Crystallise adenosine from distilled water and dry it at 110o. It has been purified via the picrate, where ethanolic picric acid is added to adenosine and the picrate is filtered off and recrystallised from EtOH. It has m 180-185o(dec). Adenosine is recovered by dissolving 0.4g of the picrate in 80mL of hot H2O, treated with a small quantity of Dowex 1 anion exchange resin in the chloride form, and the resin is filtered off. The filtrate is treated with more resin and filtered again. One equivalent of aqueous NaOH is added to the colourless filtrate which is evaporated to 4mL and cooled to give 0.176g of adenosine m 236o. [Davoll et al. J Chem Soc 967 1948, Davoll & Lowy J Am Chem Soc 73 1650 1951, Beilstein 26 III/IV 3598.]
In the body
|Adenosine in the body
||Promoting sleep and suppresses arousal acting as a central nervous system depressant.
||Causing dilation of the coronary blood vessels that Improving blood circulation to the heart; Increasing the diameter of blood vessels in the peripheral organs; Decreasing heart rate
||Broken down by adenosine deaminase. By taking medicine like Dipyridamole(inhibitor of adenosine deaminase), it can improve blood flow through the coronary blood vessels that supply the heart muscles.
|Kidneys, lungs and liver
||In the kidneys adenosine decreases renal blood flow and decrease the production of rennin from the kidneys. In the lungs it causes constriction of airways and in the liver it leads to constriction of blood vessels and increases breakdown of glycogen to form glucose.
Mechanism of action
Its function is realized through the activation of the adenosine receptor (A receptor). Adenosine activates G protein coupled potassium channels by binding to the A receptor which makes increasing the outflow of K+ and cell membrane hyperpolarization so as to decrease the automaticity in the atrium, sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node. It can also significantly increase the level of cGMP , prolong ERP of the atrioventricular node and slowing of atrioventricular, depress sympathetic nervous or early and delayed after depolarization induced by isoproterenol and then plays an effective role in arrhythmia. This product has not been classified in I~IV anti arrhythmia medicine.
- A1 receptors, which are found in cardiomyocytes and which are responsible for the inhibition of adenylyl cylase activity which lowers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) results in sinus slowing, increase in AV node conduction delay, and antagonism of the effects of catecholamines;
- A2 receptors, which are found in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle and are responsible for the enhancement of adenylyl cylase activity and increased cyclic AMP which relaxes smooth muscle. Both negative chronotropic and dromotropic effects of adenosine are cyclic AMP independent (direct action) as well cyclic AMP dependent (indirect action).
antiarrhythmic, cardiac depressant
Adenosine has a role in the expansion of coronary artery and myocardial contractility, is clinically applied in the treatment of angina, hypertension, cerebrovascular disorders, stroke sequelae, muscular atrophy, etc. It is also given intravenously (by IV) for treating supraventricular tachycardia and Tl myocardial imaging. It is also used for cardiac stress tests.
Since the half-life of this compound is less than 10 seconds, its side effects are usually transient. However, side effects are common, and include flushing, headache, chest discomfort, bronchoconstriction, and occasionally hypotension. Hepatic and renal failure and other drugs except dipyridamole seem to have little effect on the action of adenosine.
White crystalline powder
Adenocard (Astellas); Adenoscan (Astellas).
Neurotransmitter that acts as the preferred endogenous agonist at all adenosine receptor subtypes.
Adenosine is a natural nucleotide, which is the intermediate product of metabolism, chemically 6-amino-9-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-9-H-purine. Adenosine is one of the important active components in the body, helps in cellular energy transfer by forming molecules like adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It also plays a role in signaling various pathways and functions in the body by forming signally molecules like cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
ChEBI: A ribonucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribofuranose moiety via a beta1N9-glycosidic bond.