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10034-85-2 Usage


Hydriodic acid, also known as hydrogen iodide, is a colorless to yellow liquid with a pungent odor, consisting of a solution of hydrogen iodide in water. It is a strong acid and an important reagent in organic chemistry, used in various applications due to its reducing nature and as a primary source of iodine.


1. Used in the Chemical Industry:
Hydriodic acid is used as a catalyst in the manufacture of acetic acid, as a pharmaceutical intermediate, and in the preparation of organic and inorganic iodides.
2. Used in the Pharmaceutical Industry:
Hydriodic acid is used as a pharmaceutical intermediate and in various disinfectant/sanitization formulations, including teat dips for mastitis control.
3. Used as a Reducing Agent:
Hydriodic acid is used as a reducing agent in organic and inorganic synthesis, as well as in the synthesis of alkyl iodine and other alkyl iodides.
4. Used in Analytical Chemistry:
Hydriodic acid is used as an analysis reagent, particularly for the determination of methoxy, ethoxy, and selenium, and for the dissolution of acid-insoluble inorganic substances such as alkaline earth metal sulfate and mercury iodide.
5. Used in Disinfectants and Pharmaceuticals:
Hydriodic acid is used in the preparation of disinfectants and pharmaceuticals, taking advantage of its strong acidic and reducing properties.
Physical Properties:
Hydriodic acid is a strong acid, made by dissolving hydrogen iodide gas in water. It is exceptionally soluble in water, with one liter of water able to dissolve 425 liters of HI. Commercial "concentrated" hydroiodic acid usually contains 90-98% HI by mass. It is a colorless solution that turns yellow to brown upon contact with air and sunlight due to the formation of free iodine.
Chemical Properties:
Hydrogen iodide is a colorless to yellow/brown, non-flammable gas with an acrid odor. It is incompatible with water and other halides, and upon contact with moisture in the air, it releases dense vapors. Hydrogen iodide reacts violently with alkalis and most metals corrode rapidly on contact with wet hydrogen iodide. Prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat can cause the container to rupture and rocket.
Hydriodic acid falls under the category of compressed gases and liquefied gases.


hydriodic acid is a strong acid. Chemical Formula is HI. The molecular weight is 127.91. Colorless gas, pale yellow liquid or blob solid. There is a strong pungent odor. Melting point is-50.8 ℃, the boiling point is-35.38 ℃, relative density is 5.660 (gas), 2.85-4.7 (liquid), the refractive index is 1.46616. And form a white acid mist with water vapor in the air, easily soluble in water and emit a lot of heat to generate Hydriodic acid. Slightly soluble in ethanol. Unstable, heated to decompose into hydrogen and iodine under the light. Significantly decomposition above 300 ℃. Its constant boiling solution is colorless or light yellow fuming liquid, boiling point is 127 ℃, relative density is 1.7015, strong acid (degree of dissociation of 0.1 mol·L-1 hydroiodic solution up to 95%), the solubility of Hydriodic acid in an organic solvent is much smaller than in water, present in non-electrolytes or weak electrolytes, its ionization constant in pyridine is 3 × 10-3. Easily break down into hydrogen and iodine in the air. With a strong reduction, It has the strongest reducibility in hydrohalic acids, may be oxidated to free iodine by Cl2, Br2, concentrated sulfuric acid. Oxidation by air at room temperature, can be oxidated by concentrated nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid. It reacts with most metals to form the corresponding iodide and hydrogen. Method: by heating reaction of sodium iodide and phosphoric acid or reaction of phosphorus with iodine, water was added dropwise on a mixture of phosphorus and iodine, can also be derived by suspending iodine in water and ventilation with hydrogen sulfide. Its constant boiling solution is derived by ventilating Hydriodic acid gas into the water. Uses: its constant boiling solution is often used as a reducing agent, a disinfectant, analytical reagents, preparation of iodized salt, synthetic drugs, dyes, perfumes and so on. It is synthesized by iodine vapor and hydrogen under platinum catalytic conditions or derived by hydrolysis of phosphorus triiodide. The above information is edited by Yan Yanyong of lookchem.


It is highly corrosive to most metals, Non-combustible. But it reacts violently with fluorine, potassium nitrate, potassium chlorate and so on. As hydrochloric acid, it has a strong irritation, gases or vapors can irritate the eyes and respiratory system. Liquid can burn the skin. The patient who inhaled vapors should immediately keep away from the contaminated area, put to rest and keep warm. Accidentally splashed into the eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water for 15min. Contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of water. Swallowed immediately rinse mouth, rushed to the hospital for treatment.

Production method

Slowly add iodine and red phosphorus to a reactor filled with water, and react under stirring, filter the reaction solution, and distill the filtrate, collect fractions of 125~130 ℃, obtain Hydroiodic. 2P + 5I2 → 2PI5 PI5 + 4H2O → 5HI + H3PO4

Explosive hazardous characteristics

Contacting with alkali metals can be explosive, thermal decomposition into toxic iodine vapor in the case of heat, produce toxic hydroiodic in the case of water.

Flammability hazard characteristics

Combustible in case of N,N-dinitroso pentamethylene tetramine, release hydrogen cyanide gas in case of cyanide toxic, thermal decomposition of toxic iodide gases.

Storage Characteristics

Treasury ventilation, low-temperature drying and stored separately from cyanide, N,N-dinitroso pentamethylene tetramine, bases.

Extinguishing agent



Hydrogen iodide is prepared by direct combination of hydrogen and iodinevapor in the presence of platinum catalyst: H2 + I2 → 2HI The compound is produced in commercial scale by reaction of iodine withhydrazine or hydrogen sulfide: 2I2 + N2H4 → 4HI + N2 I2 + H2S → 2HI + S Hydriodic acid may be prepared by dissolving hydrogen iodide gas in water.The acid also may be obtained by electrolysis of iodine solution or by passinghydrogen sulfide into a suspension of iodine in water and boiling to expelexcess sulfide. After boiling, the precipitated sulfur is removed by filtrationthrough fritted glass plate or glass wool. Hydriodic acid in small quantities may be prepared by adding water care-fully to a solid mixture of red phosphorus and iodine. Technical grade hydriodic acid is a 47% HI solution and usually has abrown color due to the presence of free iodine, produced by air oxidation of HI.Hydriodic acid should be stored in the dark to prevent photochemical decom-position, and free from air to prevent oxidation. The addition of 1.5%hypophosphorus acid (H3PO2) prevents oxidative decomposition. Hydriodic acid also is commercially sold at 57% (azeotropic concentration)and 10% aqueous solutions.

Air & Water Reactions

Soluble in water with release of heat.

Reactivity Profile

HYDROIODIC ACID reacts exothermically with organic bases (amines, amides) and inorganic bases (oxides and hydroxides of metals). Reacts exothermically with carbonates (including limestone and building materials containing limestone) and hydrogen carbonates to generate carbon dioxide. Reacts with sulfides, carbides, borides, and phosphides to generate toxic or flammable gases. Reacts with many metals (including aluminum, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, tin and all of the alkali metals) to generate flammable hydrogen gas. Reacts violently with acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, calcium phosphide, chlorosulfonic acid, 1,1-difluoroethylene, ethylenediamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, perchloric acid, b-propiolactone, propylene oxide, silver perchlorate/carbon tetrachloride mixture, sodium hydroxide, uranium(IV) phosphide, vinyl acetate, calcium carbide, rubidium carbide, cesium acetylide, rubidium acetylide, magnesium boride, mercury(II) sulfate [Lewis]. Mixtures with concentrated sulfuric acid can evolve toxic hydrogen iodide gas at a dangerous rate. Decomposes at high temperatures to emit toxic products. Reacts with fluorine, dinitrogen trioxide, nitrogen dioxide/dinitrogen tetraoxide, and fuming nitric acid.


Strong irritant. Poison.

Health Hazard

TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.

Health Hazard

Hydriodic acid is a corrosive liquid thatcan produce burns on contact with the skin.Contact of acid with the eyes can causesevere irritation. The gas, hydrogen iodide, isa strong irritant to the eyes, skin, and mucousmembranes. No exposure limit has been setfor this gas.

Fire Hazard

Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.

Flammability and Explosibility


Purification Methods

Iodine can be removed from aqueous HI, probably as the amine hydrogen triiodide, by three successive extractions using a 4% solution of Amberlite LA-2 (a long-chain aliphatic amine) in CCl4, toluene or pet ether (10mL per 100mL of acid). [Davidson & Jameson Chem Ind (London) 1686 1963.] Extraction with tributyl phosphate in CHCl3 or other organic solvents is also suitable. Alternatively, a De-acidite FF anion-exchange resin column in the OH--form using 2M NaOH, then into its I--form by passing dilute KI solution through, can be used. Passage of an HI solution under CO2 through such a column removes polyiodide. The column can be regenerated with NaOH. [Irving & Wilson Chem Ind (London) 653 1964]. The earlier method was to reflux with red phosphorus and distil in a stream of N2. The colourless product is stored in ampoules in the dark [Bradbury J Am Chem Soc 74 2709 1952, Heisig & Frykholm Inorg Synth I 157 1939]. It fumes in moist air. HARMFUL VAPOURS.

Toxicity evaluation

Hydroiodic acid is a strong irritant. When used as an expectorant, hydroiodic acid is believed to act by irritating the gastric mucosa, which then stimulates respiratory tract secretion.

Check Digit Verification of cas no

The CAS Registry Mumber 10034-85-2 includes 8 digits separated into 3 groups by hyphens. The first part of the number,starting from the left, has 5 digits, 1,0,0,3 and 4 respectively; the second part has 2 digits, 8 and 5 respectively.
Calculate Digit Verification of CAS Registry Number 10034-85:
52 % 10 = 2
So 10034-85-2 is a valid CAS Registry Number.



According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017


1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name Hydriodic acid

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names Hydroiodic acid

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal)
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:10034-85-2 SDS

10034-85-2Relevant articles and documents

Lewis, W. C. McC.

, p. 471 - 471 (1918)

Spin-orbit transitions (2P1/2←2P3/2) of iodine and bromine atoms in solid rare-gases

Pettersson, Mika,Nieminen, Janne

, p. 1 - 6 (1998)

Infrared absorptions of iodine and bromine atoms in solid rare-gases are presented. The isolated atoms are produced by UV-photolysis of HI or HBr in solid Ar, Kr and Xe. The absorptions are characterised by sharp zero-phonon lines and broad structured phonon side bands. Some of the zero-phonon lines are resolved and split into two components, separated by a few wavenumbers. The production of the atoms follow second-order kinetics indicating that the primary hydrogen atom undergoes a secondary reaction with the hydrogen halide producing a halogen atom and a hydrogen molecule. This is supported by the observation of the infrared absorptions of hydrogen molecules in concentrated matrices after photolysis.


, p. 3850,3851 (1959)

Kassel, L. S.

, p. 261 - 261 (1930)


, p. 2853 (1932)

Catalytic cycle of a divanadium complex with salen ligands in O2 reduction: Two-electron redox process of the dinuclear center (salen = N,N′-ethylenebis(salicylideneamine))

Yamamoto, Kimihisa,Oyaizu, Kenichi,Tsuchida, Eishun

, p. 12665 - 12672 (1996)

In an attempt to provide confirmation for the postulated mechanism of O2 reduction in vanadium-mediated oxidative polymerization of diphenyl disulfide, a series of divanadium complexes containing salen ligand (salen = N,N′-ethylenebis(salicylideneamine)) were prepared, characterized, and subjected to reactivity studies toward dioxygen. A divanadium(III, IV) complex, [(salen)VOV(salen)][I3] (II), was yielded both by treatments of solutions of [(salen)VOV(salen)][BF4]2 (I) in acetonitrile with excess tetrabutylammonium iodide and by electroreduction of I followed by anion exchange with tetrabutylammonium triiodide. The complex II was characterized by a near-infrared absorption at 7.2 × 103 cm-1 (∈ = 60.1 M-1 cm-1 in acetonitrile) assigned to an intervalence transfer band. A crystallographically determined V(III)-V(IV) distance of 3.569(4) A? is consonant with the classification of II as a weakly coupled Type II mixed-valence vanadium (α = 3.0 × 10-2). Oxidation of the cation [(salen)VOV(salen)]+ with O2 in dichloromethane yielded spontaneously the deep blue, mixed valent, divanadium(IV, V) species [(salen)VOVO(salen)]+ which was structurally characterized both as its triiodide (III) and perchlorate (IV) salts. Crystal data for III: triclinic space group P1 (no. 2), a = 14.973(2) A?, b = 19.481(2) A?, c = 14.168(2) A?, α = 107.00 (1)°, β= 115.56(1)°, γ = 80.35(1)°, V = 3561.3(9) A?3, Z = 4, Dcalc = 1.953 g/cm3, μ (MoKα) = 31.74 cm-1, final R = 0.057 and Rw = 0.065. Crystal data for IV: triclinic space group P1 (no. 2), a = 11.923(3) A?, b = 14.25(1) A?, c = 11.368(7) A?, α = 112.92(5)°, β = 92.76(4)°, γ = 99.13(4)°, V = 1743(1) A?3, Z = 2, Dcalc = 1.537 g/cm3, μ (CuKα) = 57.69 cm-1, final R = 0.042 and Rw = 0.061. The complexes III and IV were deoxygenated in strongly acidic nonaqueous media to produce [(salen)VOV(salen)]3+ as a high-valent complex whose reversible two-electron redox couple (VOV3+/VOV+) at 0.44V vs Ag/AgCl has been confirmed. Its ability to serve as a two-electron oxidant provided a unique model of a multielectron redox cycle in oxidative polymerization.

Nicholas, John E.,Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam

, (1986)

Morgan, K. J.

, p. 123 - 146 (1954)

Reaction of the closo-decaborate anion B10H 10 2- with dichloroethane in the presence of hydrogen halides


, p. 996 - 1001 (2007)

The reactions of the closo-decaborate anion with hydrogen halides and dichloroethane have been studied. Irrespective of the hydrogen halide used (HCl, HBr, HI), chlorination to give mono-, di-, and trihalosubstituted products is the major process. The product ratio depends on the hydrogen halide used and on the synthesis temperature and time. The products have been identified by 11B NMR, IR, and ESI mass spectra. The structure of (Ph 3(NaphCH2)P)2B10H8Cl 2 has been studied by X-ray diffraction. The geometry distortion of the closo-decaborate core found in the chlorinated derivatives is retained on further chemical transformations of the compound.


, p. 368,386 (1933)

Chattaway, F. D.,Wadmore, J. D.

, p. 191 - 203 (1902)

Photodissociation of a surface-active species at a liquid surface: A study by time-of-flight spectroscopy

Furlan, Alan

, p. 1550 - 1557 (1999)

The photochemistry at a gas-liquid interface was investigated by time-of-flight/quadrupole mass spectroscopy (TOF/QMS). A thin liquid film of 4-iodobenzoic acid (IBA), dissolved in glycerol, was irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses at 275 nm. Atomic and molecular iodine were the only photoproducts leaving the liquid after a low-fluence laser pulse (2). The amount of released I atoms was 2 orders of magnitude larger than the amount of desorbed I2. Model calculations were carried out that take into account laser photolysis of IBA, diffusion, and surface evaporation of I and I2, and the condensed-phase kinetics of radical reactions. Ejection of hyperthermal I atoms by direct photodissociation of surface layer molecules is also considered. The quantitative analysis is restricted to low laser fluence conditions at which laser-induced heating of the illuminated liquid is negligible. The results of the model calculations were compared to previously obtained TOF data of an alkyl iodide (C18H37I) dissolved in the apolar liquid squalane (C30H62). The velocity distribution of the iodine atoms from the alkyl iodide solution corresponds to the temperature of the liquid (278 K). The contribution of I atoms from depths greater than 1 nm is large (>99%). In contrast, I atoms desorbing from IBA/glycerol are hyperthermal (Ttrans=480 K) and originate almost exclusively from the topmost molecular layer (1 nm). TOF measurements with a fast chopper wheel in front of the surface provide the time-dependent desorption flux from the surface and confirm that the contribution from deeper layers in the alkyl iodide solution is much larger than in the aryl iodide solution. Model calculations predict the behavior of the two solutions correctly if differences in caging of the geminate pair, diffusion coefficients of the free radicals, and the set of bulk radical reactions in the two solutions are taken into account. The hyperthermal energies of the ejected I atoms from the IBA solution are discussed in terms of the surface orientation of excited IBA molecules. The dependence of the TOF spectra on laser power and IBA concentration is interpreted by a surface excess of IBA. The result is compared to temperature-dependent surface tension measurements of IBA solutions in glycerol and water. The response of the surface tension to an accumulation of IBA at the surface is very weak.

Control of Biohazards: A High Performance Energetic Polycyclized Iodine-Containing Biocide

Zhao, Gang,He, Chunlin,Zhou, Wenfeng,Hooper, Joseph P.,Imler, Gregory H.,Parrish, Damon A.,Shreeve, Jean'Ne M.

, p. 8673 - 8680 (2018)

Biohazards and chemical hazards as well as radioactive hazards have always been a threat to human health. The search for solutions to these problems is an ongoing worldwide effort. In order to control biohazards by chemical methods, a synthetically useful fused tricyclic iodine-rich compound, 2,6-diiodo-3,5-dinitro-4,9-dihydrodipyrazolo [1,5-a:5′,1′-d][1,3,5]triazine (5), with good detonation performance was synthesized, characterized, and its properties determined. This compound which acts as an agent defeat weapon has been shown to destroy certain microorganisms effectively by releasing iodine after undergoing decomposition or combustion. The small iodine residues remaining will not be deleterious to human life after 1 month.

Bodenstein, M.,Jost, W.

, p. 1416 - 1416 (1927)

Electron attachment on HI and DI in a uniform supersonic flow: Thermalization of the electrons

Goulay,Rebrion-Rowe,Carles,Le Garrec,Rowe

, p. 1303 - 1308 (2004)

The attachment of electron on HI and DI was studied in the 48-170 K range using the CRESU (Cinetique de Reaction en Ecoulement Supersonic Uniforme) technique. The attachment to HI was found to be exothermic and was expected to be fast and to proceed at a rate closed to the capture limit. The attachment to DI was found to be endothermic, where a positive temperature dependence was expected to occur if the electrons were thermal. A model, based on electron heating by superelastic collisions with the buffer gas was proposed.

Wang, Dianxun,Li, Ying,Li, Sheng,Zhao, Hengqi

, p. 167 - 170 (1994)

Iodobismuthates Containing One-Dimensional BiI4- Anions as Prospective Light-Harvesting Materials: Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structure, and Optical Properties

Yelovik, Natalie A.,Mironov, Andrei V.,Bykov, Mikhail A.,Kuznetsov, Alexey N.,Grigorieva, Anastasia V.,Wei, Zheng,Dikarev, Evgeny V.,Shevelkov, Andrei V.

, p. 4132 - 4140 (2016)

Four iodobismuthates, LiBiI4·5H2O (1), MgBi2I8·8H2O (2), MnBi2I8·8H2O (3), and KBiI4·H2O (4), were prepared by a facile solution route and revealed thermal stability in air up to 120 °C. Crystal structures of compounds 1-4 were solved by a single crystal X-ray diffraction method. 1: space group C2/c, a = 12.535(2), b = 16.0294(18), c = 7.6214(9) ?, β = 107.189(11)°, Z = 4, R = 0.029. 2: space group P21/c, a = 7.559(2), b = 13.1225(15), c = 13.927(4) ?, β = 97.14(3)°, Z = 2, R = 0.031. 3: space group P21/c, a = 7.606(3), b = 13.137(3), c = 14.026(5) ?, β = 97.14(3)°, Z = 2, R = 0.056. 4: space group P21/n, a = 7.9050(16), b = 7.7718(16), c = 18.233(4) ?, β = 97.45(3)°, Z = 4, R = 0.043. All solid state structures feature one-dimensional (BiI4)- anionic chains built of [BiI6] octahedra that share two opposite edges in such a fashion that two iodine atoms in cis-positions remain terminal. The calculated electronic structures and observed optical properties confirmed that compounds 1-4 are semiconductors with direct band gaps of 1.70-1.76 eV, which correspond to their intense red color. It was shown that the cations do not affect the optical properties, and the optical absorption is primarily associated with the charge transfer from the I 5p orbitals at the top of the valence band to the Bi 6p orbitals at the bottom of the conduction band. Based on their properties and facile synthesis, the title compounds are proposed as promising light-harvesting materials for all-solid solar cells.

Griffith, R. O.,Keown, A. Mc,Winn, A. G.

, p. 369 - 369 (1933)


, p. 393 (1933)

Linert, Wolfgang

, p. 449 - 456 (1987)

Thermal decomposition of cadmium thiourea coordination compounds


, p. 495 - 499 (2001)

Thermal decomposition of cadmium thiourea coordination compounds was considered. Cadmium sulfide is the final product for all the compounds, whereas the composition of other products of the thermolysis substantially depends on the nature of the acido ligand or the outer-sphere anion. Thermal stability parameters of the coordination compounds under study and effective activation energies of their thermolysis were determined, and a mechanism of the thermolysis was proposed.

The Reaction of N(24S3/2) with Hydrogen Halides and Deuterium Iodide

Umemoto, Hironobu,Uchida, Teruo,Tsunashima, Shigeru,Sato, Shin

, p. 1641 - 1644 (1987)

The bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of ground state atomic nitrogen with hydrogen halides and deuterium iodide were measured by employing a pulse radiolysis-resonance absorption technique.As for the reactions of hydrogen iodide and deuterium iodide, the temperature dependence was also measured; it was found that the rate constants were well expressed by the following Arrhenius expressions: k(N+HI)=(3.6+/-0.6)E5 exp; k(N+DI)=(1.0+/-0.4) exp, in units of m3mol-1s-1.The preexponential factors for these reactions are much smaller than the semiempirically calculated ones.These small preexponential factors suggest that these reactions proceed non-adiabatically.The rate constants for hydrogen bromide and hydrogen chloride were found to be very small.


, p. 840 (1933)

Photodecomposition and thermal decomposition in methylammonium halide lead perovskites and inferred design principles to increase photovoltaic device stability

Juarez-Perez, Emilio J.,Ono, Luis K.,Maeda, Maki,Jiang, Yan,Hawash, Zafer,Qi, Yabing

, p. 9604 - 9612 (2018)

Hybrid lead halide perovskites have emerged as promising active materials for photovoltaic cells. Although superb efficiencies have been achieved, it is widely recognized that long-term stability is a key challenge intimately determining the future development of perovskite-based photovoltaic technology. Herein, we present reversible and irreversible photodecomposition reactions of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). Simulated sunlight irradiation and temperature (40-80 °C) corresponding to solar cell working conditions lead to three degradation pathways: (1) CH3NH2 + HI (identified as the reversible path), (2) NH3 + CH3I (the irreversible or detrimental path), and (3) a reversible Pb(0) + I2(g) photodecomposition reaction. If only the reversible reactions (1) and (3) take place and reaction (2) can be avoided, encapsulated MAPbI3 can be regenerated during the off-illumination timeframe. Therefore, to further improve operational stability in hybrid perovskite solar cells, detailed understanding of how to mitigate photodegradation and thermal degradation processes is necessary. First, encapsulation of the device is necessary not only to avoid contact of the perovskite with ambient air, but also to prevent leakage of volatile products released from the perovskite. Second, careful selection of the organic cations in the compositional formula of the perovskite is necessary to avoid irreversible reactions. Third, selective contacts must be as chemically inert as possible toward the volatile released products. Finally, hybrid halide perovskite materials are speculated to undergo a dynamic formation and decomposition process; this can gradually decrease the crystalline grain size of the perovskite with time; therefore, efforts to deposit highly crystalline perovskites with large crystal sizes may fail to increase the long-term stability of photovoltaic devices.

Durup-Ferguson, M.,Brenot, J. C.,Fayeton, J. A.,Provost, K.,Barat, M.

, p. 389 - 398 (1987)

Regio- And Stereoselective Hydroiodination of Internal Alkynes with Ex Situ-Generated HI

Nozawa-Kumada, Kanako,Noguchi, Koto,Akada, Tomoya,Shigeno, Masanori,Kondo, Yoshinori

supporting information, p. 6659 - 6663 (2021/09/08)

Herein, we report an efficient and practical hydroiodination of internal alkynes using HI generated ex situ from the readily available triethylsilane and I2. This system offers high regio- and stereoselectivity to afford (E)-vinyl iodides in good yields under mild conditions. Furthermore, the hydroiodination reaction shows high functional group tolerance toward alkyl, methoxy, halogen, trifluoromethyl, cyano, ester, halomethyl, acid-sensitive silyl ether, and acetal moieties.