TMTD is incompatible with oxidizing materials and strong acids. Also incompatible with strong alkalis and nitrating agents .
This rubber chemical, accelerator of vulcanization, represents the most commonly positive allergen contained in “thiuram mix.” The most frequent occupational categories are the metal industry, homemakers, health services and laboratories, the building industry, and shoemakers. It is also widely used as a fungicide, belonging to the dithiocarbamate group of carrots, bulbs, and woods, and as an insecticide. Thiram is the agricultural name for thiuram.
Fungicide, Rodenticide: Thiram is used as a fungicide to prevent crop damage
in the field and to prevent crops from deterioration
in storage or transport. Thiram is also used as a seed, nut,
fruit, and mushroom disinfectant from a variety of fungal
diseases. In addition, it is used as an animal repellent
to protect fruit trees and ornamentals from damage
by rabbits, rodents, and deer. Thiram has been used in the
treatment of human scabies, as a sun screen, and as a bactericide
applied directly to the skin or incorporated into soap. Thiram is used as a rubber accelerator and vulcanizer
and as a bacteriostat for edible oils and fats. It is also used
as a rodent repellent, wood preservative, and may be used
in the blending of lubricant oils. Registered for use in EU
countries. Registered for use in the U.S.
pure colorless crystal; no smell; m.p.155~156°C; relative density 1.29; easily soluble in benzene, chloroform (230g/L), acetone (80g/L), carbon disulfide and other organic solvents; slightly soluble in ether and ethanol (<10g/L); insoluble in water (30mg/L); decomposing under acid condition; industrial products are white or light yellow powder, with a m.p. of more than 146℃.
Crystallise thiram (three times) from boiling CHCl3, then recrystallise it from boiling CHCl3 by adding EtOH dropwise to initiate crystallisation, and allow it to cool. Finally it is precipitated from cold CHCl3 by adding EtOH (which retains the monosulfide in solution). [Ferington & Tobolsky J Am Chem Soc 77 4510 1955, Beilstein 4 IV 242.]
white to almost white powder
Acute oral-rat: LD50 780~865mg/kg; Acute oral-mice: LD50 1500~2000mg/kg. Accelerator T has an irritation effect on the human mucous membrane and skin. People long-term exposure to it have allergic reactions while drinking alcohol. Carp LC50 4mg/L.
Thiram is an ectoparasiticide. Thiram is used in agriculture to prevent fungal diseases in seed and crops. Thiram has other applications ranging from use as a topical bactericide to animal repellent.
Rubber accelerator; vulcanizer; seed disinfectant; fungicide; bacteriostat in soap; animal repellent.
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic and irritating oxides of sulfur are formed. Carbon disulfide may be formed from unburned material.
TITD is a rubber vulcanization accelerator
Inhalation of dust may cause respiratory irritation. Liquid irritates eyes and skin and may cause allergic eczema in sensitive individuals. Ingestion causes nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, all of which may be persistent; paralysis may develop.
AAPIROL®; AATACK®; AATIRAM®;
ACCELERATOR T®; ACCELERATOR THIURAM®;
ACCEL TMT®; AGROSOL POUR-ON®; ANLES®;
ARASAN®[C]; ATIRAM®; ATTACK®; AULES®;
CHIPCO THIRAM 75®; CRYLCOAT®; CUNITEX®;
CYURAM DS®; DELSAN®; EBECRYL®; EKAGOM
TB®; EVERSHIELD T SEED PROTECTORANT®;
FALITIRAM®; FERMIDE®; FERNACOL®;
FERNASAN®; FERNIDE®; FLO PRO T SEED
PROTECTANT®; FMC 2070®[C]; FORMALSOL®;
HERMAL®; HERYL®; HEXATHIR®; HY-VIC®;
KODIAK T®; KREGASAN®; LIQUID MOLY-CO-THI®;
MERCURAM®; METIURAC®; MOLY-T®; NA2771®;
NOBECUTAN®; NOMERSAN®; NORMERSAN®;
OPTIMA®; PANORAM 75®; POLYRAM
ULTRA®; POMARSOL®; POMARSOL FORTE®;
POMASOL®; PRO-GRO®; PURALIN®; RAXIL®;
REZIFILM®; ROOTONE®; ROYAL TMTD®; RTUBAYTAN-
THIRAM®; RTU FLOWABLE SOYBEAN
FUNGICIDE®; SADOPLON®; SOLUCRYL®;
SPOTRETE®; SPOTRETE-F®; SQ 1489®; SRANANSF-
X®; TERSAN 75®[C]; TERSANTETRAMETHYL
DIURANE SULFIDE®; TETRAPOM®;
TETRASIPTON®; THIANOSAN®; THILLATE®;
THIMAR®; THIMER®; THIOKNOCK®; THIOSAN®;
THIOSCABIN®; THIOTEX®; THIOTOX®; THIRAM
75®; THIRAM 80®; THIRAMAD®; THIRAM B®;
THIRAMPA®; THIRASAN®; THIULIN®; THIULIX®;
THIURAD®; THIURAMIN®; THIURAMYL®;
THYLATE®; TIRAMPA®; TITAN FL®; TRAMETAN®;
TRIDIPAM®; TRIPOMOL®; TUADS®; TUEX®;
TULISAN®; UCECOAT®; UCECRYL®; UVECRYL®;
VANCIDA TM-95®; VANCIDE TM®; VITAFLO 280®;
VITAVAX® Thiram; VITAVAX-T®; VUAGT-1-4®;
VULCAFOR TMTD®; VULKACIT MTIC®;
VULKACIT THIURAM®; VULKACIT THIURAM/C®
Air & Water Reactions
Insoluble in water. Decomposes in acidic media to give toxic products. Decomposes to an extent on prolonged exposure to heat, air or moisture.
ChEBI: An organic disulfide that results from the formal oxidative dimerisation of N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamic acid. It is widely used as a fungicidal seed treatment.
Hazards & Safety Information
Category :Toxic substances
Toxicity classification : moderate toxicity
Acute Toxicity : Oral-Rat LD50: 560 mg/kg; Oral-mouse LD50: 1250 mg/kg
Stimulation Data: Eye-Rabbit 100 mg/24hours Moderate
Flammability Hazardous characteristics:
The products can decompose into toxic nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides when meeting heat.
Storage and transportation characteristics :
Storehouse should be low-temperature, well-ventilated and dry; the storage and transportation should be separated form food raw materials.
Extinguishing agent : sand, dry powder, foam
Occupational Standard :TWA 5 mg/m3; STEL 10 mg/m3
1. Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide belongs to protective fungicides of broad spectrum, with a residual effect period of up to 7d or so. It is mainly used for dealing with seeds and soil and preventing powdery mildew, smut and rice seedlings damping-off of cereal crops. It can also be used for some fruit trees and vegetable diseases. For example, dressing seed with 500g of 50% wettable powder can control rice blast, rice leaf spot, barley and wheat smut.
2. As pesticides, Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide is often referred to as thiram and is mainly used for the treatment of seeds and soil and the prevention and controlling of cereal powdery mildew, smut and vegetable diseases. This product, as the super accelerator of natural rubber, synthetic rubber and latex, is often referred to as accelerator TMTD and is the representative of thiuram vulcanization accelerator, accounting for 85% of the total amount of similar products. Accelerator T is also the super accelerator of natural rubber, diene synthetic rubber, Ⅱ, R and EPDM, with the highest utilization rate of all. The vulcanization promoting force of accelerator T is very strong, but, without the presence of zinc oxide, it is not vulcanized at all.
3. Used for the manufacture of cables, wires, tires and other rubber products.
4. Used as the super accelerator of natural rubber, synthetic rubber and latex.
5. Used as the late effect promoter of natural rubber, butadiene rubber, styrene-butadiene rubber and polyisoprene rubber.
6. Used for the pest control of rice, wheat, tobacco, sugar beet, grapes and other crops, as well as for the seed dressing and soil treatment.
7. Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide is suitable for the manufacture of natural rubber, synthetic rubber and latex, and can also be used as curing agent. This product is the second accelerator of thiazole accelerators, which can be used with other accelerators as the continuous vulcanization accelerator.
8. In rubber industry, Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide can be used as the super-vulcanization accelerator, and aften used with thiazole accelerator. It can also be used in combination with other accelerators as the continuous rubber accelerator. For slowly decomposing out of free sulfur at more than 100 ℃, it can be used as curing agent too. Its products have excellent resistance to aging and heat, so it is applicable to natural rubber, synthetic rubber and is mainly used in the manufacture of tires, tubes, shoes, cables and other industrial products. In agriculture, it can be used as fungicide and insecticide, and it can also be used as lubricant additives.
9. Production methods from dimethylamine, carbon disulfide, ammonia condensation reaction was dimethyl dithiocarbamate, and then by the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide to the finished product.
A liquid solution of a white crystalline solid. Primary hazard is to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment. Easily penetrates the soil to contaminates groundwater and waterways.
The preparation of sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate(SDD): the reaction of dimethylamine hydrochloride and carbon disulfide in the presence of sodium hydroxide can generate sodium dimethylamino dithiocarbamate . The reaction temperature is 50~55℃ and the pH value is 8~9.
The preparation of thiram: the reaction of SDD (or Diram) and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid can produce thiram. The reaction temperature is controlled at 10 ℃ below and the end pH value is 3 to 4. Chlorine can also be used instead of hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid. The reaction is performed in the sieve tray tower, from the bottom of which the diluted chlorine is introduced and from the top of which 5% sodium solution is sprayed, which is called chlorine-air oxidation method. There are also other methods, such as sodium nitrite oxidation or electrolytic oxidation.