Immunosuppressive agent with antiviral and antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo . Potently inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, thus inhibiting de novo GTP synthesis leading to decreased RNA and DNA synthesis. Reversibly inhibits proliferation of T and B lymphocytes and antibody formation.
Mycophenolic acid is a common Penicillium metabolite first reported in the 1930s as a possible mycotoxin. Re-investigation showed mycophenolic acid to display broad antitumor, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoan activities. Its potent immunosuppressant activity led to its commercial development to prevent kidney transplant rejection. Mycophenolic acid acts by inhibiting inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, controlling the rate of de novo purine synthesis in proliferating B and T lymphocytes.
immune suppressant, antineoplastic, antiviral
An antibiotic produced by Penicillium brevi-compactum, P. Stoloniferum and related spp. A selective inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation by blocking inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides.
Mycophenolic acid, less accurately called mycophenolate, is a compound derived from Penicillium stoloniferum and related species. It can reversibly inhibit inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), the enzyme that controls the rate of synthesis of guanine monophosphate in the de novo pathway of purine synthesis used in the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes. Mycophenolic acid also has antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral activities. These powerful properties have been exploited in studies on organ transplant survival, anti-proliferative, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. It was initially marketed as the prodrug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) to improve oral bioavailability. More recently, the salt mycophenolate sodium has also been introduced. Mycophenolate mofetil is marketed under the trade name CellCept and mycophenolate sodium as Myfortic.
Discovered by an Italian medical scientist Bartolomeo Gosio in 1893, mycophenolic acid was the first antibiotic to be synthesised in pure and crystalline form. But its medical application was forgotten until two American scientists C.L. Alsberg and O.M. Black resynthesised it in 1912, and gave its chemical name. It was eventually found to be a broad-spectrum acting drug having antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, anticancer, and antipsoriasis properties. The clinically usable drug Cellcept was developed by South African geneticist Anthony Allison and his wife Elsie M. Eugui. It was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on 3 May 1995 for use in kidney transplantation.
ChEBI: A member of the class of 2-benzofurans that is 2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one which is substituted at positions 4, 5, 6, and 7 by methyl, methoxy, (2E)-5-carboxy-3-methylpent-2-en-1-yl, and hydroxy groups, respectively. It is an
antibiotic produced by Penicillium brevi-compactum, P. stoloniferum, P. echinulatum and related species. An immunosuppressant, it is widely used (partiularly as its sodium salt and as the 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethyl ester prodrug, mycophenolate mo
etil) to prevent tissue rejection following organ transplants and for the treatment of certain autoimmune diseases.
White to Off-White Powder
Mycophenolic acid is a common Penicillium metabolite first reported in the 1930s as a possible mycotoxin. Re-investigation showed mycophenolic acid to display broad antitumour, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoan activities. Its potent immunosuppressant activity led to its commercial development to prevent kidney transplant rejection. Mycophenolic acid acts by inhibiting inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, controlling the rate of de novo purine synthesis in proliferating B and T lymphocytes.
Purify the acid by dissolving it in the minimum volume of EtOAc, applying onto a silica gel column (0.05-0.2 mesh) and eluting with a mixture of EtOAc/CHCl3/AcOH (45:55:1) followed by recrystallisation from heptane/EtOAc, from aqueous EtOH or from hot H2O and drying in vacuo. It is a weak dibasic acid, moderately soluble in Et2O, CHCl3 and hot H2O but weakly soluble in *C6H6 and toluene. [Birch & Wright Aust J Chem 22 2635 1969, Canonica et al. J Chem Soc, Perkin Trans 1 2639 1972, Birkinshaw et al. Biochem J 50 630 1952, Beilstein 18 II 393, 18 III/IV 6513.]