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Levulinic acid Manufacturer/High quality/Best price/In stock
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USD $ 3.0-3.0 / Kilogram 1 Kilogram 1-100 Metric Ton/Month Dayang Chem (Hangzhou) Co.,Ltd. Contact Supplier
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high quality 123-76-2 Levulinic acid
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USD $ 1.0-2.0 / Gram 10 Gram 12 Kilogram/Day Hubei Jusheng Technology Co., Ltd., Contact Supplier
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Levulinic acid
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USD $ 3.0-10.0 / Kilogram 1 Kilogram 99999 Kilogram/Year Hangzhou Dingyan Chem Co., Ltd Contact Supplier
4-oxopentanoic acid
Cas No: 123-76-2
USD $ 660.0-720.0 / Metric Ton 1 Metric Ton 10 Metric Ton/Month Hebei yanxi chemical co.,LTD. Contact Supplier

123-76-2 Usage

Preparation

By action of more or less concentrated HCl on sucrose, glucose or fructose; hence, its reported presence in caramels.

Toxicity

GRAS (FEMA).

Content analysis

Accurately weigh about 1.0 g of the sample, and put it into a 250ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 75~100ml water, add phenolphthalein test solution; apply 0.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide for titration to until it began to appear pink and maintain 15 s. Each mL of 0.5mol/L sodium hydroxide solution is equivalent to 58.08mg of the goods.

Usage limit

FEMA (mg/kg): Beverage, cold drink, 14.0; Candy, baked goods, 53.0; Gelatin, pudding, 4.0. FDA, §172.515 (2000): take proper amount as limit.

Occurrence

Reported found in papaya, wheat bread, rice, sake and Chinese quince.

Chemical Properties

Levulinic acid has a tart, whiskey taste.

Chemical Properties

White flake crystals, hygroscopic. clear yellowish liquid after melting.It is easily soluble in water and alcohol, ether organic solvents. Levulinic acid conventionally is derived from refined petroleum but technological advances now permit the production of levulinic acid from biomass. Suitable feedstocks from the forest industry include pulp and paper mill residues, sawmill and logging residues, and solid municipal waste. It takes approximately 2 kg of cellulose to produce 1 kg of levulinic acid (US Department of Energy 1998). Obtaining enough raw materials to support the production of levulinic acid from biomass is not a foreseeable concern; Canada currently produces over 75 million tonnes of logging residues annually which, in turn, could produce 19 million tonnes of levulinic acid.

Uses

Levulinic acid is a biomass product and its derivatives, such as ethyl levulinate and alkyl levulinate, can be used as fuel additives. levulinic acid is used for calcium levulinate in pharmaceuticals, as esters in solvents and plasticizers, and for making valerolactone. As its uses expand, it will probably be made from cellulosic wastes. Mesitonic acid, a homolog of levulinic acid is obtained by boiing mesityl oxide with KCN. Hydrogenation of levulinic acid can produce other useful chemicals. Valeric-g-lactone, which is an effective solvent with extensive uses, can be obtained in very high yields. This compound may be hydrogenated to 1,4-pentandiol, which upon dehydration yields 1,3-pentadine (piperylene). Piperylene is known to polymerize to a rubbery mass and is therefore a source of synthetic rubber (Ghorpade and Hanna 1997). Levulinic acid is a precursor for the synthesis of useful intermediates such as γ-valerolactone, ethyl levulinate, pentanoic acid and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran. Derivatization and esterification of levulinic acid results in potential biofuels. It can also be used in: The preparation of catalytic composite to synthesize 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural. The synthesis of a commercial fragrance, fraistone. The synthesis of pyrrolidone derivatives via reductive amination. The total synthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan.

Application

It can be used as the raw materials of medicine, spices and paint, and used as solvent. This product has wide applications. Levulinic acid can be used as both a carboxylic acid and can also be used as a ketone for reaction for making various kinds of products through esterification, halogenation, hydrogenation, oxidation dehydrogenation, condensation, etc., including resins, pharmaceuticals, spices, solvents, rubber and plastic additives, lubricants additives, surfactants and so on. In the pharmaceutical industry, its calcium salt (calcium fructose) can be used for intravenous injection. As a nutritional medicine, it helps to boost the formation of bone and maintain the normal excitability of nerves and muscles. It can also used for the production of indomethacin and plant hormones. Levulinic acid manufactured bisphenol acid can be made of water-soluble resin, used in the paper industry to produce filter paper. Levulinic acid is also an intermediate of pesticides and dyes. Used for biochemical reagents, but also for organic synthesis It can be used as an important chemical raw material or solvents. It can be used for the manufacturing of medicine (intravenous injection, indomethacin, etc.), resin (bisphenol acid water-soluble resin), spices (spices or tobacco spices), paint, paint, pesticides, and surfactants. It can be used for biochemical research; manufacturing of esters and drugs. It is also the inhibitor of chlorophyll synthesis.

Description

Levulinic acid has a tart, whiskey taste. It may be synthesized by the action of more or less concentrated HCL on sucrose, glucose, or fructose; hence, its reported presence in caramels.

Uses

Replenisher (calcium).

Synthesis Reference(s)

Tetrahedron Letters, 30, p. 5329, 1989 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(01)93778-5

Preparation

The residue during the manufacturing of furfural with cotton seed shell or corncob sugar (furfural residue) or waste taro residue, through pressured hydrolysis with dilute acid, can be used to produce levulinic acid. The furfural residue was added to 10% dilute hydrochloric acid, the solidified solution was 1: 1.75, mixed and put into the hydrolysis pot, steamed at a pressure of 0.2MPa for 8-10 h. The diluted solution is then filtered and concentrated to a concentration of about 50%. It is further subject to vacuum distillation for collecting the fraction above 130 ℃ (2.67kPa) to obtain the finished product. Raw material consumption quota: potato tacar 7,000 kg/t, hydrochloric acid (fold 100%) 1800kg/t. Another method is manufacturing through the rearrangement and hydrolysis of sugar alcohol. 4% hydrochloric acid solution was added to the reaction pot, stir and heat to 97-100 ℃, slowly add the mixture of furfuryl alcohol, ethanol and water. After addition, stir 30 min. The filtrate was concentrated at 80 ° C (21.3 kPa) under reduced pressure to give crude levulinic acid. Then apply vacuum distillation, collect the fraction of 160-170 ° C (2.67kPa), and then re-distill once, to obtain the refined levulinic acid with the yield of about 75%.

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 70 ppm: acidic, sweet, creamy and slight dairy.
InChI:InChI=1/C5H8O3/c1-4(6)2-3-5(7)8/h2-3H2,1H3,(H,7,8)/p-1

123-76-2 Well-known Company Product Price

Brand (Code)Product description CAS number Packaging Price Detail
TCI America (L0042)  Levulinic Acid  >97.0%(GC)(T) 123-76-2 25g 111.00CNY Detail
TCI America (L0042)  Levulinic Acid  >97.0%(GC)(T) 123-76-2 500g 436.00CNY Detail
Alfa Aesar (A10813)  Levulinic acid, 98%    123-76-2 250g 358.0CNY Detail
Alfa Aesar (A10813)  Levulinic acid, 98%    123-76-2 1000g 1108.0CNY Detail
Alfa Aesar (A10813)  Levulinic acid, 98%    123-76-2 5000g 4741.0CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (41474)  Levulinicacid  analytical standard 123-76-2 41474-100MG 458.64CNY Detail

123-76-2SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 10, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 10, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name 4-oxopentanoic acid

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names laevulinic acid

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Food additives -> Flavoring Agents
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:123-76-2 SDS

123-76-2Synthetic route

4-pentynoic acid
6089-09-4

4-pentynoic acid

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at 90℃; for 7h; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature;100%
With [RhCl2(p-cymene)]2; water at 20℃; for 12h;92%
gold(I) chloride In acetonitrile at 20℃;77%
4-oxopentanal
626-96-0

4-oxopentanal

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C4H11FeMo6NO24(3-)*3C16H36N(1+); water; oxygen; sodium carbonate at 50℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 8h; Green chemistry;99%
With 4H3N*4H(1+)*CuMo6O18(OH)6(4-); water; oxygen; sodium carbonate at 50℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 12h;95%
With silver(l) oxide
5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde
67-47-0

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde

D-Fructose
57-48-7

D-Fructose

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfuric acid; water at 90℃; for 1h; Concentration;96%
D-Fructose
57-48-7

D-Fructose

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfuric acid In water at 100 - 120℃; for 3h; Temperature; Concentration; Flow reactor;94.83%
With [1-(3-sulfonic acid)]propyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate In water at 170℃; for 5h; Autoclave;76.7%
With Amberlyst-15 In 1,4-dioxane; water at 150℃; for 3h; Reagent/catalyst; Solvent; Time;71%
5-methylenedihydrofuran-2-one
10008-73-8

5-methylenedihydrofuran-2-one

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Lewalit S 100 G1 In benzene for 6h; Ambient temperature;94%
With dichlorobis(dimethyl sulfoxide)platinum(II) In water at 37℃; for 24h;
5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one
108-29-2

5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In potassium hydroxide at 30℃; electrolysis: nickel hydroxide electrode, 1.5-1.6 V;94%
With tetraethylammonium bromide In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 20℃;78%
5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde
67-47-0

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With [1-(3-sulfonic acid)]propyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate In water at 170℃; for 5h; Autoclave;93.4%
sulfuric acid In 2-sec-butylphenol; water at 150℃; for 1h; Product distribution / selectivity;90%
With water at 155 - 160℃; im Autoklaven;
diethyl acetylsuccinate
1115-30-6

diethyl acetylsuccinate

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride for 2.5h; Heating; also by alkaline hydrolysis with 10percent aq. KOH;93%
With hydrogenchloride
With hydrogenchloride at 90℃; for 4h; Yield given;
5-chloromethylfurfural
1623-88-7

5-chloromethylfurfural

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride; water at 190℃; for 0.333333h; Sealed vessel;93%
With water at 190℃; for 0.333333h; sealed tube;91.2%
5-(2-furaldehyde)methyl formate
102390-86-3

5-(2-furaldehyde)methyl formate

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at 120℃; for 4h; Sealed tube;92%
cellulose

cellulose

A

D-glucose
50-99-7

D-glucose

B

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dodecatungstophosphoric acid hydrate; 1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride In water at 139.84℃; for 5h; Reagent/catalyst;A 89%
B n/a
With water at 150℃; for 12h; Autoclave;A 12%
B 42%
With 1-(3-sulfopropyl)pyridinium phosphotungstate; water at 150℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 5h; Autoclave; Inert atmosphere;A 32.9%
B 18.1%
D-Fructose
57-48-7

D-Fructose

A

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde
67-47-0

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde

B

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water; iso-butanol at 180℃; Temperature;A 10%
B 89%
With hydrogenchloride; water In 4-methyl-2-pentanone at 140℃; for 0.25h;A 74%
B n/a
With hydrogenchloride; water In methanol at 140℃; for 1.33333h;A 11%
B 72%
1,4-Pentanediol
626-95-9

1,4-Pentanediol

A

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

B

5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one
108-29-2

5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium permanganate; copper(II) sulfate In dichloromethaneA n/a
B 87%
With potassium permanganate; copper(II) sulfate In dichloromethaneA 21%
B 32%
5-chloromethylfurfural
1623-88-7

5-chloromethylfurfural

A

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde
67-47-0

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde

B

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water for 0.00694444h; Reflux;A 86%
B 10%
With water at 100℃; for 0.00833333h;A 86.2%
B 9.9%
With water In tetrahydrofuran at 100℃; for 0.0416667h;A 71%
B 20%
3-oxoadipic acid
689-31-6

3-oxoadipic acid

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride at 100℃; for 1h;86%
methanol
67-56-1

methanol

2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one
80-71-7

2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one

A

methyl 4-carboxy-2-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoate
100813-24-9

methyl 4-carboxy-2-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoate

B

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With oxygen; methylene blue at 0℃; for 15h; Irradiation;A 85%
B 10%
furfural
98-01-1

furfural

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With formic acid; C32H34N2PRu(1+)*F6P(1-); water at 120℃; for 6h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Time; Temperature; Autoclave;84%
With formic acid; [Ru(η6-C6H6)Cl(N,N-ethylenediamine)]PF6 In water at 100℃; for 8h; Kinetics; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Concentration; Temperature;42%
With formic acid; [Cp*Ir-(4,4’-dimethoxyl-2,2’-bipyridine)(OH2)][SO4] In aq. buffer at 120℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 4h; pH=1; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Sealed tube;14%
With formic acid; [(η6-benzene)RuCl(8-aminoquinoline)]Cl; water at 80℃; for 24h; Catalytic behavior; Kinetics; Time; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Green chemistry;
cellulose

cellulose

A

formic acid
64-18-6

formic acid

B

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride; water at 199.84℃; for 0.166667h; Concentration; Temperature; Time;A 83%
B 43%
With water at 185 - 205℃; for 0.420833h; Product distribution / selectivity; Acidic conditions;A 82%
B n/a
With 5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one at 159.84℃; for 16h;A 20%
B 69%
pent-4-enoic acid
591-80-0

pent-4-enoic acid

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With iron(III) sulfate hydrate; palladium dichloride In water; acetonitrile at 45℃; for 12h; Wacker Oxidation; Inert atmosphere;82%
With palladium diacetate; Dess-Martin periodane In water; acetonitrile at 50℃; Wacker-Tsuji Olefin Oxidation; Inert atmosphere;75%
4-oxopentanoic acid ethyl ester
539-88-8

4-oxopentanoic acid ethyl ester

A

Ethyl γ-hydroxyvalerate
6149-46-8

Ethyl γ-hydroxyvalerate

B

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

C

5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one
108-29-2

5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 3Pd-10Nb-500AC; hydrogen In water at 100℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 5h; Reagent/catalyst;A n/a
B n/a
C 81%
alpha-D-glucopyranose
492-62-6

alpha-D-glucopyranose

A

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde
67-47-0

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde

B

formic acid
64-18-6

formic acid

C

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

D

levoglucosan
498-07-7

levoglucosan

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 15 wtpercent phosphate impregnated titania In water; butan-1-ol at 175℃; under 22502.3 Torr; for 3h; Catalytic behavior; Temperature; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;A 81%
B n/a
C n/a
D n/a
5-Hydroxy-2-pentanone
1071-73-4

5-Hydroxy-2-pentanone

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium phosphate; carbon dioxide; CrH6Mo6O24(3-)*3H3N*3H(1+) In dimethyl sulfoxide at 80℃; under 750.075 Torr; for 24h; Green chemistry;81%
(2-furyl)methyl alcohol
98-00-0

(2-furyl)methyl alcohol

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride In tetrahydrofuran; water Reflux;80%
sulfuric acid In 2-sec-butylphenol; water at 125℃; for 3h; Product distribution / selectivity;76%
With carbon dioxide In 2-methyltetrahydrofuran; water at 150℃; under 30003 Torr; for 15h; Autoclave;55%
Farnesal
502-67-0

Farnesal

A

oxalic acid
144-62-7

oxalic acid

B

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

C

acetone
67-64-1

acetone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With ozoneA 10%
B 55%
C 80%
Feist's acid
499-02-5

Feist's acid

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at 250℃; for 1h;80%
4-(hydroxyimino)valeric acid
6945-36-4

4-(hydroxyimino)valeric acid

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water; Dess-Martin periodane In dichloromethane for 0.25h; Ambient temperature;80%
levoglucosenone
37112-31-5

levoglucosenone

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfuric acid; water at 200℃; Product distribution; Further Variations:; Temperatures; various ratios of reagents; Hydrolysis;80%
Multi-step reaction with 2 steps
1: sulfuric acid / water / 0.07 h / 130 °C / Green chemistry
2: sulfuric acid; water / 130 °C / Green chemistry
View Scheme
β-D-glucose
492-61-5

β-D-glucose

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water; 2HO4P(2-)*Ti(4+)*H2O at 120℃; for 8h; Catalytic behavior; Temperature;80%
With nickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate; 1-(4-sulfonic acid)butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride In water at 155℃; for 5h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;56.33%
With hydrogenchloride; water at 130℃; for 2h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave; Green chemistry;
2-morpholinopropanenitrile
3626-56-0

2-morpholinopropanenitrile

acrylic acid methyl ester
292638-85-8

acrylic acid methyl ester

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: 2-morpholinopropanenitrile With sodium hydride In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 0℃; for 0.5h;
Stage #2: acrylic acid methyl ester In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 0 - 20℃;
78%
5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde
67-47-0

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde

A

1-hydroxyl-2,5-hexanedione
65313-46-4

1-hydroxyl-2,5-hexanedione

B

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With palladium on activated charcoal; hydrogen In tetrahydrofuran; water at 80℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 15h; Autoclave;A 77%
B n/a
methanol
67-56-1

methanol

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

levulinic acid methyl ester
624-45-3

levulinic acid methyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride at 65℃; for 1.5h; Reagent/catalyst;100%
With Amberlyst-15 at 110℃; for 0.5h; Reagent/catalyst; Sealed tube; Microwave irradiation;99.6%
With sulfuric acid at 50℃; for 5h;99%
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

4-oxopentanoic acid ethyl ester
539-88-8

4-oxopentanoic acid ethyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Zirconium Exchanged Phosphotungstic Acid at 120℃; for 2h; Temperature;100%
With sulfuric acid for 16h; Reflux;100%
With naphthalene; N,N,N-triethyl-N-butanesulfonic acid ammonium hydrogen sulfate at 140℃; for 0.5h;99%
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

1,4-Pentanediol
626-95-9

1,4-Pentanediol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With gold-titanium dioxide; hydrogen at 200℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 4h; Temperature; Reagent/catalyst; Microwave irradiation;100%
With Λ(+)-tris(pentane-2,5-dionato)ruthenium; hydrogen; [2-((diphenylphospino)methyl)-2-methyl-1,3-propanediyl]bis[diphenylphosphine] at 160℃; under 75007.5 Torr; for 18h; Inert atmosphere;95%
With tris(2,4-pentanedionato)ruthenium(III); hydrogen; [2-((diphenylphospino)methyl)-2-methyl-1,3-propanediyl]bis[diphenylphosphine] at 160℃; under 75007.5 Torr; for 18h; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;95%
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one
108-29-2

5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With formic acid; hydrogen; Ru/C at 149.84℃; under 26252.6 Torr; for 2h; Conversion of starting material;100%
With ruthenium(IV) oxide hydrate; hydrogen In water at 24 - 50℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 1.5h; Temperature; Reagent/catalyst; Pressure;100%
With formic acid In methanol; water at 70℃; for 0.833333h; Temperature; Reagent/catalyst; Flow reactor; Green chemistry;100%
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

levulinic anhydride
40608-06-8

levulinic anhydride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 0 - 20℃; for 0.0833333h;100%
With dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃;100%
With dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In diethyl ether
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

5'-O-(4-4'-dimethoxytrityl)thymidine
40615-39-2

5'-O-(4-4'-dimethoxytrityl)thymidine

5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-3'-O-levulinoyl-2'-deoxythymidine
93134-37-3

5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-3'-O-levulinoyl-2'-deoxythymidine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃; for 1.5h;100%
With dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride In 1,4-dioxane at 20℃; for 12h;99%
With dmap; N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide In 1,4-dioxane for 2.5h;98%
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

4-N-Benzoyl-2'-deoxy-5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)cytidine
67219-55-0

4-N-Benzoyl-2'-deoxy-5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)cytidine

(2R,3S,5R)-5-(4-benzamido-2-oxopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-2-((bis(4-methoxyphenyl)(phenyl)methoxy)methyl)tetrahydrofuran-3-yl-4-oxopentanoate
93134-38-4

(2R,3S,5R)-5-(4-benzamido-2-oxopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-2-((bis(4-methoxyphenyl)(phenyl)methoxy)methyl)tetrahydrofuran-3-yl-4-oxopentanoate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride In tetrahydrofuran for 2h;100%
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In 1,4-dioxane for 1h;
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In 1,4-dioxane at 25℃; for 3h;
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-galactopyranoside
19186-40-4

1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-galactopyranoside

1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-O-levulinoyl-α-D-galactopyranose
78174-45-5

1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-O-levulinoyl-α-D-galactopyranose

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride In dichloromethane100%
With dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride; triethylamine In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 5h;93%
With N,N'-dimethylaminopyridine; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In tetrahydrofuran for 4h; Ambient temperature;91%
With 1,4-diaza-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane; 2-chloro-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide In 1,4-dioxane at 20℃; for 24h;91%
With dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride In dichloromethane at 20℃;77%
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

levulinic acid Cs salt

levulinic acid Cs salt

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With cesium hydroxide In methanol at 20℃; for 1h; Substitution;100%
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

γ-hydroxyvaleric acid
155847-13-5

γ-hydroxyvaleric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With magnesium chloride In isopropyl alcohol at 25℃; pH=7; Catalytic behavior;100%
With diisopinocampheylborane In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃; for 17h;83%
Stage #1: levulinic acid With diisopinocampheylborane In tetrahydrofuran at 0℃;
Stage #2: In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃; for 17h;
Stage #3: With sodium hydroxide; dihydrogen peroxide In tetrahydrofuran Further stages.;
82%
With hydrogen; acetic acid In tetrahydrofuran under 67506.8 Torr; for 20h; Autoclave;
With hydrogen; C67H80IrNOP(1+)*C32H12BF24(1-); triethylamine In methanol at 65℃; for 24h;
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

acetone oxime
127-06-0

acetone oxime

O-levulinyl acetonoxime
647834-80-8

O-levulinyl acetonoxime

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In diethyl ether at 20℃; for 0.5h;100%
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

(3aS,6S,7R,7aR)-6-Benzyloxy-2,2-dimethyl-tetrahydro-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-c]pyran-7-ol
18403-22-0

(3aS,6S,7R,7aR)-6-Benzyloxy-2,2-dimethyl-tetrahydro-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-c]pyran-7-ol

benzyl 2-O-levulinyl-3,4-O-isopropylidene-β-L-arabinopyranoside
866476-71-3

benzyl 2-O-levulinyl-3,4-O-isopropylidene-β-L-arabinopyranoside

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 12h;100%
ethyl 2-O-acetyl-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1->3)-4,6-O-benzylidene-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranoside

ethyl 2-O-acetyl-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1->3)-4,6-O-benzylidene-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranoside

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

ethyl 2-O-acetyl-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1->3)-4,6-O-benzylidene-2-O-levulinoyl-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranoside
904689-98-1

ethyl 2-O-acetyl-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1->3)-4,6-O-benzylidene-2-O-levulinoyl-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranoside

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 20h;100%
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 20h;100%
1,2-O-(α-allyloxybenzylidene)-5-O-(triisopropylsilyl)-β-D-arabinofuranose

1,2-O-(α-allyloxybenzylidene)-5-O-(triisopropylsilyl)-β-D-arabinofuranose

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

1,2-O-(α-allyloxybenzylidene)-3-O-levulinoyl-5-O-(triisopropylsilyl)-β-D-arabinofuranose

1,2-O-(α-allyloxybenzylidene)-3-O-levulinoyl-5-O-(triisopropylsilyl)-β-D-arabinofuranose

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 1.5h;100%
methyl 2-O-pivaloyl-3-O-benzyl-5-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-D-glucuronate di(ethylthio)acetal
945224-39-5

methyl 2-O-pivaloyl-3-O-benzyl-5-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-D-glucuronate di(ethylthio)acetal

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

methyl 2-O-pivaloyl-3-O-benzyl-4-O-levulinoyl-5-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-D-glucuronate di(ethylthio)acetal
945224-40-8

methyl 2-O-pivaloyl-3-O-benzyl-4-O-levulinoyl-5-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-D-glucuronate di(ethylthio)acetal

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; diisopropyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 20h;100%
2-O-pivaloyl-3-O-benzyl-5-O-triphenylmethyl-D-xylose di(ethylthio)acetal
945224-34-0

2-O-pivaloyl-3-O-benzyl-5-O-triphenylmethyl-D-xylose di(ethylthio)acetal

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

2-O-pivaloyl-3-O-benzyl-4-O-levulinoyl-5-O-triphenylmethyl-D-xylose di(ethylthio)acetal
945224-35-1

2-O-pivaloyl-3-O-benzyl-4-O-levulinoyl-5-O-triphenylmethyl-D-xylose di(ethylthio)acetal

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; diisopropyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 4h;100%
C14H17N3O4S

C14H17N3O4S

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

C19H23N3O6S

C19H23N3O6S

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide; dmap In dichloromethane100%
C27H32F2N2O15

C27H32F2N2O15

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

C32H40F2N2O15

C32H40F2N2O15

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: C27H32F2N2O15 With hydrogen; palladium In ethyl acetate for 2h;
Stage #2: levulinic acid With 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride In dichloromethane
100%
(R)-4-benzyl-3-((2S,3R,4S,5R)-4,5-bis(benzyloxy)-6,6-bis(ethylthio)-3-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)hexanoyl)oxazolidin-2-one
1021297-63-1

(R)-4-benzyl-3-((2S,3R,4S,5R)-4,5-bis(benzyloxy)-6,6-bis(ethylthio)-3-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)hexanoyl)oxazolidin-2-one

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

(R)-4-benzyl-3-((2S,3R,4S,5R)-3-levulinoxy-4,5-bis(benzyloxy)-6,6-bis(ethylthio)-2-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)hexanoyl)oxazolidin-2-one
1021297-67-5

(R)-4-benzyl-3-((2S,3R,4S,5R)-3-levulinoxy-4,5-bis(benzyloxy)-6,6-bis(ethylthio)-2-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)hexanoyl)oxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; diisopropyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 18h; Inert atmosphere;100%
C68H68O12

C68H68O12

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

C73H74O14

C73H74O14

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; 2-chloro-1-dimethylaminopropane Inert atmosphere;100%
phenyl 4,6-O-di(tert-butyl)silylidene-1,2-dideoxy-2-trichloroacetamido-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranoside
1158796-88-3

phenyl 4,6-O-di(tert-butyl)silylidene-1,2-dideoxy-2-trichloroacetamido-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranoside

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

phenyl 4,6-O-di(tert-butyl)silylidene-1,2-dideoxy-3-O-levulinoyl-2-trichloroacetamido-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranoside
1158796-90-7

phenyl 4,6-O-di(tert-butyl)silylidene-1,2-dideoxy-3-O-levulinoyl-2-trichloroacetamido-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranoside

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; diisopropyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 0 - 20℃;100%
5'-O-dimethoxytrityl-2'-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl uridine
81246-80-2

5'-O-dimethoxytrityl-2'-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl uridine

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

5'-DMTr-2'-TBDMS-3'-levulinyl-uridine
1309592-43-5

5'-DMTr-2'-TBDMS-3'-levulinyl-uridine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃; for 18h;100%
Stage #1: levulinic acid With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In tetrahydrofuran for 0.25h;
Stage #2: 5'-O-dimethoxytrityl-2'-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl uridine In tetrahydrofuran for 5h;
87%
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

ethyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranoside
20701-61-5, 56119-28-9, 131564-36-8, 142924-31-0, 151123-92-1, 141899-53-8

ethyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranoside

ethylthio 4,6-O-benzylidene-2,3-di-O-levulinyl-β-D-glucopyranoside
1259036-06-0

ethylthio 4,6-O-benzylidene-2,3-di-O-levulinyl-β-D-glucopyranoside

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride In dichloromethane at 0 - 20℃; for 3h;100%
With dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride In dichloromethane at 42℃; for 2h;95%
(2-methyl-5-tert-butylphenyl) 2-O-benzoyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-1-thio-α-D-mannopyranoside
1361016-60-5

(2-methyl-5-tert-butylphenyl) 2-O-benzoyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-1-thio-α-D-mannopyranoside

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

(2-methyl-5-tert-butylphenyl) 2-O-benzoyl-3-O-levulinoyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-1-thio-α-D-mannopyranoside

(2-methyl-5-tert-butylphenyl) 2-O-benzoyl-3-O-levulinoyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-1-thio-α-D-mannopyranoside

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 1h; Inert atmosphere;100%
(2R,3S,4R,5S)-4-(tert-butyldiphenylsilyloxy)-2-((R)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-5-(p-tolylthio)tetrahydrofuran-3-ol
1374632-99-1

(2R,3S,4R,5S)-4-(tert-butyldiphenylsilyloxy)-2-((R)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-5-(p-tolylthio)tetrahydrofuran-3-ol

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

(2S,3S,4R,5S)-4-(tert-butyldiphenylsilyloxy)-2-((R)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-5-(p-tolylthio)tetrahydrofuran-3-yl 4-oxopentanoate
1374633-02-9

(2S,3S,4R,5S)-4-(tert-butyldiphenylsilyloxy)-2-((R)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-5-(p-tolylthio)tetrahydrofuran-3-yl 4-oxopentanoate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide at 20℃; for 3h; Inert atmosphere;100%
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 3h;95%
C38H34O7

C38H34O7

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

benzyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-3-O-(2-methylnaphthyl)-2-O-levulinoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside

benzyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-3-O-(2-methylnaphthyl)-2-O-levulinoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 5h;100%
levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

allyl 4-O-benzyl-3-O-para-methoxybenzyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside
144174-52-7

allyl 4-O-benzyl-3-O-para-methoxybenzyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside

allyl 4-O-benzyl-2-O-levulinoyl-3-O-p-methoxybenzyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside
1448429-77-3

allyl 4-O-benzyl-2-O-levulinoyl-3-O-p-methoxybenzyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane for 2h; Inert atmosphere;100%
(1S,2R)-(1-methyl-2-phenyl-2-hydroxy)ethyltrimethylammonium iodide
64868-20-8

(1S,2R)-(1-methyl-2-phenyl-2-hydroxy)ethyltrimethylammonium iodide

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

[(1R,2S)-N,N-dimethylephedrinium][levulinate]
1639366-26-9

[(1R,2S)-N,N-dimethylephedrinium][levulinate]

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Dowex Inert atmosphere;100%
9-Decen-1-ol
13019-22-2

9-Decen-1-ol

levulinic acid
123-76-2

levulinic acid

C15H26O3

C15H26O3

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; Inert atmosphere;100%

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Levulinic acid (LA) is an important platform chemical, the production of which by using biomass resources such as corncob is of great significance to the sustainable development. Traditional hydrolysis processes yield low concentrations of levulinic acid with large amounts of acid being consumed...detailed

Research paperSimultaneous production of furfural and Levulinic acid (cas 123-76-2) from pine sawdust via acid-catalysed mechanical depolymerization and microwave irradiation09/26/2019

In this work pine sawdust was converted into levulinic acid (LA) and furfural. Sawdust was first pre-treated with sulfuric acid-catalysed mechanical depolymerization. The conversion reactions were then performed with microwave heating at 180 °C. To enhance the furfural yield and the efficient s...detailed

Preparation of mesoporous stannosilicates SnTUD-1 and catalytic activity in Levulinic acid (cas 123-76-2) esterification09/24/2019

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Microwave-assisted cascade exploitation of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) to xylose and Levulinic acid (cas 123-76-2) catalysed by ferric chloride09/10/2019

The present work aimed to investigate and optimize the selective exploitation of hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of the energy crop Arundo donax L. (giant reed), to give xylose and levulinic acid, respectively. In order to improve the sustainability of this process, a microwave-assisted hy...detailed

Growth-coupled bioconversion of Levulinic acid (cas 123-76-2) to butanone09/09/2019

Common strategies for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to chemical products center on deconstructing biomass polymers into fermentable sugars. Here, we demonstrate an alternative strategy, a growth-coupled, high-yield bioconversion, by feeding cells a non-sugar substrate, by-passing central...detailed

Production of Levulinic acid (cas 123-76-2) from glucose in sulfolane/water mixtures09/08/2019

Levulinic acid derived from biomass is a versatile platform molecule, which can be used in manufacturing different compounds to replace fossil-based chemicals. In this study, the effect of sulfolane as solvent in sulphuric acid catalysed levulinic acid production from glucose was investigated. T...detailed

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