cytosine: A pyrimidine derivative.It is one of the principal componentbases of nucleotides and the nucleicacids DNA and RNA.
Cytosine is first isolated by hydrolysis of calf thymus tissue by Albrecht
Kossel (1853–1927) and A. Neumann during 1893–1894. Thymine’s structure was published
in 1900 and confi rmed over the next several years when it was synthesized by several
investigators. In 1903, cytosine was synthesized by Henry Lord Wheeler (1867–1914) and
Treat B. Johnson, confirming its structure. Uracil was first isolated in 1900 from yeast
nucleic acid found in bovine thymus and herring sperm.the methylation of uracil produces
thymine; thymine is also called 5-methyluracil because methylation takes place at the fi fth
carbon in uracil to produce thymine.
Widely distributed in nature; constituent of nucleic acids
base found in DNA and RNA. Cytosine
has the pyrimidine ring structure.
Cytosine crystallises from H2O as the monohydrate which loses water on heating above 100o. Its solubility in H2O is 0.77%. UV: max 267nm ( 6,100) in H2O pH 8.8 and 275nm ( 10,400) in 0.1N HCl. [Hilbert & Johnson J Am Chem Soc 52 1152 1930, Hilbert et al. J Am Chem Soc 57 552 1935, Beistein 25 III/IV 3654.]
Cytosine is pyrimidine; along with adenine and guanine they account for the fi ve nucleic acid bases. Pyrimidines are heterocyclic single-ringed compounds based on the structure of pyrimidine. Cytosinelike adenine and guanine, form nucleosides and nucleotides in RNA and DNA. When the bases combine with ribose, a ribonucleoside forms; and when it attaches to deoxyribose, a deoxyribosenucleoside is formed. Names of the nucleoside are summarized in Table 29.1.these in turn combine with phosphoryl groups, in a process called phosphorylation, to form their respective nucleotides that form nucleic acids.the nucleotides can be tri, di, and mono phosphate nucleotides similar to the way in which adenine forms ATP, ADP, and AMP.
ChEBI: An aminopyrimidine that is pyrimidin-2-one having the amino group located at position 4.