Biological. In activated sludge inoculum, following a 20-d adaptation period, 97.3% COD
removal was achieved. The average rate of biodegradation was 41.0 mg COD/g?h (Pitter, 1976).
Chemical/Physical. Easily resinified by acids (Windholz et al., 1983). Furfuryl alcohol will not
hydrolyze because it has no hydrolyzable functional group.
In barrel-aged red, white, and model wines, naturally occurring furfuryl alcohol decreased in
concentration with time. In red wine, furfuryl ethyl ether was identified as a degradation product
after 55 wk of storage. The average percentage decrease of furfuryl alcohol was 73% (Spillman et
A clear colorless liquid. Flash point 167°F. Boiling point 171°F. Denser than water. Contact may irritate skin, eyes and mucous membranes. May be toxic by ingestion and skin contact and moderately toxic by inhalation.
Distil it under reduced pressure to remove tarry material, shake with aqueous NaHCO3, dry it with Na2SO4 and fractionally distil it under reduced pressure from Na2CO3. It can be further dried by shaking with Linde 5A molecular sieves. [Beilstein 17/3 V 338.]
Furfuryl Alcohol has been obtained by yeast reduction of furfural. Furfuryl Alcohol is used as solvent and in the manufacturing of wetting agents, resins.
The NTP conducted a 2-year
inhalation study on furfuryl alcohol. F344 rats and
B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 2, 8, or 32 ppm furfuryl
alcohol for 6 h/day, 5 days/week. All rats exposed to 32 ppm
died by week 99; survival of all other animals was similar to
control animals. There were increased incidences of nasal
tumors in the male rats and increased incidences of kidney
tubule tumors in male mice. Increased incidences of nonneoplastic
lesions of the nose and increased severities of
nephropathy were observed in male and female rats and male
mice. Nonneoplastic lesions of nose and corneal degeneration
occurred in female mice.
Furfuryl alcohol is clear colorless organic liquid having a furan substituted with a hydroxymethyl group. It is primarily used for the synthesis of furans resins which are used in thermoset polymer matrix composites, cements, adhesive and coatings. It plays an essential role in the production of foundry sand binder and has long been used to produce cores and molds for metal casting. Other applications include as a fuel and wood treatment. In industry, it is manufactured through either direct reduction of furfural, or through the disproportionation via the Cannizaro reaction in NaOH solution. The basic raw materials for its manufacturing are waste vegetable materials such as rice hulls, sugar cane bagasse, oat hulls or corncobs.
Reported found in roasted almonds, cooked apple, apple juice, roasted barley, beans, beef fat, canned beef stew, beer, brandy, white bread, cocoa, cocoa bean, roasted coffee, roasted flberts, honey, heated skim milk, dried mushrooms, roasted onion, yellow passion fruit, roasted peanuts, pineapple, popcorn, potato chips, roasted sesame seeds, cheeses, milk, meats, grape wines, cognac, whiskies, soybean products, coconut, corn oil, shrimps, clams and other sources
clear yellow liquid
Clear, colorless to pale yellow liquid with an irritating odor. Darkens to yellowish-brown on
exposure to air. A detection odor threshold concentration of 32 mg/m3 (8.0 ppmv) was determined
by Jacobson et al. (1958).
Used as a starting monomer in the
production of furan resins and used to produce tetrahydro furfural alcohol (THFA).
Poison by ingestion,
skin contact, and subcutaneous routes.Moderately toxic by inhalation and
intraperitoneal routes. Mutation data
reported. An eye irritant. Flammable when
exposed to heat or flame; can react with
oxidtzing materials. Moderate explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame.
Reacts violently with acids (e.g., formic acid,
cyanoacetic acid + heat). Ignites on contact
with 85% hydrogen peroxide. To fight fire,
use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When
heated to decomposition it emits acrid
smoke and fumes.
Incineration in admixture
with a more flammable solvent.
Furfuryl alcohol has a very mild, warm, oily, “burnt” odor and a cooked sugar taste.
Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors and sewers explosion hazards. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
Air & Water Reactions
Slightly soluble in water.
May react explosively with mineral acids
and some organic acids. Toxic by inhalation and
skin absorption. Approved for food products. Toxic
by skin absorption.
Solvent; manufacture of wetting agents, resins.
Aroma threshold values
Detection: 1 to 2 ppm.
Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates,
nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine,
bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explo sions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases,
strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Contact with acids can
cause polymerization. Strong reaction with oxidizers.
Incompatible with alkaline earth and alkali metals; strong
caustics; aliphatic amines; isocyanates, acetaldehyde, benzoyl
peroxide; chromic acid, chromium trioxide; cyanoacetic acid;
dialkylzincs, dichlorine oxide; ethylene oxide; hydrogen per oxide; isopropyl chlorocarbonate; lithium tetrahydroalumi nate; nitric acid; nitrogen dioxide; pentafluoroguanidine,
phosphorus pentasulfide; tangerine oil; triethylaluminum, trii sobutylaluminum. Attacks some plastics, coatings and rubber.
Inhalation causes headache, nausea, and irritation of nose and throat. Vapor irritates eyes; liquid causes inflammation and corneal opacity. Contact of skin with liquid causes dryness and irritation. Ingestion causes headache, nausea, and irritation of mouth and stomach.
ChEBI: A member of the class of furans bearing a hydroxymethyl substituent at the 2-position.
Furfuryl occurs naturally in yarrow, licorice, sesame seeds, clove flowers, and tea leaves
(Duke, 1992). Also detected in barrel-aged red, white, and model wines. Concentrations ranged
from 3.5 mg/L in white wine after 55 wk of aging to 9.6 mg/L after 11 wk of aging (Spillman et
al., 1998). Identified as one of 140 volatile constituents in used soybean oils collected from a
processing plant that fried various beef, chicken, and veal products (Takeoka et al., 1996).
Furfural alcohol is a colorless to amber liquid
that darkens on exposure to light. It has a faint, burning odor.
UN2874 Furfuryl alcohol, Hazard Class: 6.1;
Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
Colorless liquid that turns
dark in air
Taste threshold values
Taste characteristics at 50 ppm: burnt, sweet, caramellic and brown.
Usually prepared from furfural that is obtained by the processing of corncobs; oil obtained by steam distillation of roasted coffee bean meal consists of 50% furfuryl alcohol; prepared industrially by the catalytic reduction of furfural using nickel and Cu-CrO catalysts.
Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reactions; Stability During Transport: The product darkens and forms water insoluble material on exposure to air or acids. This reaction is accelerated at elevated temperatures; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
Synthesis, p. 246, 1977Tetrahedron Letters, 33, p. 5417, 1992 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)79109-X