2,4-Dinitrotoluene is used largely, along with the 2,6-isomer,
to make toluene diisocyanate. The DNT mixture is hydrogenated
to yield the diamine that is reacted with phosgene to
form the diisocyanate that is reacted with polyols to make
polyurethane foams. DNT is also employed to some
extent in manufacturing explosives.
Crystallise it from Me2CO, isopropanol or MeOH. Dry it in a vacuum over H2SO4. It has also been purified by zone melting. It could be EXPLOSIVE when dry.[Beilstein 5 H339, 5 IV 865, 5 III 759.]
The major biliary metabolite of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-
DNT) in the rat is the glucuronide conjugate of 2,4-
dinitrobenzyl alcohol and the minor metabolites are
2,4-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, 2,4-dinitrobenzaldehyde, 2-
acetylamino-4-nitrotoluene, 4-amino-2-nitro or 2-
amino-4-nitrobenzyl alcohol sulfate, 2,4-dinitrobenzoic
acid, 2,4-diacetylaminobenzoic acid, and 2-amino-4-
Heated yellow liquid. Solidifies if allowed to cool. Insoluble in water and more dense than water. Toxic by skin absorption, inhalation and ingestion. Easily absorbed through the skin. Produces toxic oxides of nitrogen during combustion. Used to make dyes and other chemicals.
DINITROTOLUENE is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, caustics, active metals, tin and zinc . Decomposition occurs at 250°C. Prolonged heating below 250°C causes some decomposition, and the presence of impurities may decrease the decomposition temperatures. Decomposition is self-sustaining at 280°C. Containers may explode in a fire [USCG, 1999]. May react violently in the presence of a base or when heated to the boiling point. Attacks some forms of plastics, rubbers and coatings .
Biological. When 2,4-dinitrotoluene was statically incubated in the dark at 25 °C with yeast
extract and settled domestic wastewater inoculum, significant biodegradation with gradual
acclimation was followed by deadaptive process in subsequent subcultures. At a concentration of 5
mg/L, 77, 61, 50, and 27% losses were observed after 7, 14, 21, and 28-d incubation periods,
respectively. At a concentration of 10 mg/L, only 50, 49, 44, and 23% were observed after 7, 14,
21, and 28-d incubation periods, respectively (Tabak et al., 1981).
Photolytic. Low et al. (1991) reported that nitro-containing compounds (e.g., 2,4-dinitrophenol)
degrade via UV light in the presence of titanium dioxide yielding ammonium, carbonate, and
nitrate ions. By analogy, 2,4-dinitrotoluene should degrade forming identical ions.
Chemical/Physical. Wet oxidation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene at 320 °C yielded formic and acetic
acids (Randall and Knopp, 1980).
Yellow to red needles or yellow liquid with a faint, characteristic odor
A metabolite of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene). The metabolites of TNT
Dinitrotoluene induced sensitization in an employee of
a manufacturers of explosives, also sensitized to
Air & Water Reactions
Insoluble in water.
Ingestion or overexposure to vapors from hot liquid can cause loss of color, nausea, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, collapse. Hot liquid can burn eyes and skin. Prolonged skin contact with solid can give same symptoms as after inhalation or ingestion.
ChEBI: A dinitrotoluene in which the methyl group is ortho to one of the nitro groups and para to the other. It is the most common isomer of dinitrotoluene.
with experimental carcinogenic and
neoplastigenic data. Poison by ingestion and
subcutaneous routes. Experimental
reproductive effects. A skin irritant.
Mutation data reported. An irritant and an
allergen. Can cause anemia,
methemoglobinemia, cyanosis, and liver
damage. Combustible when exposed to heat
or flame; can react with oxidtzing materials.
To fight fire, use water spray or mist, dry
chemical. Decomposes when heated to
250℃. There are instances of explosion
during manufacture or storage. Mixture with
nitric acid is a hgh explosive. Mixture with
sodtum carbonate can decompose with significant pressure increase at 210°C.Mixtures with other alkalies may have the
same effect. Ignttes on contact with sodium
oxide. When heated to decomposition it
emits toxic fumes of NOx