium hydroxide: 56 % of Sodium hydroxide produced is used by the chemical industry, with 25 % of the same total used by the paper industry. Sodium hydroxide is the principal strong base used in the chemical industry. It is used in many industries, mostly as a strong chemical base in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents and as a drain cleaner, sodium salts and detergents, for pH regulation, and for organic synthesis. Sodium hydroxide is used in the Bayer process of aluminium production.

Food uses of Sodium hydroxide include washing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables, chocolate and cocoa processing, caramel coloring production, poultry scalding, soft drink processing, and thickening ice cream. Sodium hydroxide is frequently used as an industrial cleaning agent where it is often called "caustic". It is added to water, heated, and then used to clean the process equipment, storage tanks, etc. It can dissolve grease, oils, fats and protein based deposits. Sodium hydroxide is traditionally used in soap making. Sodium hydroxide is used in all sorts of scenarios where it is desirable to increase the alkalinity of a mixture, or to neutralize acids.

When you are using Sodium hydroxide please be cautious about it as the following: The substance may cause severe burns. It is also irritating to eyes and skin. In case of contact with eyes, you should rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. And when you use it, you should wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection to avoid contact with skin and eyes. Moreover, in case of accident or if you feel unwell, you can seek medical advice immediately.

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)Canonical SMILES: [OH-].[Na+]
(2)InChI: InChI=1S/Na.H2O/h;1H2/q+1;/p-1
(3)InChIKey: HEMHJVSKTPXQMS-UHFFFAOYSA-M

The toxicity data of Sodium hydroxide is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 40mg/kg (40mg/kg)   Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, Academie des Sciences. Vol. 257, Pg. 791, 1963.
rabbit LDLo oral 500mg/kg (500mg/kg)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 184, Pg. 587, 1937.