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Calcium hypochlorite

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Name

Calcium hypochlorite

EINECS 231-908-7
CAS No. 7778-54-3 Density 2.35 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
PSA 18.46000 LogP 1.24220
Solubility 200 g/L (20 °C) (dec.) in water Melting Point 100 °C
Formula Ca(ClO)2 Boiling Point
Molecular Weight 142.98 Flash Point
Transport Information UN 1748 5.1/PG 2 Appearance white powder with a chlorine-like odour
Safety 26-36/37/39-45-61 Risk Codes 8-22-31-34-50
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 7778-54-3 (Calcium hypochlorite) Hazard Symbols OxidizingO, CorrosiveC, DangerousN
Synonyms

Hypochlorousacid, calcium salt (8CI,9CI);B-K Powder;Bleaching powder;Ca(ClO)2;Calcium oxychloride;Caporit;Chemichlon G;Chloride of lime;Chlorinated lime;Chloro lime chemical;Eusol BPC;HTH (bleaching agent);HTHVAN;Lime chloride;Losantin;Nisso Hi-Chlon;Nisso Hi-chlon LC;Perfect PA;Solvox KS;T-Eusol;Granular Calcium Hypochlorite;

 

Calcium hypochlorite Synthetic route

calcium chloride

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water Electrolysis;
In not given Electrolysis;
In water Electrolysis;
In water Electrolysis;

calcium chloride

A

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

B

calcium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In not given Electrolysis; electrolysis of neutral solutions of CaCl2 forms Ca(OH)2 on the cathode and chlorine on the anode which reacts with some Ca(OH)2 to Ca(ClO)2;;
In not given Electrolysis; electrolysis of neutral solutions of CaCl2 forms Ca(OH)2 on the cathode and chlorine on the anode which reacts with some Ca(OH)2 to Ca(ClO)2;;

calcium hydroxide

A

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

B

7732-18-5

water

C

calcium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Cl2 In neat (no solvent) effect of Cl2 on Ca(OH)2;; product mixture obtained (chloride of lime);;
With Cl2
7782-50-5

chlorine

calcium oxide

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water byproducts: Ca(OH)2; treatment of CaO with H2O; passing in Cl2 (temp. must not exceed 40°C, cooling); cooling to 25°C when approx. 70% of theoretical amount Cl2 has been taken up; filtration through asbestos-paper, pressing; drying over NaOH in vac.;; dissolution in H2O up to saturation; filtration from insoluble residue; evapn. of the filtrate under diminished pressure until crystallisation of product; crystallisation; product contains approx. 0.5% Ca(OH)2;;
7782-50-5

chlorine

calcium hydroxide

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Ca(ClO)2*3H2O In water passing of Cl2 in a mixture of Ca(OH)2 and H2O at 15°C; the CaCl2-conc. is kept constant at 30% by addition of Ca(OH)2; seeding with crystalls of Ca(ClO)2*3H2O; drying at 65°C;; product contains 75.2% Ca(ClO)2;;
With Ca(ClO)2*3H2O In water passing of Cl2 in a mixture of Ca(OH)2 and H2O at 15°C; the CaCl2-conc. is kept constant at 30% by addition of Ca(OH)2; seeding with crystalls of Ca(ClO)2*3H2O; drying at 65°C;; product contains 75.2% Ca(ClO)2;;
10049-04-4, 25052-55-5

chlorine dioxide

calcium hydroxide

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrachloromethane reaction of Cl2O dissolved in CCl4 with dry or suspended Ca(OH)2 at 20 - 50 °C;;
In tetrachloromethane reaction of Cl2O dissolved in CCl4 with dry or suspended Ca(OH)2 at 20 - 50 °C;;
7791-21-1

hypochlorous anhydride

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium hydroxide In neat (no solvent) byproducts: H2O;
With Ca(OH)2 In neat (no solvent) byproducts: H2O;
7791-21-1

hypochlorous anhydride

calcium chloride * x H2O

A

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

B

calcium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
CaCl2 with various content of water of crystn. is used;;
7791-21-1

hypochlorous anhydride

calcium hydroxide

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) byproducts: H2O;
reaction of dild. (no medium given) gasous Cl2O with dry or suspended Ca(OH)2 at 150°C;;
reaction of dild. (no medium given) gasous Cl2O with dry or suspended Ca(OH)2 at 150°C;;
7782-50-5

chlorine

calcium oxide

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium fluoride In water slaking with salt soln. and chlorinating the mixt.;;
With sodium silicate In water slaking with salt soln. and chlorinating the mixt.;;
With sodium chloride In water slaking with salt soln. and chlorinating the mixt.;;
14380-61-1

hypochlorite

calcium chloride

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water
In water reaction of alkaline hypochlorite with CaCl2;;
In water
In water reaction of alkaline hypochlorite with CaCl2;;

Ca(2+)*2ClO(1-)*2Ca(OH)2=Ca(ClO)2*2Ca(OH)2

A

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

B

calcium hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water In water slow decomposition in water under pptn. of Ca(OH)2 and solving of Ca(ClO)2;;
With H2O In water slow decomposition in water under pptn. of Ca(OH)2 and solving of Ca(ClO)2;;

Ca(2+)*2ClO(1-)*2Ca(OH)2=Ca(ClO)2*2Ca(OH)2

14989-30-1

hypochloric acid

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water neutralization of moist salt with aq. acid;; pptn.;;
In water

Ca(2+)*2ClO(1-)*2Ca(OH)2=Ca(ClO)2*2Ca(OH)2

124-38-9

carbon dioxide

A

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

B

calcium carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water passing CO2 over salt; filtration of CaCO3 and concg. soln.;; pptn.;;
In water
7782-50-5

chlorine

1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

calcium hydroxide

A

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

B

7647-14-5

sodium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water absorption of Cl2 from MgCl2-electrolysis in Ca(OH)2 soln. and in aq. NaOH; filtration of NaCl and mixing both solutions; concg.;; pptn.;;

calcium hypochlorite trihydrate

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) dehydration of crystalline Ca(ClO)2*3H2O in vac. at 25-50 Torr and at 45-80°C;; pure product with about 90-95% "active chlorine";;
In neat (no solvent) dehydration of crystalline Ca(ClO)2*3H2O in vac. at 25-50 Torr and at 45-80°C;; pure product with about 90-95% "active chlorine";;

wollastonite

7782-50-5

chlorine

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In not given extraction of formed hypochlorite;;

calcium aluminate

7782-50-5

chlorine

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In not given extraction of formed hypochlorite;;

calcium(II) ion

14380-61-1

hypochlorite

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water from strongly alk. soln. by evapn. at low temp.;; solid Ca(ClO)2 obtained;;
14380-61-1

hypochlorite

calcium hydroxide

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water
In water
507-40-4

tert-butylhypochlorite

calcium hydroxide

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water
In water
14989-30-1

hypochloric acid

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium hydroxide In not given addn. of a HClO soln. to a cooled Ca(OH)2 soln. in small portions while stirring; the use of concd. solns. causes decompn.;; free of Cl(1-); only in soln.; not isolated;;
With CaCO3 In not given byproducts: CO2;
With Ca(OH)2 In not given addn. of a HClO soln. to a cooled Ca(OH)2 soln. in small portions while stirring; the use of concd. solns. causes decompn.;; free of Cl(1-); only in soln.; not isolated;;
7782-50-5

chlorine

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium hydroxide In water passing Cl2 into aq. Ca(OH)2; the formation of Ca(ClO3)2 depends on temperature;;
With calcium hydroxide In water passing Cl2 into aq. Ca(OH)2; exceeding of the point of neutralization yields Ca(ClO3)2 and O2; the formation of Ca(ClO3)2 depends also on temperature;;
With Ca(OH)2 In water passing Cl2 into aq. Ca(OH)2; the formation of Ca(ClO3)2 depends on temperature;;
With Ca(OH)2 In water passing Cl2 into aq. Ca(OH)2; exceeding of the point of neutralization yields Ca(ClO3)2 and O2; the formation of Ca(ClO3)2 depends also on temperature;;
7782-50-5

chlorine

calcium hydroxide

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide In water chlorination of aq. NaOH and addn. of Ca(OH)2 or chlorination of Ca(OH)2 soln. and addn. of NaOH or chlorination of Ca(OH)2 in aq. NaOH;;
With sodium hydroxide In water byproducts: NaCl; separation of Ca(ClO)2 or concg. the soln. to dryness or separation of NaCl first, then separation of Ca(ClO)2;;
With sodium hydroxide In water byproducts: NaCl; variations in process described;;
7782-50-5

chlorine

calcium hydroxide

A

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

B

calcium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In not given byproducts: H2O; react. is reversible;;
7782-50-5

chlorine

calcium hydroxide

A

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

B

Ca(2+)*2ClO(1-)*2Ca(OH)2=Ca(ClO)2*2Ca(OH)2

C

Ca(2+)*2ClO(1-)*Ca(OH)2=Ca(ClO)2*Ca(OH)2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water product ratio depends on content of acitive chlorine in soln.;; product separation possible;;
In water
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

69825-15-6

3,3-dimethyl-1,5-dioxaspiro<5.5>undecan-9-ol

69225-59-8

3,3-dimethyl-1,5-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecan-9-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydrogencarbonate In water; toluene; acetonitrile97.2%
With sodium hydrogencarbonate; sodium sulfate In water; toluene; acetonitrile
With sodium hydrogencarbonate; sodium sulfate In water; toluene; acetonitrile
In water; toluene; acetonitrile
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

potassium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium hydroxide; potassium carbonate In water
7758-19-2

sodium chlorite

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

144-55-8

sodium hydrogencarbonate

497-19-8

sodium carbonate

A

124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

10049-04-4, 25052-55-5

chlorine dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydrogen sulfate In water Product distribution / selectivity; Acidic aqueous solution;
With sodium hydrogen sulfate In water Product distribution / selectivity; Acidic aqueous solution;
With sulfuric acid In water Product distribution / selectivity;
1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

5329-14-6

aminosulfonic acid

A

17172-27-9

N-monochlorosulfamic acid

B

7732-18-5

water

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at 32.2122℃; for 0.25 - 0.5h; pH=2;
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

5329-14-6

aminosulfonic acid

10035-10-6, 12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

A

791750-27-1

N-bromosulfamic acid

B

7732-18-5

water

C

calcium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water Product distribution / selectivity;
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

5329-14-6

aminosulfonic acid

7647-15-6

sodium bromide

A

791750-27-1

N-bromosulfamic acid

B

7732-18-5

water

C

calcium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at 32.2122℃; for 0.25 - 0.5h; pH=2; Product distribution / selectivity;
7758-19-2

sodium chlorite

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

497-19-8

sodium carbonate

A

124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

10049-04-4, 25052-55-5

chlorine dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water Product distribution / selectivity; Acidic aqueous solution;
1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

791750-27-1

N-bromosulfamic acid

A

134509-56-1

N-bromosulfamic acid sodium salt

B

7732-18-5

water

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at 32.2122℃; Product distribution / selectivity;
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

3-methoxy-4,5-bis[(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-methoxy] benzaldehyde

152355-24-3

2-chloro-3,4-bis-[(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-methoxy]-5-methoxy benzaldehyde

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In dichloromethane; water
In dichloromethane; water
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

150698-77-4

2-chloro-5-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxyethyl)pyridine

150698-72-9

1-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With tetra(n-butyl)ammonium hydrogen sulfate In dichloromethane; water
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

150698-78-5

2-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-5-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxyethyl)pyridine

150698-73-0

2-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-5-trifluoroacetylpyridine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With tetra(n-butyl)ammonium hydrogen sulfate In dichloromethane; water
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

5317-89-5

4'-(methylsulfonylamino)acetophenone

N-(4-acetyl-2-chlorophenyl)methanesulfonamide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In ethyl acetate-pet; water
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

12125-02-9

ammonium chloride

10025-85-1

nitrogen trichloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride In dichloromethane; water at 4℃; for 0.75h;
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

105909-83-9

1-(3-phenyl-isoxazol-5-yl)-propan-1-ol

104179-49-9

1-(3-phenyl-isoxazol-5-yl)-propan-1-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With pyridine hydrochloride In dichloromethane
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

74-89-5

methylamine

6154-14-9

N-chloromethylamine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In nitrogen; kerosene
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

115-95-7

linalool acetate

79421-89-9

6-chloro-7-methylene-3-methyl-1-octen-3-yl acetate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With carbon dioxide; sodium hydrogencarbonate; sodium hydrogensulfite In dichloromethane; water
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

104-87-0

4-methyl-benzaldehyde

99-94-5

p-Toluic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With phosphoric acid
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

35704-19-9

N-(4-cyanophenyl)acetamide

53312-88-2

N-(2-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)acetamide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium chloride; acetic acid In ethanol; water
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

aqueous potassium hypochlorite

aqueous potassium hypochlorite

52490-15-0

2-n-Butyl-3-(4-hydroxy-benzoyl)-benzofuran

2-n-butyl-3-(3',5'-dichloro-4'-hydroxybenzoyl)benzofuran

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride; potassium hydroxide; sodium hydroxide; potassium carbonate In methanol; water
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

27143-12-0

ethyl chloro[(2,4-dichlorophenyl)hydrazono]acetate

Ethyl Dichloro [(2,4-dichlorophenyl)azo]acetate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In chloroform; water; benzene
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

53729-07-0

chloro-(2,4,6-trichloro-phenylhydrazono)-acetic acid ethyl ester

ethyl dichloro[(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)azo]acetate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In chloroform; water; benzene
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

methyl[3,5-dichloro-4-(4-aminophenoxy)-phenyl] acetate

methyl[3,5-dichloro-4-(4-amino-3-chlorophenoxy)phenyl]acetate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide In water; acetic acid; acetone
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

calcium oxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) heating;;
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With CoO or Co(2+)-salt In water byproducts: CaCl2, H2O; addn. of CoO or a Co(2+) salt to a suspension of Ca(ClO)2 in H2O; mechanism discussed;;
In neat (no solvent) decompn. of Ca(OCl)2 at 170 - 180 °C;;
In neat (no solvent) explosion at 100 - 110°C;;
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

7782-50-5

chlorine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With catalyst: Cu-Co-catalyst In neat (no solvent) heating mixture (25:1) at 60 - 120°C;;
In neat (no solvent) impured Ca(OCl)2 (data given) losses 0.1 % Cl2 at 90 °C for 3 h;;
In neat (no solvent) heating of 0.3520 g Ca(OCl)2 with 38.31 % Ca(Cl)OCl in air stream (free of CO2) for 7 h yield 0.003 g Cl2; the residue contains 30.3 % Ca(Cl)OCl;;
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

tin(IV) oxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
byproducts: O2, Cl2;
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

7803-51-2

phosphan

86119-84-8, 7664-38-2

phosphoric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In not given oxidation of PH3 with Ca(OCl)2 soln.;;
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

7782-50-5

chlorine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent)
In water Kinetics; at 25.0°C; trapped by KI;
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

cerium(III) ion

12014-56-1

cerium(IV) hydroxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at pH = 5.8 - 6.1;; pptn.;;
In water
7778-54-3

calcium hypochlorite

lead(II) chloride

A

7782-50-5

chlorine

B

lead dioxide

C

calcium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water
In water

Calcium hypochlorite Specification

Calcium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. With the cas number 7778-54-3, Calcium hypochlorite is a yellow white solid which has a strong smell of chlorine. It is not highly soluble in water, and is more preferably used in soft to medium-hard water. It has two forms: a dry form and a hydrated form. The hydrated form is safer to handle.It is widely used for water treatment and as a bleaching agent (bleaching powder). This chemical is considered to be relatively stable and has greater available chlorine than sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach).

Physical properties about Calcium hypochlorite are: (1)ACD/LogP: 0.712; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 0.71; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 0.48; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 2.03; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.19; (6)#H bond acceptors: 1 ; (7)#H bond donors: 1 ;

Preparation of Calcium hypochlorite: Calcium hypochlorite is manufactured by chlorination of calcium hydroxide [CaOH)2] followed by the separation of the calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2] through salting out from solution with sodium chloride.
2Ca(OH)2 + 2Cl2 → Ca(OCl)2 + CaCl2 + H2O

Calcium hypochlorite is also manufactured by the formation under refrigeration of the complex salt Ca(OCl)2 NaOCl.NaCl.12H2O, which is prepared by the chlorination of a mixture of sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide. The salt is reacted with a chlorinated lime slurry, filtered to remove salt, and dried, resulting finally in a stable product containing 65 to 70% calcium hypochlorite.

Uses of Calcium hypochlorite: 
1. Calcium hypochlorite is used for the disinfection of drinking water or swimming pool water. It is used as a sanitizer in outdoor swimming pools in combination with a cyanuric acid stabilizer, which reduces the loss of chlorine due to ultraviolet radiation. The calcium content hardens the water and tends to clog up some filters; hence, some products containing calcium hypochlorite also contain anti-scaling agents.

2. Calcium hypochlorite is also an ingredient in bleaching powder, used for bleaching cotton and linen. It is also used in bathroom cleaners, household disinfectant sprays, moss and algae removers, and weedkillers.

3. In addition, calcium hypochlorite may be used to manufacture chloroform. Bleaching powder is used also in sugar industry for bleaching sugar cane juice before its crystallization.

When you are using Calcium hypochlorite, please be cautious about it as the following: 
In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice;
Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection;
In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible);
Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data;

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)SMILES:[Ca+2].[O-]Cl.[O-]Cl;
(2)Std. InChI:InChI=1S/Ca.2ClO/c;2*1-2/q+2;2*-1;
(3)Std. InChIKey:ZKQDCIXGCQPQNV-UHFFFAOYSA-N

The toxicity data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
man TDLo oral 143mg/kg (143mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
Japanese Journal of Toxicology. Vol. 11, Pg. 137, 1998.
rabbit LDLo skin 2gm/kg (2000mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

BEHAVIORAL: FOOD INTAKE (ANIMAL)
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0570606,
rat LD50 oral 850mg/kg (850mg/kg)  

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