antiinflammatory, respiratory stimulant
Off-White to Tan Crystalline Solid
ChEBI: An organic heterotricyclic compound that is the toxic principle in Laburnum seeds and is found in many members of the Fabaceae (legume, pea or bean) family. An acetylcholine agonist, it is widely used throughout Eastern Europe as
n aid to giving up smoking.
Crystallise cytisine from acetone and sublime it in a vacuum. Its solubilities are: 77% (H2O), 7.7% (Me2CO), 28.6% (EtOH), 3.3% (*C6H6), 50% (CHCl3) but it is insoluble in pet ether. The tartrate has m 206-207o  D +45.9o, the N-tosylate has m 206-207o, and the N-acetate has m 208o. [Bohlmann et al. Angew Chem 67 708 1955, van Tamelen & Baran J Am Chem Soc 77 4944 1955, Isolation: Ing J Chem Soc 2200 1931, Govindachari et al. J Chem Soc 3839 1957, Abs config: Okuda et al. Chem Ind (London) 1751 1961, Beilstein 24 H 134, 24 I 244, 24 II 70, 24 III/IV 321.] TOXIC.
Toxic priniciple in seed of Laburnum anagyroides and other Leguminosae. A neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine agonist
Cytisine (also known as baptitoxine and sophorine) is a kind of naturally occurring alkaloid that can be found in several plant genera including Laburnum and Cytisus in the family Fabaceae. It has been shown that it is effective in the smoking cessation treatment. It is a low efficacy partial agonist of alpha4-beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which is the central target of the nicotine that facilitates addiction. Cytisine is capable of reducing the effect of nicotine on dopamine release on the mesolimbic system as well as attenuating the nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Cytisine is also a useful reagent for organic chemistry such as being used for the manufacture of sparteine surrogate.
A potent, selective agonist at neuronal nicotinic receptors. Acts as a partial agonist at β 2-containing nicotinic receptors.