colourless or light amber oily liquid
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Bromoacetates and chloroacetates are extremely irritating/lachrymators. Reaction with water or moist air will release toxic, corrosive or flammable gases. Reaction with water may generate much heat that will increase the concentration of fumes in the air. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
A routine preparation by interaction of allyl chloride and sodium thiocyanate in an autoclave at 5.5 bar exploded violently at the end of the reaction. Peroxides were not present or involved and no other cause could be found, but extensive decomposition occurred when allyl isothiocyanate was heated to 250°C. in glass ampoules [Ind. Eng. Chem. 1941:19 1408].
A colorless to pale-yellow oily liquid with an irritating odor. Flash point 135°F. Boiling point 300°F. Poisonous by ingestion and skin absorption. Emits toxic fumes when heated to high temperature. Insoluble in water and slightly denser than water. Hence sinks in water. Used to make other chemicals and as a fumigant.
Allyl isothiocyanate is generated by enzymatic hydrolysis
of the glucoside sinigrin, present in Cruciferae-
Brassicaceae, mainly the oil from black mustard seed
(Brassica nigra Koch). It may induce irritant and
sometimes allergic contact dermatitis, mimicking the
“tulip finger” dermatitis.
HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors and sewers explosion hazards. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Substance will react with water (some violently) releasing flammable, toxic or corrosive gases and runoff. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water.
manufacture of flavors; war gas.
Air & Water Reactions
Flammable. Insoluble in water.
Fractionate the isothiocyanate using an efficient column, preferably in a vacuum. It is a yellow pungent, irritating and TOXIC (suspected CARCINOGEN) liquid. Store it in a sealed tube under N2. The N'-benzylthiourea derivative has m 94.5o (from aqueous EtOH) [Weller et al. J Am Chem Soc 74 1104 1952]. [Beilstein 4 IV 1081.]