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1,2-Propanediol

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Name

1,2-Propanediol

EINECS 200-338-0
CAS No. 57-55-6 Density 1.036 g/cm3
PSA 40.46000 LogP -0.64050
Solubility miscible with water Melting Point -60 °C
Formula C3H8O2 Boiling Point 184.848 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 76.09 Flash Point 107.222 °C
Transport Information Appearance clear viscous liquid
Safety 24/25 Risk Codes
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 57-55-6 (1,2-Propanediol) Hazard Symbols
Synonyms

1,2-propane-diol;DL-1,2-Propanediol;(RS)-1,2-Propanediol;(+-)-1,2-Propanediol;Trimethyl glycol;Propylene Glycol(PG);alpha-Propylene glycol;2,3-Propanediol;Propylene glycol (TN);Propylene Glycol USP;Sirlene;1,2-dihydroxypropane;alpha-Propyleneglycol;Propylene glycol (JP14/USP);Isopropylene glycol;2-Hydroxypropanol;Sentry Propylene Glycol;Propane-1,2-diol;(+-)-Propylene glycol;Monopropylene glycol;Methylethyl glycol;Dowfrost;Methylethylene glycol;Propylene Glycol;

 

1,2-Propanediol Synthetic route

56-81-5

glycerol

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In isopropyl alcohol at 180℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 8h; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;100%
With sulfuric acid; hydrogen; Ni/Re pH=6.9 - 12.1; Industry scale;99%
With hydrogen In 1,4-dioxane at 179.84℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 6h; Time; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;99%
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With CoIII(t-Bu-salen)-OTs; water at 40℃; for 0.5h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;99%
With sulfuric acid; water at 27℃; for 6h;98.3%
With water at 40℃; for 3h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Schlenk technique;93%
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With [carbonylchlorohydrido{bis[2-(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethyl]amino}ethylamino] ruthenium(II); potassium tert-butylate; hydrogen In tetrahydrofuran at 140℃; under 38002.6 Torr; for 10h; Catalytic behavior; Temperature; Time; Solvent; Pressure; Autoclave;99%
With potassium tert-butylate; hydrogen; C16H18BrCoINO2 In dibutyl ether at 160℃; under 45004.5 Torr; for 20h; Reagent/catalyst; Sealed tube; Autoclave;92%
With water; aluminum hydroxide; magnesium hydroxide at 140℃; Conversion of starting material;
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

371-40-4

4-fluoroaniline

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-methyloxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C24H25N4O3(1+)*I(1-); 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene at 90℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 4h; Autoclave;A n/a
B 99%
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

106-47-8

4-chloro-aniline

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

14423-08-6, 111609-86-0, 111609-87-1

3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-methyloxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C24H25N4O3(1+)*I(1-); 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene at 90℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 4h; Autoclave;A n/a
B 99%
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

106-40-1

4-bromo-aniline

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

3-(4-bromophenyl)-5-methyloxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C24H25N4O3(1+)*I(1-); 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene at 90℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 4h; Autoclave;A n/a
B 99%
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

540-37-4

p-aminoiodobenzene

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

3-(4-iodophenyl)-5-methyloxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C24H25N4O3(1+)*I(1-); 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene at 90℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 4h; Autoclave;A n/a
B 99%
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

626-43-7

3,5-Dichloroaniline

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyloxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C24H25N4O3(1+)*I(1-); 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene at 90℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 4h; Autoclave;A n/a
B 99%
116-09-6

hydroxy-2-propanone

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In 1,4-dioxane at 179.84℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 5h; Autoclave;98%
With 5%-palladium/activated carbon; water; zinc at 250℃; for 0.5h; Reagent/catalyst;98%
With 5% active carbon-supported ruthenium; water; zinc at 180℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 20h; Autoclave; Inert atmosphere;82%
547-64-8

methyl lactate

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With trans-RuCl2(PPh3)[PyCH2NH(CH2)2PPh2]; potassium methanolate; hydrogen In tetrahydrofuran at 40℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 16h;98%
With C24H38Cl2N3PRu; hydrogen; sodium methylate In isopropyl alcohol at 100℃; under 38002.6 Torr; for 2h; Autoclave;97%
With potassium tert-butylate; hydrogen; [tris(μ-chloro)bis((triphos)ruthenium(II))] chloride In methanol at 100℃; under 30003 Torr; for 15h; Product distribution / selectivity; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;>= 99.9 %Chromat.
110-65-6

1,4-dihydroxybut-2-yne

hypophosphorous acid 3-chlorine-2-hydroxypropylester

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

93295-59-1

1-methylolallenephosphonous acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In 1,4-dioxane at 50℃; for 1h;A 7.6 g
B 97%
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

62-53-3

aniline

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

708-57-6

5-methyl-3-phenyl-oxazolidin-2-one

B

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C24H25N4O3(1+)*I(1-); 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene at 90℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 4h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Pressure; Autoclave;A 95%
B n/a
56-81-5

glycerol

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

107-21-1

ethylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In isopropyl alcohol at 180℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 24h; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;A 94%
B 6%
With water; hydrogen; alumina, 27%; copper, 5%; copper oxide, 64%; lanthanum oxide, 5%; mixture of In methanol at 297℃; under 37503.8 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;A 86.2%
B 8.8%
With Ru-Cu/TMG-BEN at 230℃; under 60006 Torr; for 18h; Autoclave;A 85%
B n/a
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

B

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
tetra-n-butylphosphonium chloride at 180℃; under 15001.5 - 37503.8 Torr; for 4h; Product distribution / selectivity; Gas phase;A 0.3%
B 93.4%
tetraethylphosphonium bromide at 180℃; under 15001.5 - 37503.8 Torr; for 4h; Product distribution / selectivity; Gas phase;A 0.5%
B 92.7%
With 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene; cellulose at 120℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 2h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Autoclave; Green chemistry;A 90%
B n/a
57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: propene With Oxone; sodium chloride In water; acetone at 30℃; for 20h; Large scale;
Stage #2: With water; sodium hydroxide at 25 - 40℃; for 7h; pH=12; Large scale;
93%
With osmium(VIII) oxide; dihydrogen peroxide; tert-butyl alcohol
With diphenylselenoxide; potassium carbonate; osmium(VIII) oxide In acetone for 24h; Ambient temperature; Phenylmethyl Selenoxide;95 % Chromat.
600-22-6

pyruvic acid methyl ester

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium tetrahydroborate In methanol at 20℃; for 0.166667h;93%
With carbonylhydrido(tetrahydroborato)[bis(2-diphenylphosphinoethyl)-amino]ruthenium(II); hydrogen; sodium t-butanolate In methanol at 80℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 12h; Glovebox; Autoclave; chemoselective reaction;93%
With (o-PPh2C6H4NH2)2RuCl2; hydrogen; sodium methylate In tetrahydrofuran at 120℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 8h; Reagent/catalyst;98 %Chromat.
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

156-43-4

4-Ethoxyaniline

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-5-methyloxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C24H25N4O3(1+)*I(1-); 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene at 90℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 4h; Autoclave;A n/a
B 93%

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

107-98-2

1-methoxy-2-propanol

C

1589-47-5

2-methoxypropanol

D

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dihydrogen peroxide; titanium-silicate In methanol at 40℃;A n/a
B n/a
C n/a
D 92%
With dihydrogen peroxide; titanium-silicate In methanol at 40℃;A n/a
B n/a
C n/a
D 78%
With dihydrogen peroxide; titanium-silicate In water at 30 - 80℃; under 18751.9 Torr; pH=4.5;A n/a
B n/a
C n/a
D 61%
79-33-4

L-Lactic acid

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With ruthenium-carbon composite; hydrogen In water at 119.84℃; under 7500.75 - 60006 Torr; for 2h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave; Sealed tube;92%
With 5% active carbon-supported ruthenium; hydrogen at 130℃; under 26252.6 Torr; for 4h; Temperature; Autoclave; Inert atmosphere;61%
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

A

67-56-1

methanol

B

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With [bis({2‐[bis(propan‐2‐yl)phosphanyl]ethyl})amine](bromo)(carbonyl)(hydride)iron(II); potassium tert-butylate; isopropyl alcohol In tetrahydrofuran at 140℃; for 6h; Time; Inert atmosphere; Schlenk technique; Green chemistry;A 90 %Chromat.
B 91%
With potassium tert-butylate; hydrogen; C16H18BrCoINO2 In dibutyl ether at 160℃; under 45004.5 Torr; for 36h; Catalytic behavior; Solvent;A 51 %Chromat.
B 91%
With [Mn(HN(C2H4PiPr2)2)(CO)2Br]; hydrogen; sodium t-butanolate In tetrahydrofuran at 120℃; under 22502.3 Torr; for 26h; Schlenk technique; Glovebox; Autoclave;A 75%
B 82%
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

99-09-2

3-nitro-aniline

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

5-methyl-3-(3-nitrophenyl)oxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C24H25N4O3(1+)*I(1-); 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene at 90℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 4h; Autoclave;A n/a
B 91%

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With phosphotungstic acid; dihydrogen peroxide at 70℃; for 4h; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature;A 5.65%
B 90.1%
With [Fe(di(o-imidazol-2-ylidenepyridine)methane)(MeCN)2](PF6)2; dihydrogen peroxide In water; acetonitrile at 25℃; under 2850.29 Torr; for 3h; Catalytic behavior; Inert atmosphere;A 64%
B 11%
With pyridine; carbon dioxide; dihydrogen peroxide; methyltrioxorhenium(VII) In water; acetonitrile at 25 - 40℃; under 36201.3 Torr; for 3h;A n/a
B 18.2%
849585-22-4

LACTIC ACID

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In water at 150℃; under 30003 Torr;90%
With copper(II) oxide; zinc In water at 250℃; for 2h; Reagent/catalyst; Green chemistry;63.8%
With hydrogen at 110 - 150℃; under 60006 Torr; for 22h; Time;23.8%
56-81-5

glycerol

A

71-23-8

propan-1-ol

B

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In ethanol at 180℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 24h; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;A 6%
B 90%
With hydrogen at 210℃; under 33753.4 Torr; for 12h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Pressure;A n/a
B 51.3%
With hydrogen In 1,4-dioxane at 139.84℃; under 60006 Torr; for 24h;A 34%
B 18%
123-05-7

d,l-2-ethylhexanal

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

149-57-5

2-Ethylhexanoic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfuric acid; water; oxygen In water at 60℃; under 2280.15 Torr; for 16h; pH=1;A 36%
B 90%
556-52-5

oxiranyl-methanol

57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; palladium on activated charcoal In methanol under 760 Torr; for 22h; Ambient temperature;89%
With palladium on activated charcoal; diethyl ether Hydrogenation;
With hydrogen; Pd/magnetite In ethyl acetate at 23℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 5h;
With palladium 10% on activated carbon; hydrogen In neat (no solvent) at 80℃; under 6000.6 Torr; for 24h; Reagent/catalyst; Solvent; Temperature; Pressure; Time; Autoclave;
With palladium on activated carbon; hydrogen In ethanol at 20℃; under 2068.65 Torr; for 0.283333h; Flow reactor;
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

134-32-7

1-amino-naphthalene

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

5-methyl-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)oxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C24H25N4O3(1+)*I(1-); 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene at 90℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 4h; Autoclave;A n/a
B 89%
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

616-38-6

carbonic acid dimethyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In methanol at 119.84℃; for 2h; Temperature; Concentration; Autoclave; Industrial scale;A n/a
B 88%
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

104-94-9

4-methoxy-aniline

75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

57-55-6

propylene glycol

B

121485-50-5

3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-2-oxazolidinone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C24H25N4O3(1+)*I(1-); 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene at 90℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 4h; Autoclave;A n/a
B 87%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

555-16-8

4-nitrobenzaldehdye

65513-22-6

4-methyl-2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-[1,3]dioxolane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With cyclohexane at 105℃; for 1h; Dean-Stark;100%
With 2,4,6-tripropyl-1,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriphosphinane-2,4,6-trioxide In ethyl acetate at 20℃;93%
With toluene-4-sulfonic acid; benzene Unter Entfernen des entstehenden Wassers.;
57-55-6

propylene glycol

67-64-1

acetone

1193-11-9, 116944-25-3

2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With cyclohexane at 105℃; for 1h; Dean-Stark;100%
With Amberlyst 36 at 50℃; for 2h;75%
With 4 A molecular sieve; Amberlyst A 15 In tetrahydrofuran for 24h; Ambient temperature;35%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

2920-86-7

prednisolone hemisuccinate

76733-56-7

Prednisolone 21-(2'-hydroxypropyl)succinate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
sulfuric acid for 2h; Heating;100%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

122584-14-9

N-formyl-1-bromo-narwedine

252869-10-6

4a,5,9,10,11,12-hexhydro-1-bromo-3-methoxy-11-formyl-6H-benzofuro[3a,3,2-ef][2]benzazepin-6-propylene ketal

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With toluene-4-sulfonic acid In toluene for 14h; Heating / reflux;100%
89.5%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

616-38-6

carbonic acid dimethyl ester

108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 120℃; for 7h; Product distribution / selectivity; Molecular sieve;100%
In neat (no solvent) at 110℃; for 24h; Temperature; Molecular sieve; Green chemistry;99%
With 1,1,1-trioctyl-1-methylphosphonium methylcarbonate at 90℃; for 1h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst;96%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

[(CH3COCHCOCH3)2Al(μ-OCH(CH3)2)2Al(OCH(CH3)2)2]

163462-29-1

[Al2(OCH(CH3)2)2(CH3COCHCOCH3)2(OCH2CHCH3O)]2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In benzene byproducts: i-PrOH; moisture free; refluxing; solvent removal; elem. anal.;100%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

64-17-5

ethanol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Raney Ni In water at 179.84℃; for 1h; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;100%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

100-19-6

(4-nitrophenyl)ethanone

C11H13NO4

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With cyclohexane at 105℃; for 1h; Dean-Stark;100%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

3913-65-3

2-hydroxypropanal

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 5% CuO-5% PdO-0.5% Bi2O3-0.5% In2O3/modified γ-Al2O3 catalyst; 5% NiO-2% V2O5-0.4% Y2O3/modified γ-Al2O3 catalyst at 180℃;99.8%
bei der elektrochemischen Oxydation;
With quinolinium monofluorochromate(VI) In dimethyl sulfoxide at 34.85℃; Kinetics; Thermodynamic data; Further Variations:; Solvents; Temperatures; Reagents; Oxidation;
57-55-6

propylene glycol

539-88-8

4-oxopentanoic acid ethyl ester

5413-49-0

2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-2-propionic acid ethyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
sulfuric acid In water at 95 - 106℃; under 30 - 80 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;99.8%
With sulfuric acid at 110 - 170℃; under 10 - 15 Torr;
57-55-6

propylene glycol

100-52-7

benzaldehyde

2568-25-4

4-methyl-2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With cyclohexane at 105℃; for 1h; Dean-Stark;99.7%
With phosphorus modified SO4(2-)/TiO2 In cyclohexane for 2h; Dean-Stark; Reflux;98%
With poly(styren-co-3-(1-vinyllimidazolium-3-yl)propane-1-sulfonate)-acid at 110℃; for 1.5h; Reagent/catalyst;96.2%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

108-94-1

cyclohexanone

4722-68-3

2-methyl-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With phosphorus modified SO4(2-)/TiO2 In cyclohexane for 2h; Dean-Stark; Reflux;99%
With salicylic acid resin supported FeCl3 In benzene at 88 - 96℃; for 2h;98.5%
With cyclohexane at 105℃; for 1h; Dean-Stark;94.6%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

78-93-3

butanone

2916-28-1

2-ethyl-2,4-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With phosphorus modified SO4(2-)/TiO2 In cyclohexane for 2h; Dean-Stark; Reflux;99%
for 2h; Reflux;88.6%
With formylmorpholine-dimethylsulfate-adduct In dichloromethane for 24h; Ambient temperature;72.7%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

58479-61-1

tert-butylchlorodiphenylsilane

125803-68-1

1-((tert-butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)propan-2-ol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 1H-imidazole In DMF (N,N-dimethyl-formamide) at 20℃; for 2h;99%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

[Ti(N-phenylsalicylideneimine(-H))2(O-i-Pr)2]

943433-21-4

[Ti(N-phenylsalicylideneimine(-H))2(OCH2CH(CH3)O)]

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In benzene byproducts: (CH3)2CHOH; under unhydrous atm., soln. of ligand added to soln. of Ti compd. (3.06:3.01), refluxed, monitored by isopropanol liberated; concd., crystd., elem. anal.;99%
107-20-0

2-chloroethanal

57-55-6

propylene glycol

16390-83-3

4-methyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-ylmethyl chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With phosphorus modified SO4(2-)/TiO2 In cyclohexane for 2h; Dean-Stark; Reflux;99%
With C13H16NO3S(1+)*0.5Cu(2+)*O4S(2-) In cyclohexane for 0.5h; Reflux;99 %Chromat.
With solid acidic polymeric ionic liquid from [SO3H(CH2)3VIm]HSO4 and resorcinol-formaldehyde resin In cyclohexane for 0.5h; Reflux; Dean-Stark;99 %Chromat.
57-55-6

propylene glycol

124-38-9

carbon dioxide

108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 2-Cyanopyridine; cerium(IV) oxide at 139.84℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 1h; Temperature; Autoclave;99%
With 1,10-Phenanthroline; calcium carbide; zinc trifluoromethanesulfonate In 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one at 180℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 24h; Autoclave; Glovebox; Sealed tube;92%
With potassium carbonate; (S)-propyleneoxide at 120℃; under 30003 Torr; for 10h; Reagent/catalyst; Pressure; Time; Autoclave; Green chemistry;78%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

(((hexane-1,6-diylbis(methylazanediyl))bis(methylene))bis(2,1-phenylene))diboronic acid

C28H42B2N2O4

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With magnesium sulfate In toluene at 100℃; for 2h;99%
280-57-9

1,4-diaza-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane

57-55-6

propylene glycol

zinc(II) nitrate hexahydrate

121-91-5

isophthalic acid

12Zn(2+)*6C8H4O4(2-)*3C6H12N2*6C3H6O2(2-)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: 1,4-diaza-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane; zinc(II) nitrate hexahydrate; isophthalic acid In N,N-dimethyl-formamide for 1h;
Stage #2: propylene glycol In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 130℃; for 48h;
99%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

27668-52-6

octadecyldimethyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride

dimethyloctadecyl-[3-[tris(2-hydroxypropoxy)silyl]propyl]ammonium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 145℃;99%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

120-92-3

cyclopentanone

4745-16-8

2-methyl-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.4]nonane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With salicylic acid resin supported FeCl3 In benzene at 88 - 92℃; for 2h;98.9%
With 4 A molecular sieve; Amberlyst A 15 In tetrahydrofuran for 24h; Ambient temperature;71%
With formylmorpholine-dimethylsulfate-adduct In dichloromethane for 24h; Ambient temperature;61.8%
57-55-6

propylene glycol

104-88-1

4-chlorobenzaldehyde

5406-37-1

2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-4-methyl-[1,3]dioxolane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With cyclohexane at 105℃; for 1h; Dean-Stark;98.6%
With toluene-4-sulfonic acid; benzene Unter Entfernen des entstehenden Wassers.;
Al-Fe pillared montmorillonite clay In dichloromethane at 25℃; for 8h;100 % Turnov.
With 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate at 130℃; for 3h;

1,2-Propanediol Specification

1,2-Propanediol (CAS NO.57-55-6 ), also known as Propylene glycol, is a colorless, odorless, viscous, highly hygroscopic liquid with a faintly sweet taste. It is miscible with water, ethanol, ether, chloroform, acetone and other organic solvents. The solubility to hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons is small, but it is strong than ethylene glycol. Propylene Glycol contains an asymmetrical carbon atom, so it exists in two optically active forms (dextrorotatory and sinistrorotatory isomers). And the commercial Propylene Glycol is a racemic mixture.

Physical properties about Propylene Glycol are: (1)ACD/LogP: -1.341; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): -1.34; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): -1.34; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1.00; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.00; (6)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 4.44; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 4.44; (8)#H bond acceptors: 2; (9)#H bond donors: 2; (10)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 3; (11)Index of Refraction: 1.43; (12)Molar Refractivity: 18.976 cm3; (13)Molar Volume: 73.444 cm3; (14)Polarizability: 7.523 10-24cm3; (15)Surface Tension: 38.0040016174316 dyne/cm; (16)Density: 1.036 g/cm3; (17)Flash Point: 107.222 °C; (18)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 49.011 kJ/mol; (19)Boiling Point: 184.848 °C at 760 mmHg; (20)Vapour Pressure: 0.203999996185303 mmHg at 25°C

Preparation of Propylene Glycol: Propylene Glycol can be obtaine by epoxypropane. It includes direct hydration and indirect hydration. The direct hydration is the reaction of epoxypropane and water at 150-160 °C and 0.78-0 .98 MPa. After evaporation and distillation, Propylene Glycol is obtained. The indirect hydration is the reaction of epoxypropane and water in the presence of catalyst sulfuric acid. In addition, Propylene Glycol also can be produced by direct catalytic oxidation from propylene. The catalyst is anhydrous tertiary butanol.

Uses of Propylene Glycol: Propylene Glycol is an important raw material in unsaturated polyester, epoxy resins, polyurethane resins, plasticizers and surfactants. The amount occupies about 45% of total consumption. This unsaturated polyester is largely used for surface coatings and reinforced plastics. Because of good viscosity and moisture absorption, and non-toxic, Propylene Glycol is widely used as a hygroscopic agent, antifreeze, lubricants and solvents in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. In the food industry, Propylene Glycol and fatty acid reacts to produce propylene glycol ester of fatty acid, which is mainly used as food emulsifier. It is also used as solvent for spices, seasonings and food coloring. What's more, 1,2-propanediol is used as a humidifying agent of tobacco, mildew preventive, fruit ripening preservatives, film-forming coatings additives, antifreeze and heat transfer media, etc. It is often used as a substitute for ethanol and glycerol. In pharmaceutical industry, Propylene Glycol is commonly used as solvent in the manufacture of various types of ointment, softener, excipients, preservatives, vitamins, penicillin, etc. As Propylene Glycol has good solubility with various spices, it is also used as solvent of cosmetic and softeners, etc.

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following: The Propylene Glycol is low toxicity. So the acute oral toxicity is very low, and large quantities are required to cause perceptible health damage in humans. In the human body, Propylene Glycol is metabolized into pyruvic acid (a normal part of the glucose-metabolism process, readily converted to energy), lactic acid (a normal acid generally abundant during digestion), acetic acid (handled by ethanol-metabolism), and propionaldehyde. So you should avoid contact with skin and eyes.

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
1. Smiles:C([C@@H](C)O)O;
2. InChI:InChI=1/C3H8O2/c1-3(5)2-4/h3-5H,2H2,1H3;

The toxicity data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
chicken LDLo intravenous 27gm/kg (27000mg/kg) VASCULAR: OTHER CHANGES Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 60, Pg. 312, 1937.
child TDLo oral 79gm/kg/56W-I (79000mg/kg) BRAIN AND COVERINGS: CHANGES IN SURFACE EEG

BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Journal of Pediatrics. Vol. 93, Pg. 515, 1978.
dog LD50 intravenous 26gm/kg (26000mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB280-477,
dog LD50 oral 22gm/kg (22000mg/kg)   Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 21, Pg. 173, 1939.
guinea pig LD50 oral 18350mg/kg (18350mg/kg)   Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.
guinea pig LDLo subcutaneous 15500mg/kg (15500mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB280-477,
infant TDLo parenteral 10gm/kg/3D-C (10000mg/kg)   Pediatrics. Vol. 72, Pg. 353, 1983.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 9718mg/kg (9718mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CHRONIC PULMONARY EDEMA

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: CHANGES IN BOTH TUBULES AND GLOMERULI

BLOOD: CHANGES IN SPLEEN
Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Vol. 6, Pg. 342, 1947.
mouse LD50 intravenous 6630mg/kg (6630mg/kg)   Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 26, Pg. 1581, 1976.
mouse LD50 oral 22gm/kg (22000mg/kg)   Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 65, Pg. 89, 1939.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 17370mg/kg (17370mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)

BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY)

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS
Kriobiologiya i Kriomeditsina. Cryobiology and Cryomedicine. Vol. 8, Pg. 46, 1981.
quail LD50 oral > 2080mg/kg (2080mg/kg)   Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol. 6, Pg. 149, 1982.
rabbit LD50 intravenous 6500mg/kg (6500mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB280-477,
rabbit LD50 oral 18500mg/kg (18500mg/kg)   FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 53A, Pg. 491, 1974.
rabbit LD50 skin 20800mg/kg (20800mg/kg)   Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. Vol. 1, Pg. 101, 1974.
rabbit LDLo intramuscular 6300mg/kg (6300mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION

BEHAVIORAL: COMA
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 44, Pg. 109, 1932.
rat LD50 intramuscular 14gm/kg (14000mg/kg)   Interagency Collaborative Group on Environmental Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Memorandum, June 17, 1974Vol. 17JUN1974,
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 6660mg/kg (6660mg/kg)   Kriobiologiya i Kriomeditsina. Cryobiology and Cryomedicine. Vol. 9, Pg. 36, 1981.
rat LD50 intravenous 6423mg/kg (6423mg/kg)   Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 26, Pg. 1581, 1976.
rat LD50 oral 20gm/kg (20000mg/kg)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 45, Pg. 362, 1978.
rat LD50 subcutaneous 22500mg/kg (22500mg/kg)   Interagency Collaborative Group on Environmental Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Memorandum, June 17, 1974Vol. 17JUN1974,

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