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Dimethyl sulfate

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Name

Dimethyl sulfate

EINECS 201-058-1
CAS No. 77-78-1 Density 1.323 g/cm3
PSA 60.98000 LogP 0.60480
Solubility 2.8 g/100 mL (18 ºC) Melting Point -32 °C
Formula C2H6O4S Boiling Point 187.999 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 126.13 Flash Point 83.333 °C
Transport Information UN 1595 6.1/PG 1 Appearance colourless liquid
Safety 53-45 Risk Codes 45-25-26-34-43-68
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 77-78-1 (Sulfuricacid, dimethyl ester) Hazard Symbols VeryT+
Synonyms

Dimethyl sulphate;Methyl sulfate;NSC 56194;

 

Dimethyl sulfate Synthetic route

121-45-9

phosphorous acid trimethyl ester

A

512-56-1

trimethyl phosphite

B

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfur trioxide In dichloromethane at -50℃;A 7%
B 93%
67-56-1

methanol

7,12-epoxy-5,6,6a,7,12,12a-hexahydro-2-methoxybenz[a]anthracen-5-one

A

1350749-76-6

2,5-dimethoxybenz[a]anthracene

B

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfuric acid for 18h; Reflux; Inert atmosphere;A 88%
B n/a
121-45-9

phosphorous acid trimethyl ester

A

512-56-1

trimethyl phosphite

B

152-18-1

O,O,O-trimethylthiophosphate

C

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

D

756-79-6

dimethyl methane phosphonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfur trioxide In dichloromethane at -78℃; Product distribution; other trialkyl phosphite,trialkyl phosphine, trialkyl arsines, trialkoxyarsines, var. molar ratio and temperatures;A 22%
B 4%
C 55%
D 19%
With sulfur trioxide In dichloromethane at -78℃;A 48%
B 16%
C 3%
D 9%
6596-95-8

trimethylarsenite

A

80398-42-1

dimethoxyarsenic methyl sulfate

B

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfur trioxide In dichloromethane at -50℃;A 39%
B 27%
6596-95-8

trimethylarsenite

A

80398-43-2

methoxyarsenic bis(methyl sulfate)

B

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfur trioxide In dichloromethane at -50℃;A 28%
B 38%
6596-95-8

trimethylarsenite

A

80398-44-3

arsenic tris(methyl sulfate)

B

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfur trioxide In dichloromethane at -50℃;A 19%
B 21%
149-73-5

trimethyl orthoformate

A

107-31-3

Methyl formate

B

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfuric acid Etherification; Heating;A n/a
B 10%
77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethyl ether; sulfuric acid
67-56-1

methanol

812-01-1

methyl chlorosulfate

A

74-87-3

methylene chloride

B

75-93-4

methyl bisulfate

C

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at -15 - -10℃; und folgenden Destillieren unter vermindertem Druck;
67-56-1

methanol

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With chlorosulfonic acid at -15 - -10℃;
With sulfuric acid bei der Destillation;
With sulfuric acid anschliessend man destilliert das Reaktionsgemisch im Vakuum;
624-91-9

methyl nitrite

812-01-1

methyl chlorosulfate

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

624-91-9

methyl nitrite

625-01-4

ethyl chlorosulfate

A

64-67-5

diethyl sulfate

B

814-40-4

ethyl methane sulfate

C

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

616-42-2

dimethylsulfite

812-01-1

methyl chlorosulfate

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 120 - 190℃;
616-42-2

dimethylsulfite

812-01-1

methyl chlorosulfate

A

74-87-3

methylene chloride

B

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 120 - 190℃;
616-42-2

dimethylsulfite

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With chlorine
With chlorine at 120 - 140℃;
75-93-4

methyl bisulfate

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
bei der Destillation im Vakuum;
75-93-4

methyl bisulfate

A

812-01-1

methyl chlorosulfate

B

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With chlorosulfonic acid at 90 - 100℃;
814-40-4

ethyl methane sulfate

A

64-67-5

diethyl sulfate

B

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

115-10-6

Dimethyl ether

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfur trioxide
With sulfuric acid at 160℃; man leitet, erhitzt ist, und destilliert dann das Gemisch;
With sulfur trioxide Darstellung;
With sulfuric acid byproducts: H2O;
With H2SO4 byproducts: H2O;
75-93-4

methyl bisulfate

79-22-1

methyl chloroformate

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 60 - 100℃; reagiert analog mit Monoaethylsulfat;
at 60 - 100℃;
at 60 - 100℃;
78456-50-5

2-(4-methylphenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine

A

109-83-1

(2-hydroxyethyl)(methyl)amine

B

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide; acetic acid buffer In acetonitrile at 25℃; Rate constant; Mechanism; var. time, var. buffer, var. pH;
80-48-8

methyl p-toluene sulfonate

A

10506-59-9

dimethyl disulfate

B

4124-41-8

p-toluenesulfonylanhydride

C

49829-22-3

methyl 4-toluenepyrosulfonate

D

76443-13-5

C8H10O9S3

E

76443-14-6

mixed anhydride of 4-toluenesulfonic acid and 4-toluenepyrosulfonic acid

F

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfur trioxide at 100℃; Product distribution; other temperature, other molar ratio of reagents;A n/a
B n/a
C 26.7 % Spectr.
D 4.5 % Spectr.
E n/a
F n/a
60-29-7

diethyl ether

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
reagiert analog mit Selensaeure;
alkaline earth salt of/the/ methylsulfuric acid

alkaline earth salt of/the/ methylsulfuric acid

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

lithium salt of/the/ methylsulfuric acid

lithium salt of/the/ methylsulfuric acid

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

67-56-1

methanol

oleum

oleum

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Darstellung;
59-49-4

2-Benzoxazolinone

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

21892-80-8

3-methylbenzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Alkaline conditions;100%
With sodium hydroxide In water at 70 - 80℃; for 1h;90%
With sodium hydroxide for 0.5h;90%
533-31-3

Sesamol

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

7228-35-5

5-methoxybenzo[d]1,3-dioxole

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With tetraethylammonium hydroxide at 0 - 20℃; for 1h;100%
With sodium hydroxide In water for 1h; Heating;99%
With potassium hydroxide
With potassium carbonate In acetone Heating; Yield given;
Alkaline conditions;
90-02-8

salicylaldehyde

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

135-02-4

ortho-anisaldehyde

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetone100%
Stage #1: salicylaldehyde With sodium hydroxide In water
Stage #2: dimethyl sulfate In 1,4-dioxane; water at 70℃; for 0.0333333h; Temperature; Solvent; Concentration;
95.6%
With sodium hydroxide86%
89-63-4

4-Chloro-2-nitroaniline

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

15950-17-1

4-chloro-N-methyl-2-nitroaniline

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide; tetra(n-butyl)ammonium hydrogensulfate In water; toluene at 20℃; Methylation;100%
With tetra(n-butyl)ammonium hydrogensulfate; sodium hydroxide In water; toluene at 20℃;94%
5792-36-9

2',4'-dihydroxypropiophenone

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

6270-44-6

2-hydroxy-4-methoxypropiophenone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetone for 7h; Heating;100%
With potassium carbonate; benzene
With potassium carbonate In acetone Heating;
75-18-3

dimethylsulfide

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

2181-44-4

trimethylsulfonium methylsulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetonitrile Cooling with ice;100%
In acetone for 5h;75%
632-46-2

2,6-dimethylbenzoic acid

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

14920-81-1

methyl 2,6-dimethylbenzoate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetone at 20℃;100%
With potassium carbonate In acetone at 20℃; for 4h;93%
With potassium hydroxide
With potassium carbonate at 25℃; for 1h;
117-02-2

rubiadin

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

22170-88-3

1,3-dimethoxy-2-methylanthraquinone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetone for 22h; Reflux;100%
With potassium carbonate; acetone
591-35-5

3,5-dichlorophenol

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

33719-74-3

3,5-dichloroanisole

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetone for 3h;100%
With potassium carbonate In acetone for 3h; Ambient temperature;100%
With sodium hydroxide
480-66-0

2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

90-24-4

2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetone Inert atmosphere;100%
With potassium carbonate In acetone for 3h; Reflux;100%
With potassium carbonate In acetone at 66℃; for 2h; Inert atmosphere;100%
70547-87-4

2,6-dimethyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

19447-00-8

4-methoxy-2,6-dimethylbenzylaldehyde

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetonitrile at 25℃; for 16h;100%
With sodium hydroxide In water at 10℃; for 2h;85%
With potassium hydroxide at 35℃;
89-86-1

4-hydroxysalicylic acid

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

2150-41-6

methyl 2, 4-dimethoxybenzoate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate100%
With potassium hydroxide at 50℃;
With potassium hydroxide
With potassium carbonate In DMF (N,N-dimethyl-formamide) at 70 - 115℃; for 10.5h;
With potassium carbonate In acetone
95-71-6

2-methylbenzene-1,4-diol

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

24599-58-4

2,5-dimethoxy toluene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetone at 20℃; for 24h;100%
With potassium carbonate In butanone for 24h;94%
With potassium hydroxide In methanol for 8h; steam distillation;82%
132-86-5

1,3-dihydroxynaphthalene

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

10075-61-3

1,3-dimethoxynaphthalene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetone100%
With potassium hydroxide
With potassium carbonate In acetone Heating;
With potassium carbonate In acetone
609-23-4

2,4,6-Triiodophenol

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

63238-41-5

1,3,5-triiodo-2-methoxybenzene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetonitrile Reflux; Inert atmosphere;100%
With potassium hydroxide
23121-32-6

1-(2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-phenyl)-ethanone

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

39701-13-8

2',4',6'-trimethoxy-3'-methylacetophenone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetone100%
With potassium hydroxide
With potassium carbonate; acetone
52427-05-1

2-bromo-5-nitrophenol

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

77337-82-7

1-bromo-2-methoxy-4-nitrobenzene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: 2-bromo-5-nitrophenol With lithium hydroxide In tetrahydrofuran at 0℃; for 1h;
Stage #2: dimethyl sulfate at 20℃;
100%
With sodium hydroxide
197243-48-4

2-iodo-3-nitrophenol

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

98991-08-3

2-iodo-1-methoxy-3-nitrobenzene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With tetraethylammonium bromide; sodium hydroxide In dichloromethane; water at 20℃; for 6h;100%
With sodium hydroxide
With potassium hydroxide Yield given;
77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

92-44-4

2,3-naphthalenediol

10103-06-7

2,3-dimethoxynaphthalene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide; triisooctyl amine In dichloromethane; water at 0℃; for 10h;100%
With sodium hydroxide In dichloromethane; water at 0℃; for 10h;100%
With potassium carbonate In acetone for 15h; Heating;94%
77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

86-48-6

1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid

948-03-8

1-hydroxy-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With lithium hydroxide In tetrahydrofuran for 1h; Methylation; esterification; Heating;100%
Stage #1: 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid With lithium hydroxide In tetrahydrofuran for 0.5h;
Stage #2: dimethyl sulfate In tetrahydrofuran for 3h; Heating;
95.9%
Stage #1: 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid With triethylamine In acetone for 0.25h; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: dimethyl sulfate In acetone at 55℃; for 12h; Inert atmosphere;
95%
77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

593-53-3

Methyl fluoride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium fluoride In water at 100℃; for 5h; Solvent; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature;100%
With potassium fluoride In water at 100℃; under 1125.11 Torr; for 5h; Reagent/catalyst; Solvent; Temperature;100%
With potassium fluoride In sulfolane at 100℃; under 750.075 Torr; for 0.166667h; Solvent; Temperature; Autoclave;92%
With potassium fluoride
With sodium fluoride In sulfolane
68-12-2, 33513-42-7

N,N-dimethyl-formamide

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

21511-55-7, 34643-89-5

(methoxymethylidene)dimethylammonium methyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 80℃; for 2h; Schlenk technique; Inert atmosphere;100%
at 20 - 80℃; Inert atmosphere;100%
In neat (no solvent) at 20 - 80℃; Inert atmosphere;100%
87-91-2

diethyl (2R,3R)-tartrate

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

27957-93-3

(+)-(2R,3R)-diethyl di-O-methyltartrate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydride In diethyl ether at 0 - 20℃; Inert atmosphere;100%
With sodium hydride In diethyl ether at 0 - 20℃; Inert atmosphere;100%
With sodium hydride In diethyl ether at 0 - 20℃;100%
With sodium hydride In diethyl ether
945-40-4

3,6-dimethylnaphthalene-1,8-diol

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

1,8-dimethoxy-3,6-dimethylnaphthalene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetone for 32h; Inert atmosphere; Reflux;100%
With potassium carbonate In acetone
With potassium carbonate In acetone for 32h; Inert atmosphere; Reflux;
289-06-5

1,3,4-thiadiazole

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

114395-38-9

3-Methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazolium-methylsulfat

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In dichloromethane for 0.5h; Heating;100%
4394-85-8

4-morpholinecarboxaldehyde

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

5780-15-4

4-(Methoxymethylene)-morpholinium methyl sulfate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 60 - 70℃; for 3h;100%
at 70℃; for 2h;
719-59-5

2-Amino-5-chlorobenzophenone

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

1022-13-5

5-chloro-2-(methylamino)benzophenone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide; tetrabutylammomium bromide In tetrahydrofuran at 60℃; for 1h;100%
With sodium hydroxide; tetrabutylammomium bromide; potassium carbonate In tetrahydrofuran at 30 - 35℃; for 2.5h;96%
58488-39-4

2,5-bis(1,3-benzodithiol-2-yl)pyrrole

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

153850-73-8

2,5-bis(1,3-benzodithiol-2-yl)-1-methylpyrrole

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide; tetraethylammonium bromide In dichloromethane Heating;100%
68-12-2, 33513-42-7

N,N-dimethyl-formamide

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

4637-24-5

N,N-dimethyl-formamide dimethyl acetal

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With nitrogen at 80℃; for 2h;100%
With sodium 1.) 3 h, 60-80 degC: 2.) 0 degC, methanol; Yield given. Multistep reaction;
at 60℃; for 3h;
54287-99-9

5-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carbaldehyde

77-78-1

dimethyl sulfate

79571-17-8

5-(methoxy)-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carbaldehyde

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In acetone at 20℃; for 20h; Inert atmosphere;100%
With potassium carbonate In acetone at 20℃; for 20h; Inert atmosphere;100%
With potassium carbonate In acetone at 20℃;100%
With potassium carbonate In acetone for 1h; Heating;52 mg
With potassium carbonate In acetone at 20℃; for 20h; Inert atmosphere;1.5 g

Dimethyl sulfate History

DIMETHYL SULFATE(77-78-1) was first discovered in the early 1800s in an impure form. P. Claesson later extensively studied its preparation.

Dimethyl sulfate Consensus Reports

NTP 10th Report on Carcinogens. IARC Cancer Review: Group 2A IMEMDT    IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 7 , 1987,p. 200.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.: ) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT    IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 4 , 1974,p. 271.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.: ) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT    IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 4 , 1974,p. 271.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.: ) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) . EPA Genetic Toxicology Program. Community Right-To-Know List. EPA Extremely Hazardous Substances List. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Dimethyl sulfate Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: TWA 0.1 ppm (skin)
ACGIH TLV: TWA 0.1 ppm (skin); Animal Carcinogen
DFG MAK: DFG TRK: Production: 0.02 ppm; Use: 0.04 ppm; Animal Carcinogen, Suspected Human Carcinogen
DOT Classification:  3; Label: Poison, Corrosive

Dimethyl sulfate Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use NIOSH: Dimethyl Sulfate, 2524.

Dimethyl sulfate Specification

The IUPAC name of this chemical is Dimethyl sulfate. With the CAS registry number 77-78-1 and EINECS registry number 201-058-1, it is also named as Sulfuricacid, dimethyl ester. In addition, the molecular formula is C2H6O4S and the molecular weight is 126.13. It is a kind of colourless liquid and belongs to the class of Pharmaceutical Intermediates.

Physical properties about this chemical are: (1)ACD/LogP: 0.12; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 0.121; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 0.121; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1; (6)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 27.723; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 27.723; (8)#H bond acceptors: 4; (9)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 2; (10)Polar Surface Area: 60.98 Å2; (11)Index of Refraction: 1.41; (12)Molar Refractivity: 23.597 cm3; (13)Molar Volume: 95.306 cm3; (14)Polarizability: 9.355 ×10-24cm3; (15)Surface Tension: 36.492 dyne/cm; (16)Density: 1.323 g/cm3; (17)Flash Point: 83.333 °C; (18)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 40.684 kJ/mol; (19)Boiling Point: 187.999 °C at 760 mmHg; (20)Vapour Pressure: 0.845 mmHg at 25°C.

Preparation of Dimethyl sulfate: it can be prepared by methanol with sulfuric acid. The methanol react with sulfuric acid to give methyl hydrogen sulfate at first. Then the methyl hydrogen sulfate can react with methanol to get dimethyl ether. At last, dimethyl ether react with sulfur trioxide to prepare the product.

Dimethyl sulfate can be prepared by methanol with sulfuric acid

Uses of Dimethyl sulfate: it can be used as a reagent for the methylation of phenols, amines, and thiols. And it can effect the base-specific cleavage of guanine in DNA by rupturing the imidazole rings present in guanine. This process can be used to determine base sequencing, cleavage on the DNA chain, and other applications. In addition, it can react with 1H-benzoimidazole to get 1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazole. This reaction will need reagents K2CO3 and triethylbenzylammonium chloride and solvent benzene. The reaction time is 0.5 hour at reaction temperature of 20 °C. The yield is about 50%.

Dimethyl sulfate can react with 1H-benzoimidazole to get 1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazole

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
This chemical is toxic if swallowed and very toxic by inhalation. And it can cause burns and may cause sensitization by skin contact. Moreover, it may cause cancer and has risk of irreversible effects possibly. You should avoid exposure - obtain special instruction before use. During using it, in case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible).

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)SMILES: COS(=O)(=O)OC
(2)InChI: InChI=1/C2H6O4S/c1-5-7(3,4)6-2/h1-2H3
(3)InChIKey: VAYGXNSJCAHWJZ-UHFFFAOYAK

The toxicity data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
guinea pig LC50 inhalation 32ppm/1H (32ppm)   "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986Vol. -, Pg. 1079, 1986.
human LCLo inhalation 97ppm/10M (97ppm)   "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 226, 1969.
mouse LC50 inhalation 280mg/m3 (280mg/m3) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER CHANGES: OLFACTION

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION
Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 23(3), Pg. 28, 1979.
mouse LD50 oral 140mg/kg (140mg/kg)   Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 23(3), Pg. 28, 1979.
rabbit LDLo intravenous 50mg/kg (50mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY) Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 47, Pg. 113, 1902.
rabbit LDLo oral 45mg/kg (45mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: FOOD INTAKE (ANIMAL) Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 47, Pg. 113, 1902.
rabbit LDLo subcutaneous 53mg/kg (53mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY)

SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): "DERMATITIS, OTHER: AFTER SYSTEMIC EXPOSURE"
Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 47, Pg. 113, 1902.
rat LC50 inhalation 45mg/m3/4H (45mg/m3) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS

BLOOD: HEMORRHAGE
Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 24(11), Pg. 55, 1980.
rat LD50 oral 205mg/kg (205mg/kg)   Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 23(3), Pg. 28, 1979.
rat LD50 subcutaneous 100mg/kg (100mg/kg)   Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung. Vol. 74, Pg. 241, 1970.

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