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Cas Database

123-31-9

123-31-9

Identification

  • Product Name:Hydroquinone

  • CAS Number: 123-31-9

  • EINECS:204-617-8

  • Molecular Weight:110.112

  • Molecular Formula: C6H6O2

  • HS Code:29072210

  • Mol File:123-31-9.mol

Synonyms:p-Dihydroxybenzene;Tecquinol;Benzohydroquinone;Benzoquinol;1,4-Dihydrobenzoquinone;1, 4-Dihydroxy-benzol;Idrochinone;1,4-Dihydroxy-benzeen;Diak 5;p-Hydroquinone;NCI-C55834;1, 4-Dihydroxybenzene;Benzene-1,4-diol;p-Dioxybenzene;Derma-Blanch;Hydroquinone (USP);p-Dioxobenzene;Usaf ek-356;1/C6H6O2/c7-5-1-2-6(8)4-3-5/h1-4,7-8;Tequinol;Hydrochinon (CZECH, POLISH);Quinol;Dihydroquinone;.alpha.-Hydroquinone;1,4-Diidrobenzene;Eldoquin;Eldoquin (TN);1,4-Benzenediol;Hydroquinol;p-Benzenediol;Phiaquin;4-Hydroxyphenol;1,4-Dihydroxybenzen;.beta.-Quinol;Benzene, p-dihydroxy-;Artra;Black and White Bleaching Cream;p-Hydroxyphenol;1,4-Dihydroxybenzene;Eldopaque;Hydroquinole;Tenox HQ;Hidroquinone;Arctuvin;p-dihydroxybenzene, hydroquinone;Hydroquinone,123-31-9;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):HarmfulXn,DangerousN

  • Hazard Codes:Xn,N

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H302 Harmful if swallowedH318 Causes serious eye damage H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction H341 Suspected of causing genetic defects H351 Suspected of causing cancer H400 Very toxic to aquatic life

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled Fresh air, rest. Artificial respiration may be needed. Refer for medical attention. In case of skin contact Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. In case of eye contact First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention. If swallowed Rinse mouth. Induce vomiting (ONLY IN CONSCIOUS PERSONS!). Refer for medical attention . This material is very toxic; the probable oral lethal dose for humans is 50-500 mg/kg, or between 1 teaspoon and 1 ounce for a 150 lb. person. It is irritating but not corrosive. Fatal human doses have ranged from 5-12 grams, but 300-500 mg have been ingested daily for 3-5 months without ill effects. Death is apparently initiated by respiratory failure or anoxia. (EPA, 1998) /SRP:/ Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR as necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Aniline and related compounds/

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media To fight fire, use water, carbon dioxide, dry chem ... . Dust cloud may explode if ignited in an enclosed area. It can react with oxidizing materials and is rapidly oxidized in the presence of alkaline materials. Oxidizes in air. (EPA, 1998) Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Personal protection: particulate filter respirator adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Sweep spilled substance into covered sealable containers. Carefully collect remainder. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. Environmental Considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Separated from strong bases and food and feedstuffs.Keep well closed and protected from light.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesRecommended Exposure Limit: 15 Min Ceiling Value: 2 mg/cu m.Biological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 644 Articles be found

Synthesis of renewable C-C cyclic compounds and high-density biofuels using 5-hydromethylfurfural as a reactant

Cai, Taimei,Deng, Qiang,Deng, Shuguang,Gao, Rui,Peng, Hailong,Wang, Jun,Zeng, Zheling,Zhong, Jin,Zou, Ji-Jun

, p. 2468 - 2473 (2020)

The major challenge in the synthesis of high-density biofuels is to identify the bio-based source for C-C cyclic compounds and C-C coupling reactions with a suitable selectivity. Herein, we selectively synthesize 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BTO) with a yield of 51.4% from cellulose-derived 5-hydromethylfurfural via a ring-rearrangement reaction. The cellulose-derived route is a more meaningful route for the C-C cyclic compounds compared to the traditional hemicellulose- and lignin-derived routes. Furthermore, BTO is very easily dimerized via a C-C oxidative coupling reaction, showing a yield of 94.4% and selectivity of nearly 100% under environmentally friendly reaction conditions. After hydrodeoxygenation, bicyclohexane is obtained with a yield of 87.4%. This work not only provides a promising route to produce C-C cyclic fine compounds based on a cellulose-derived route, but also shows a highly efficient synthesis route for high-density biofuels via the C-C oxidative coupling reaction.

Reactions of 1,4-benzoquinones with s2 reducing centers

Yang, Zhiyong,Gould, Edwin S.

, p. 2219 - 2223 (2003)

Aqueous solutions of Sn(II) and Ge(II) (in chloride media) and In(I) (in perchlorate media) react quantitatively with 1,4-benzoquinone and its 2,5-(OH)2 and 2,5-Cl2-3,6-(OH)2 derivatives, reducing the oxo-functions to 1,4-(OH)2. For Sn(II) and Ge(II), reaction is accelerated by incorporation of 2,5-(OH)2 substituents and by chloroanation of the s2 center. The most reactive reducing Sn(II) species are SnCl3- for benzoquinone and dihydroxyquinone but SnCl2(aq)x for the dichloroquinone. Reductions by Ge(II) proceed mainly through a species (probably GeCl 42-) having one more chloride than the predominant form. The activated complex for the (OH)2bzq-Ge(II) reaction features two germanium centers, only one of which is involved in the reduction act. Reductions of these quinones by In(I) proceed 102-103 times as rapidly as those by Sn(II) and Ge(II) and are not accelerated by hydroxylation of the quinone ring. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2003.

Oxygen-vacancy-promoted catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol from MnO: X-CeO2

Ma, Changjian,Wen, Yaoyao,Yue, Qingqing,Li, Anqi,Fu, Jile,Zhang, Nouwei,Gai, Hengjun,Zheng, Jinbao,Chen, Bing H.

, p. 27079 - 27088 (2017)

Catalytic oxidation can be effectively promoted by the presence of oxygen vacancies on the catalyst surface. In this study, the effect of oxygen vacancies on the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol was investigated with CeO2 and MnOx-CeO2 as catalysts. CeO2 and MnOx-CeO2 catalysts with different amounts of oxygen vacancies were obtained via hydrothermal methods and applied for the CWAO of phenol. It was found that CeO2 and MnOx-CeO2 nanorods were much more active than the cubic nanorods. The physicochemical properties of the samples were characterized by TEM, XRD, BET, XPS, and H2-TPR techniques. The results revealed that the presence of oxygen vacancies in CeO2 and MnOx-CeO2 catalysts could increase the oxidizing ability of the catalysts surface. The addition of Mn could greatly improve the adsorption ability of CeO2 and more efficiently oxidize phenol and its intermediates. The synergy between Mn and Ce could further improve the catalyst redox properties and produce a larger amount of active oxygen species, which is the reason why MnOx-CeO2 nanorods are the most active catalysts among the catalysts investigated in this study.

Self-decarboxylation of trichloroacetic acid redox catalyzed by trichloroacetate ions in acetonitrile solutions

Valencia, Drochss P.,Astudillo, Pablo D.,Galano, Annia,Gonzalez, Felipe J.

, p. 318 - 325 (2013)

In mixtures of trichloroacetate ion and trichloroacetic acid in acetonitrile, trichloromethyl radicals are produced as a result of the redox reaction between the acid and its conjugate base. The reaction follows a loop mechanism in which the trichloroacet

Purification and characterization of a naringinase from Aspergillus aculeatus JMUdb058

Chen, Yuelong,Ni, Hui,Chen, Feng,Cai, Huinong,Li, Lijun,Su, Wenjin

, p. 931 - 938 (2013)

A naringinase from Aspergillus aculeatus JMUdb058 was purified, identified, and characterized. This naringinase had a molecular mass (MW) of 348 kDa and contained four subunits with MWs of 100, 95, 84, and 69 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the three larger subunits were β-d-glucosidases and that the smallest subunit was an α-l-rhamnosidase. The naringinase and its α-l-rhamnosidase and β-d-glucosidase subunits all had optimal activities at approximately pH 4 and 50 C, and they were stable between pH 3 and 6 and below 50 C. This naringinase was able to hydrolyze naringin, aesculin, and some other glycosides. The enzyme complex had a Km value of 0.11 mM and a kcat/Km ratio of 14 034 s-1 mM -1 for total naringinase. Its α-l-rhamnosidase and β-d-glucosidase subunits had Km values of 0.23 and 0.53 mM, respectively, and kcat/Km ratios of 14 146 and 7733 s -1 mM-1, respectively. These results provide in-depth insight into the structure of the naringinase complex and the hydrolyses of naringin and other glycosides.

Kinetics and mechanistic studies of Ru(III) catalyzed oxidation of p-hydroxy benzoic acid by sodium N-chloro-p-toluene sulphonamide in acidic media

Singh, Kamini,Singh

, p. 5121 - 5124 (2014)

Kinetics studies of the oxidation of p-hydroxy benzoic acid by sodium N-chloro-p-toluene sulphonamide (chloramine-T or CAT) have been carried out in aqueous perchloric acid medium at 35 °C. The reaction follows almost similar kinetics, being first order with respect to chloramine-T, p-hydroxy benzoic acid and Ru(III). The reaction exhibits inverse first order depedence on the concentration of medium [HClO4]. Variation of ionic strength by adding NaClO4have no significant effect on the reaction rate. The addition of p-toluene sulphonamide, which is one of the reaction products, had no significant effect on the reaction rate. Thermodynamic parameters were computed by studying the reactions at different temperature (303-318 K). The rate laws derived are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. A mechanism consistent with the above kinetic result has been suggested.

A highly selective photooxidation approach using O2 in water catalyzed by iron(II) bipyridine complex supported on NaY zeolite

Li, Jing,Ma, Wanhong,Huang, Yingping,Cheng, Mingming,Zhao, Jincai,Yu, Jimmy C.

, p. 2214 - 2215 (2003)

A new photocatalytic system involving iron(II) bipyridine supported on NaY zeolite (FeBY) shows excellent reactivity and selectivity in the oxidation of organic compounds. This approach allows highly controlled oxidation reaction to occur but avoids undesirable mineralization into CO2 and H 2O.

Photohydroxylation of 1,4-Benzoquinone in Aqueous Solution Revisited

Von Sonntag, Justus,Mvula, Eino,Hildenbrand, Knut,Von Sonntag, Clemens

, p. 440 - 451 (2004)

In water, photolysis of 1,4-benzoquinone, Q gives rise to equal amounts of 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone HOQ and hydroquinone QH2 which are formed with a quantum yield of ψ=0.42, independent of pH and Q concentration. By contrast, the rate of decay of the triplet (λmax=282 and ~ 410 nm) which is the precursor of these products increases nonlinearly (k= (2→3.8)×106 s-1) with increasing Q concentration ((0.2→10) mM). The free-radical yield detected by laser flash photolysis after the decay of the triplet also increases with increasing Q concentration but follows a different functional form. These observations are explained by a rapid equilibrium of a monomeric triplet Q* and an exciplex Q2* (K=5500±1000m-1). While Q* adds water and subsequent enolizes into 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene Ph(OH) 3, Q2* decays by electron transfer and water addition yielding benzosemiquinone .QH and .OH adduct radicals .QOH. The latter enolizes to the 2-hydroxy-1,4-semiquinone radical .Q(OH)H within the time scale of the triplet decay and is subsequently rapidly (microsecond time scale) oxidized by Q to HOQ with the concomitant formation of .QH. On the post-millisecond time scale, that is, when .QH has decayed, Ph(OH)3 is oxidized by Q yielding HOQ and QH2 as followed by laser flash photolysis with diode array detection. The rate of this pH- and Q concentration-dependent reaction was independently determined by stopped-flow. This shows that there are two pathways to photohydroxylation; a free-radical pathway at high and a nonradical one at low Q concentration. In agreement with this, the yield of Ph(OH)3 is most pronounced at low Q concentration. In the presence of phosphate buffer, Q* reacts with H2PO4-giving rise to an adduct which is subsequently oxidized by Q to 2-phosphato-1,4-benzoquinone QP. The current view that .OH is an intermediate in the photohydroxylation of Q has been overturned. This view had been based on the observation of the .OH adduct of DMPO when Q is photolyzed in the presence of this spin trap. It is now shown that Q*/Q2* oxidizes DMPO (k ≈1×108M -1S-1) to its radical cation which subsequently reacts with water. Q*/Q2* react with alcohols by H abstraction (rates in units of M-1S-1): methanol (4.2×10 7), ethanol (6.7×107), 2-propanol (13×10 7) and tertiary butyl alcohol (~0.2×107). DMSO (2.7×109) and O2 (~2×109) act as physical quenchers.

High-pressure Kinetics of the Reaction of p-Benzoquinone with Di-n-butylamine in Some Aprotic Solvents

Sasaki, Muneo,Bando, Masaichi,Inagaki, Yoh-ichi,Amita, Fujitsugu,Osugi, Jiro

, p. 725 - 726 (1981)

The kinetics and the volume of activation of the title reaction to form 2-dibutylamino-p-benzoquinone in 1,2-dichloroethane and acetonitrile, -54 +/- 2 and -67 +/- 2 cm3/mol respectively, strongly support a reaction scheme in which ionic species are formed prior to the rate-determining step which is the second attack by the amine.

-

Maruyama et al.

, p. 2470,2474 (1973)

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Cooperative structure direction of organosilanes and tetrapropylammonium hydroxide to generate hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolite with controlled porous structure

Shen, Yu,Han, Zongzhuang,Li, Hang,Li, Haichao,Wang, Gang,Wang, Fumin,Zhang, Xubin

, p. 6319 - 6327 (2018)

Hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolite with short-range ordered mesoporosity and hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolite nanorods were obtained via a direct hydrothermal synthesis by the cooperative structure direction of dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]- ammonium chloride (TPOAC) and tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH). Dimethyloctadecyl[3-(dimethoxymethylsilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DPOAC) and octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (OTAC) were also employed as structure directing agents (SDA) to further explore the role of methoxysilyl groups in organosilanes during the formation of hierarchical structure. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, FT-IR, UV-vis and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The characterization results showed that the use of TPOAC and DPOAC would generate short-range ordered mesopores and irregular mesopores, respectively. Hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolite nanorods with worm-like intracrystalline mesopores could be obtained by adjusting the amount of silicon source. The lack of methoxysilyl groups in OTAC however could lead to phase separation problems. Furthermore, the hierarchical Fe-ZSM-5 zeolite with short-range ordered mesoporosity showed enhanced catalytic activity and stability for the hydroxylation of phenol at room temperature.

Reactions of phenol-OH-adduct radicals. Phenoxyl radical formation by water elimination vs. oxidation by dioxygen

Mvula, Eino,Schuchmann, Man Nien,Sonntag, Clemens von

, p. 264 - 268 (2001)

The reactions of OH radicals generated radiolytically in N2O-saturated aqueous solutions with phenol have been examined, focusing special attention on the addition of dioxygen and the competing dehydration reactions of the OH-adduct radicals. Using the pulse radiolysis technique, the overall rate constant of dioxygen addition of the dihydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals was determined to be k = 1.2 * 109 dm3 mol-1 s-1. This dioxygen addition reaction was found to be practically irreversible, in contrast to other hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals. The so-formed dihydroxycyclohexadienylperoxyl radicals subsequently eliminate HO2./O2.-. By using tetranitromethane (TNM) as a probe for O2.- (formation of the nitroform anion), the overall rate constant of HO2.-elimination (mainly of the para- and ortho-isomers, formation of hydroquinone and catechol, respectively) was determined to be 1.3 * 105 s-1. The rate constant of the dehydration of the p-OH-adduct in neutral to acidic solution was determined by monitoring the absorbance build-up of the phenoxyl radical to be k7 = 1.8 * 103 + 1.7 * 109 * [H+] s-1, and that of the o-OH-adduct to be k6 = 1.1 * 108 * [H+] s-1 (the uncatalysed reaction is too slow to be measurable by this technique). The HPO42--catalysed dehydration rate constant of the p-OH-adduct was similarly determined to be 5.8 * 107 dm3 mol-1 s-1. Based on the above rate constant of dioxygen addition, the rate constant of the proton-catalysed dehydration of the p-OH-adduct was determined by the competition of these two reactions on the yield of hydroquinone to be 1.0 * 109 dm3 mol-1 s-1, and similarly that of the ortho-OH-adduct (on the yield of catechol) to be 2.1 * 108 dm3 mol-1 s-1.

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Dodgson, J. W.

, p. 2435 - 2443 (1914)

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Radical Spectra and Product Distribution following Electrophilic Attack by the OH. Radical on 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid and Subsequent Oxidation

Anderson, Robert F.,Patel, Kantilal B.,Stratford, Michael R. L.

, p. 3177 - 3188 (1987)

The distribution of electrophilic OH. radical addition to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) has been determined by oxidizing the radical intermediates (substituted hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals) with quinones and viologens, to yield products.It is deduced from product analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography that the fractions of OH. attack at the 1:2:3:4 positions of HBA are 0.16:0.04:0.65:0.15 respectively.Pulse radiolysis studies show that the rate of electron transfer from the radical intermediate formed by OH. addition to position 3 of HBA is dependent on the one-electron reduction potential of the oxidant.This electron-transfer process is in competition with the elimination of water by general acid-base catalysis to yield the phenoxyl radical.Catalysis by OH- proceeds through the formation of the deprotonated species, pKa=8.4+/-0.2, followed by the elimination of water, ke=3.0+/-0.3*105 s-1.The addition of an OH. radical ipso to the hydroxy group of HBA also gives rise to the phenoxyl radical through rapid water elimination, k=2*107 s-1.The addition of an OH. radical to position 3 of HBA gives rise to an absorption band centred at 365 nm.

New Zn(II) coordination polymers constructed from amino-alcohols and aromatic dicarboxylic acids: Synthesis, structure, photocatalytic properties, and solid-state conversion to ZnO

Paraschiv, Carmen,Cucos, Andrei,Shova, Sergiu,Madalan, Augustin M.,Maxim, Catalin,Visinescu, Diana,Cojocaru, Bogdan,Parvulescu, Vasile I.,Andruh, Marius

, p. 799 - 811 (2015)

Four new coordination polymers have been obtained solvothermally from the reactions of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O with 1,2-, 1,3-, or 1,4-benzedicarboxylic acids in the presence of various amino-alcohols: 1 [Zn2(Htea)2(1,2-bdc)] (1), 1 [Zn(H3tris)(1,3-bdc)(CH3OH)] (2), 3 [Zn5(Htea)2(1,3-bdc)3(H2O)]·2.6H2O (3), and 3 [Zn3(H2dea)2(1,4-bdc)3] (4) (H3tea = triethanolamine, H3tris = tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, H2dea = diethanolamine, 1,2-H2bdc =1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,3-H2bdc =1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, and 1,4-H2bdc =1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid). Their crystal structures, thermogravimetric analyses, solid-state transformation to ZnO and characterization of the resultant zinc oxide particles are reported. Compounds 1 and 2 show three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular architectures, generated from the interconnection of the zigzag (in 1) and respectively the linear (in 2) chains through hydrogen bonding interactions. The crystal structure of 3 revealed the presence of five different types of zinc atoms that are successively linked through carboxilato or alkoxo bridges in a helicoidal chain running along the crystallographic a axis. Both right-handed (P) and left-handed (M) helices are present in the crystal, and they are alternately interconnected by pairs of isophthalato bridges, resulting in channels of hexagonal shape, filled with water molecules. Compound 4 has a 3D structure in which linear centrosymmetric {Zn3(H2dea)2}6+ nodes are joined by terephthalate bridges. Owing to its porous network, compound 3 was tested in two selective reactions: photooxidation of phenol to hydroquinone and aerobic photooxidative condensation of benzylamine to N-benzylidenebenzylamine.

-

Yatsyuk et al.

, (1968)

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Synthesis and characterization of bio-inspired diiron complexes and their catalytic activity for direct hydroxylation of aromatic compounds

Wang, Xiao,Zhang, Tianyong,Yang, Qiusheng,Jiang, Shuang,Li, Bin

, p. 817 - 825 (2015)

Three [FeFe]-hydrogenase model complexes [(μ-dmedt){Fe(CO)3}2] [1; dmedt = SCH(CH3)CH(CH3)S], [(μ-dmedt){Fe(CO)3}{Fe (CO)2PPh3}] (1-PPh3), and [(μ-dmest){Fe(CO)3}2] [1-O; dmest = SCH(CH3)CH(CH3)S(O)], 1-O were synthesized and characterized. These model complexes, which are generally used as the functional biomimics of the hydrogen-producing dinuclear active site in [FeFe]-hydrogenase, were used as efficient catalysts for the selective hydroxylation of aromatic compounds to phenols under mild conditions. Because both the dithiolato-sulfur site and the Fe-Fe bond in the model complexes were possible active oxidation sites, DFT calculations were used to investigate the oxygenated products, that is, the S-oxygenated products or the Fe-oxygenated forms of the model complexes, which may be involved in the catalytic cycle. The experimental and computational results indicate that the thermodynamically favored Fe-oxygenated intermediates dominate the hydroxylation of the aromatic compounds. A possible mechanism for the hydroxylation is also proposed. Three FeI-FeI organometallic complexes were synthesized and used as highly selective catalysts for the direct hydroxylation of aromatic compounds to phenols, forming FeII-μ-O-FeII intermediates as the active oxygen-transfer species.

Synthesis, characterization and catalytic reactivity of pentacoordinate iron dicarbonyl as a model of the [Fe]-hydrogenase active site

Zhang, Tianyong,Sheng, Liao,Yang, Qiusheng,Jiang, Shuang,Wang, Yanhong,Jin, Chaohui,Li, Bin

, p. 2011 - 2018 (2015)

Two mono iron complexes Fe(CO)2PR3(NN) (R = Cy (3), Ph (4), NN = o-phenylenediamine dianion ligand, N2H2Ph2-) derived from the ligand substitution of Fe(CO)3I2PR3 by t

-

Worrall,Cohen

, p. 533 (1936)

-

Beyond esterase-like activity of serum albumin. Histidine-(nitro)phenol radical formation in conversion cascade of p-nitrophenyl acetate and the role of infrared light

Kowacz, Magdalena,Warszyński, Piotr

, (2019)

Serum albumin, recognized mainly for its capacity to act as a carrier protein for many compounds, can also actively transform some organic molecules. As a starting point in this study, we consider esterase-like activity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) toward p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA). Our results reveal that the reaction goes beyond ester hydrolysis step. In fact, the transformation product, p-nitrophenol (p-NP), becomes a substrate for further reaction with BSA in which its nitro group in subtracted and released in the form of HNO2. Spectral data indicate that this cascade of events proceeds through formation of phenoxyl radical via proton-coupled electron transport (PCET) between OH group of p-NP and imidazole ring of histidine from the protein. Furthermore, the effect of application of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared range suggests that this remote physical trigger can support interactions based on PCET mechanism by acting on polarization and mutual alignment of water dipoles serving as effective water wires.

Reductions by aquatitanium(II)

Yang, Zhiyong,Gould, Edwin S.

, p. 1781 - 1784 (2005)

Solutions of titanium(II), prepared by dissolving titanium wire in mixtures of hydrofluoric and triflic acids, reduce quinones, nitrosodisulfonate anion, and complexes of cobalt(III). When the oxidant is taken in excess, these reactions yield Ti(IV), whereas with excess reductant, the principal product is Ti(III). These reactions are compared with those by Ti(III). Despite differences in rate laws, it is clear that rate ratios for the two reductants (k TiII/kTiIII) fall well below 10 4, the minimum selectivity corresponding to estimated differences in formal potentials, and in some instances, Ti(II), the stronger reductant, reacts more slowly. For both Ti(III) and Ti(II), reductions within the series [Co(NH3)5X]2+ (where X = F, Cl, Br, and I), the fluoro complex reacts much more rapidly than its congeners, and the bromo and iodo complexes are slowest, an order similar to that for Eu2+ reductions, but opposite to that for Cr(II) and Cu(I). The [Co(NH 3)5Br]2+ reaction with excess Ti(II) proceeds at rates very nearly independent of [oxidant] during the first 80-90% reaction, implying that initiation occurs via unimolecular conversion of Ti(II) to an activated cationic reducing species, in the same manner as the earlier described reduction of I3- by Ge(II) in aqueous HCl. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2005.

-

Olah,G.A. et al.

, p. 1247 - 1251 (1979)

-

Evidence for single electron transfer (SET) pathway in the reaction of primary alkylcadmium reagents with p-benzoquinone

Shahidzadeh, Mansour,Ghandi, Mehdi

, p. 108 - 111 (2001)

The reaction of primary alkylcadmium reagents with p-benzoquinone at various conditions was studied. On the basis of our results, reaction proceeds through a SET mechanism that forms loose and tight intermediates, which produce quinole (1) and substituted hydroquinone (2). In both cases, hydroquinone (3) is obtained in different yields.

-

Omura,Matsuura

, p. 3101,3108 (1971)

-

Briggs-Rauscher reaction with 1,4-cyclohexanedione substrate

Kereszturi, Klara,Szalai, Istvan

, p. 1071 - 1082 (2006)

A new organic substrate has been used to promote oscillations under batch conditions in the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating system. The new substrate, 1,4-cyclohexanedione (CHD), reacts with aqueous iodine via an enol mechanism. We discuss the effect of the initial concentrations, the temperature and chemical perturbations. In a definite range of concentrations long-lived oscillations with two significantly different frequency periods were observed. The low frequency parts are temperature-dependent while the high frequency oscillations do not show temperature dependence. The inhibitory effects of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone on the oscillations and the kinetics of some important component reactions were studied to develop a model for the simulation of the observed oscillations. by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.

-

Hanson,Mehta

, p. 2349 (1969)

-

-

Ogata,Y. et al.

, p. 3469 - 3472 (1968)

-

Highly selective hydrogenation of Α, Β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds over supported Co nanoparticles

Jiang, Pengbo,Li, Xinlin,Gao, Wenbin,Wang, Xiang,Tang, Yu,Lan, Kai,Wang, Bin,Li, Rong

, p. 6 - 9 (2018)

A nitrogen-doped porous carbon materials (CPNs) with supported Co nanoparticles (Co@CPNs) with lamellar structure, high surface area and excellent magnetic properties was synthesized successfully by one-pot method. The Co@CPNs exhibited an excellent catalytic activity with 99% conversion and selectivity for hydrogenation of furfural (FAL) to furfuryl alcohol (FOL) under the pressure of H2. In addition, the Co@CPNs were further investigated in the kinetic study and selective hydrogenation of the other α, β unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The study of the Co@CPNs indicated that it was suitable for selective hydrogenation of the α, β unsaturated carbonyl compounds in the industry.

Activation of Water with Anionic Platinum Carbonyl Clusters

Basu, Amitabha,Bhaduri, Sumit,Sharma, Krishna R.

, p. 2315 - 2318 (1984)

Rate parameters have been determined for the oxidation of water to oxygen by (2-).The cluster anion is found to catalyse the conversion of p-benzoquinone to benzene-1,4-diol with water or hydrogen.U.v.-visible and i.r.spectroscopy suggest the

N,N-bis(quinonyl)amines; synthesis and X-ray structure

Bittner, Shmuel,Meenakshi, Chandran,Temtsin, Galina

, p. 7423 - 7429 (2001)

The preparation of several symmetrical and nonsymmetrical N,N-bis(quinonyl)amines is reported. These compounds, which have two quinones separated by one amino group, were obtained by an unexpected reaction of primary or secondary substituted aminoquinones

-

Schaefer

, p. 2027 (1960)

-

Molybdenum and copper catalysis of reductions by titanium(II) and titanium(III)

Yang, Zhiyong,Gould, Edwin S.

, p. 396 - 398 (2006)

Reductions of vanadium(iv), benzoquinone, and tri-iodide, both by titanium(iii) and by titanium(ii), are catalyzed by molybdenum(vi). The VO 2+-Ti(ii) reaction is catalyzed by copper(ii) as well. Reactions of Ti(ii) with the oxidant in excess y

Effects of Pressure on the Photoreduction of p-Benzoquinone in Normal and Reversed Micellar Sysytems

Tamura, Katsuhiro,Abe, Masatoshi,Terai, Masayoshi

, p. 1493 - 1500 (1989)

The photoreduction of p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in normal and reversed micellar systems has been studied kinetically under high pressures up to 150 MPa.Anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micelles accelerated the reaction, while cationic hexadecyltrimethyla

Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous-TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of chloro-phenol

Shamaila, Sajjad,Sajjad, Ahmed Khan Leghari,Chen, Feng,Zhang, Jinlong

, p. 1375 - 1382 (2010)

Mesoporous-titania (TiO2) photocatalysts have been synthesized using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a template in dilute acetic acid aqueous solution by hydrothermal process. The effect of PEG molecular weights and thermal treatment on the resultant structure and photocatalytic activity are investigated. Structural and phase compositional properties of the resultant photocatalysts are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen sorption analysis. When the molecular weights of PEG vary from 600 to 20,000, the particle sizes of mesoporous structure decrease from 15.1 to 13.3 nm and mean pore sizes increase from 6.9 to 10.6 nm. The chemical reactions of the formation of mesoporous-TiO2 during its synthesis have been proposed and discussed. The activities of mesoporous-TiO2 photocatalysts are evaluated and compared with Degussa P-25 using chloro-phenol as a testing compound. The reaction mechanism of photodegradation is also described on the basis of high performance liquid chromatography.

Ultrasound-promoted rapid and efficient iodination of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds in the presence of iodine and hydrogen peroxide in water

Ferreira, Irlon M.,Casagrande, Gleison A.,Pizzuti, Lucas,Raminelli, Cristiano

, p. 2094 - 2102 (2014)

A rapid and efficient ultrasound-promoted protocol for iodination of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds, using molecular iodine in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide in water without any cosolvent, has produced versatile iodinated organic molecules with potential application in organic synthesis and medicine in short reaction times and good to excellent yields. Copyright

-

Endo,Okawara

, p. 3301 (1979)

-

Benzene-free synthesis of hydroquinone

Ran,Knop,Draths,Frost

, p. 10927 - 10934 (2001)

All current routes for the synthesis of hydroquinone utilize benzene as the starting material. An alternate route to hydroquinone has now been elaborated from glucose. While benzene is a volatile carcinogen derived from nonrenewable fossil fuel feedstocks, glucose is nonvolatile, nontoxic, and derived from renewable plant polysacharrides. Glucose is first converted into quinic acid using microbial catalysis. Quinic acid is then chemically converted into hydroquinone. Under fermentor-controlled conditions, Escherichia coli QP1.1/pKD12.138 synthesizes 49 g/L of quinic acid from glucose in 20% (mol/mol) yield. Oxidative decarboxylation of quinic acid in clarified, decolorized, ammonium ion-free fermentation broth with NaOCl and subsequent dehydration of the intermediate 3(R),5(R)-trihydroxycyclohexanone afforded purified hydroquinone in 87% yield. Halide-free, oxidative decarboxylation of quinic acid in fermentation broth with stoichiometric quantities of (NH4)2Ce(SO4)3 and V2O5 afforded hydroquinone in 91% and 85% yield, respectively. Conditions suitable for oxidative decarboxylation of quinic acid with catalytic amounts of metal oxidant were also identified. Ag3PO4 at 2 mol % relative to quinic acid in fermentation broth catalyzed the formation of hydroquinone in 74% yield with K2S2O8 serving as the cooxidant. Beyond establishing a fundamentally new route to an important chemical building block, oxidation of microbe-synthesized quinic acid provides an example of how the toxicity of aromatics toward microbes can be circumvented by interfacing chemical catalysis with biocatalysis.

-

Sakai,Hattori

, p. 1153,1154-1156 (1976)

-

Biomass-Based and Oxidant-Free Preparation of Hydroquinone from Quinic Acid

Assoah, Benedicta,Veiros, Luis F.,Afonso, Carlos A. M.,Candeias, Nuno R.

, p. 3856 - 3861 (2016)

A biomass-based route to the preparation of hydroquinone starting from the renewable starting material quinic acid is described. Amberlyst-15 in the dry form promoted the one-step formation of hydroquinone from quinic acid in toluene without any oxidants or metal catalysts in 72 % yield. Several acidic polymer-based resins and organic acids as promoters as well as a variety of reaction conditions were screened including temperature, concentration and low- and high-boiling-point solvents. A 1:4 (w/w) ratio of quinic acid/Amberlyst-15 was determined to be optimal to promote hydroquinone formation with only traces of a dimeric side-product. A mechanism has been proposed based on the decarbonylation of protonated quino-1,5-lactone that is supported by experimental and computational calculation data.

Preparation of magnetic composite photocatalyst Bi2WO 6/CoFe2O4by two-step hydrothermal method and itsphotocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A

Wang, Chunying,Zhu, Lingyan,Chang, Chun,Fu, Yu,Chu, Xiaolong

, p. 92 - 95 (2013)

Easily separable magnetic photocatalyst Bi2WO 6/CoFe2O4 was synthesized by a two-step hydrothermal method. Pure spinel CoFe2O4 in nano-scale was prepared by a hydrothermal method, which was followed by a second hydrothermal process to coat CoFe2O4 with Bi2WO6. The prepared Bi2WO6/CoFe2O4 kept the magnetic property of CoFe2O4 and high efficient photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6 as well. The photoactivity of Bi2WO6/CoFe2O4 (mass ratio 10:1) to degrade bisphenol A (BPA) was close to that of pure Bi 2WO6 after 120 min of simulated solar light irradiation. After reaction, the catalyst particles could be easily harvested from the suspension by applying an external magnetic field.

Kinetics of phenol oxidation with iron-manganese concretions

Cheremisina,Chirkst,Sulimova

, p. 685 - 692 (2012)

Kinetics of oxidation of phenols on the iron-manganese concretions in the temperature range 293-353 K at pH 5.5±0.5 was studied. Reaction of oxidation on the iron-manganese concretions has the second order by phenol. It is characterized by low activation energy, 17.5 kJ mol-1, due to the catalytic action of iron(III) oxide. Lower rate of oxidation of phenols on the iron-manganese concretions is observed as compared to oxidation on the pyrolusite surface. It occurs because of the decrease in MnO2 concentration in the iron-manganese concretions.

Photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen over Ag, Au and Pt loaded TiO2 using solar light

Nasr, Osama,Mohamed, Omima,Al-Shirbini, Al-Sayed,Abdel-Wahab, Aboel-Magd

, p. 185 - 193 (2019)

The sustainability and feasibility of using solar irradiation instead of UV light in photocatalysis is a promising approach for water remediation. In this study, photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, acetaminophen (AP), with noble metal loaded TiO2 photocatalysts (Ag/TiO2, Au/TiO2 and Pt/TiO2) was investigated in aqueous suspension using solar light. The deposition of noble metals (Ag, Au and Pt) onto the TiO2 surface enhanced the PCD of AP under different operating conditions including pH, surfactants and drug excipients. However, lower degradation rate constants of AP were obtained under simulated and direct solar light as compared to UV light. The degradation mechanism of AP under UV as well as simulated solar light was found to follow similar, though not identical, reaction pathways leading to hydroxylated intermediates (e.g. 4-acetamidoresorcinol (4-AR), 4-acetamidocatechol (4-AC) and hydroquinone (HQ)) through competitive routes. The PCD of AP followed a pseudo first order kinetics according to Langmiur-Hinshelwood model. Noble metal (Ag, Au and Pt) loaded TiO2 photocatalysts can be used effectively to degrade AP in water under both solar and UV light.

The 1,4-cyclohexanedione-bromate-acid oscillatory system. 3. Detailed mechanism

Szalai, Istvan,Koeroes, Endre

, p. 6892 - 6897 (1998)

1,4-Cyclohexanedione (CHD) in its reaction with acidic bromate undergoes aromatization and one of the main resulting products 1,4-dihydroxybenzene (H2Q) is further oxidized and brominated to 1,4-benzoquinone and bromoorganics. The kinetics of H2Q formation, of the reaction of CHD and Br2. as well as of the reaction between H2Q and bromate ion, were followed spectrophotometrically. The latter reaction exhibited Landolt (clock)-type dynamics. On the basis of our earlier analytical and present kinetic investigations, a detailed mechanistic model has been suggested that could well simulate the temporal oscillations of the title system. H2Q plays an essential role in the mechanism and is responsible for the unusual behavior (200-300 oscillations) of this chemical oscillator. We pointed to the relation that may exist between the CHD-bromate-acid system and those reported as oscillatory Landolt-type reactions [e.g., IO3- - SO32- - Fe(CN)64-].

Photo-catalyzed p-nitrophenol degradation in aqueous dispersions of ferrihydrite and H2O2

Wu, Yongjuan,Chen, Rufen,Liu, Hui,Wei, Yu,Wu, Dong

, p. 7325 - 7332 (2014)

Nitrophenols are hazardous and toxic to living organisms. For this study, ferrihydrite was prepared to test its capabilities for p-nitrophenol degradation. A ferrihydrite particle prepared in neutral environmental conditions is sphere-like with a diameter of 2-4 nm and its total surface area is approximately 229 m2g-1. The combination of ferrihydrite and trace H2O2is effective for the degradation of p-nitrophenol under simulated sunlight irradiation. Hydroquinone, the initial intermediate of p-nitrophenol decomposition, autocatalyses the subsequent degradation of p-nitrophenol because it accelerates the photo-reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite. The effect of key operating parameters such as ferrihydrite dosage, initial solution pH and H2O2dosage were also studied on the photocatalytic degradation of p-nitrophenol. The results indicate that the combination of 0.2 g-L-1ferrihydrite, 0.45 mmol ? L-1H2O2is highly efficient for the degradation of p-nitrophenol (0.15 mmol ? L-1) at pH 2.5~3.0. A ferrihydrite was reused several times, still keeping its original photocatalysis. Copyright

Analysis of Products from Reactions of Chemisorbed Monolayers at Smooth Platinum Electrodes: Electrochemical Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophenol Derivatives

Vieira, Kenneth L.,Zapien, Donald C.,Soriaga, Manuel P.,Hubbard, Arthur T.,Low, Karen P.,Anderson, Stanley E.

, p. 2964 - 2968 (1986)

The product mixtures from electrochemical hydrodesulfurization of selected thiophenolic compounds chemisorbed through the -SH moiety at smooth Pt electrodes in molar acid have been analyzed quantitatively by using thin-layer electrochemical methods in conjunction with capillary gas chromatography and liquid chromatography.The following compounds were studied: pentafluorothiophenol (PFT), mercaptohydroquinone (MHQ), and 2-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA).A comparatively high area, large-volume preparative thin-layer electrode (TLE) was constructed to facilitate sample analysis.The results obtained from TLE, GC, and HPLC analysis were in good agreement.The extent of hydrodesulfurization (defined here as simple cleavage of the C-S bond without impairment of the aromatic functionality) depended on the nature of the pendant aromatic ring, decreasing in the order PFT (100percent) >> MHQ (50percent) >>MBA (15percent).Only one desulfurization product was observed for MHQ and MBA; the absence of other products was probably because ring hydrogenation (to form alkyl-type groups) competed with simple desulfurization, and detachment of the alkyl moieties from the -SH anchor occured with greater difficulty than that of the aromatic group.

Role of proton-coupled electron transfer in the redox interconversion between benzoquinone and hydroquinone

Song, Na,Gagliardi, Christopher J.,Binstead, Robert A.,Zhang, Ming-Tian,Thorp, Holden,Meyer, Thomas J.

, p. 18538 - 18541 (2012)

Benzoquinone/hydroquinone redox interconversion by the reversible Os(dmb)33+/2+ couple over an extended pH range with added acids and bases has revealed the existence of seven discrete pathways. Application of spectrophotometric moni

-

Hubacher

, p. 2097 (1943)

-

One-Electron and Two-Electron Redox Switch in the Reactions of 1,5-Dihydroflavin and Quinones Controlled by Acid and Base in Acetonitrile

Ishikawa, Masashi,Matsuda, Yoshiharu,Yamamoto, Kazuhiko,Fukuzumi, Shunichi

, p. 2269 - 2272 (1992)

The acid-catalyzed reactions of 1,5-dihydroriboflavin-2',3',4',5'-tetraacetate (FlH2) with quinones (Q) result in the one-electron oxidation of FlH2 to FlH2+* and the two-electron reduction of Q to hydroquinones (QH2) in the presence of HClO4 in acetonitrile.In the presence of Me4NOH, the base catalyzed reactions result in the two-electron oxidation of FlH2 to Fl and the one-electron reduction of Q to Q-*.

A PHENOL ALLOSIDE FROM VIBURNUM WRIGHTII

Iwagawa, Tetsuo,Takahashi, Hideo,Munesada, Kiyotaka,Hase, Tsunao

, p. 468 - 469 (1984)

A new phenol alloside, p-hydroxyphenyl β-D-alloside, has been isolated from the leaves of Viburnum wrightii in addition to several known compounds.The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. - Keywords: Viburnum wrightii; Caprifoliaceae; phenol alloside.

-

Zatsny et al.

, (1973)

-

Photocatalytic removal of benzene over Ti3C2T: XMXene and TiO2-MXene composite materials under solar and NIR irradiation

Calvino, José J.,Constantinescu, Gabriel,Frade, Jorge R.,Kovalevsky, Andrei V.,Labrincha, Jo?o A.,Lajaunie, Luc,Lopes, Daniela V.,Sergiienko, Sergii A.,Shaula, Aliaksandr L.,Shcherban, Nataliya D.,Shkepu, Viacheslav I.,Tobaldi, David M.

, p. 626 - 639 (2022/01/22)

MXenes, a family of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides based on earth-abundant constituents, are prospective candidates for energy conversion applications, including photocatalysis. While the activity of individual MXenes towards various photocatalytic processes is still debatable, these materials were proved to be excellent co-catalysts, accelerating the charge separation and suppressing the exciton recombination. Titanium-containing MXenes are well compatible with the classical TiO2 photocatalyst. The TiO2 component can be directly grown on MXene sheets by in situ oxidation, representing a mainstream processing approach for such composites. In this study, an essentially different approach has been implemented: a series of TiO2-MXene composite materials with controlled composition and both reference end members were prepared, involving two different strategies for mixing sol-gel-derived TiO2 nanopowder with the Ti3C2Tx component, which was obtained by HF etching of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis products containing modified MAX phase Ti3C2Alz (z > 1) with nominal aluminium excess. The prospects of such composites for the degradation of organic pollutants under simulated solar light, using benzene as a model system, were demonstrated and analysed in combination with their structural, microstructural and optical properties. A notable photocatalytic activity of bare MXene under near infrared light was discovered, suggesting further prospects for light-to-energy harvesting spanning from UV-A to NIR and applications in biomedical imaging and sensors.

A highly photosensitive covalent organic framework with pyrene skeleton as metal-free catalyst for arylboronic acid hydroxylation

Chen, Ying,Huo, Jianqiang,Zhang, Yubao

, (2022/03/16)

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have been widely utilized in metal-free photocatalytic synthesis base on their excellent properties such as super conjugation, porosity and stability. In this work, we synthesized a new COF material using 1,3,6,8-Tetrakis (p-formylphenyl)pyrene (TFPPy) and 2,2′-Dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ) as basic units through Schiff base condensation reaction. The new COF (TF-DM COF) was applied as metal-free catalyst for hydroxylation of arylboronic acids. The results indicated that the extended π conjugation of COFs enhanced the absorption of visible light, and the large porosity (BET surface area: 113.782 m2g?1) accelerated the reaction rate. Good recyclability enables it with multiple applications, which result in a great reducing of the cost. This study reports that TF-DM COF has a broad application prospect as a new generation of metal-free photocatalysts for organic conversions.

Highly efficient titanosilicate catalyst Ti-MCM-68 prepared using a liquid-phase titanium source for the phenol oxidation

Inagaki, Satoshi,Ishizuka, Ryo,Ikehara, Yuya,Odagawa, Shota,Asanuma, Kai,Morimoto, Shunsuke,Kubota, Yoshihiro

, p. 3681 - 3684 (2021/02/03)

A highly efficient Ti-MCM-68 catalyst for phenol oxidation with H2O2 was prepared by a mild liquid-phase treatment for the first time. The key preparation procedures to excellent catalytic activity and high para-selectivity were the use of aqueous solutions of the Ti source and calcination at 650 °C prior to catalytic use.

Preparation and photocatalytic performance of silver-modified and nitrogen-doped TiO2nanomaterials with oxygen vacancies

Zhang, Hong,Jiang, Yingyu,Zhou, Baiqin,Wei, Zhuo,Zhu, Zhenya,Han, Lijuan,Zhang, Ping,Hu, Yingying

, p. 4694 - 4704 (2021/03/22)

The photocatalysis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) exerts excellent degradation performance against contaminants in the environment. However, it prefers to absorb ultraviolet light rather than visible light, which significantly constrains its widespread use under visible light. Here, we prepared oxygen vacancy-containing TiO2viaAg-modification and N-doping. The utilization of visible light for phenol degradation was significantly enhanced by Ag/N co-doping. The characterization results showed a shuttle-like material coupled with multiple oxygen vacancies, and a well-designed experiment demonstrated that the Ti?:?N?:?Ag ratio of 1?:?0.45?:?0.32 presented optimal performance for phenol degradation. The batch experiment results also proved the modified TiO2as a potent photocatalyst against phenol degradation with an 80.8% degradation efficiency within 5 hours under visible light and with a 99.3% degradation efficiency within 2 hours under ultraviolet light. What is more, we also demonstrated that hydroxyl radical was the mainly effective radical in the mineralization of phenol and put forward a possible degradation pathway based on the observed intermediates. Lastly, the cycling tests indicated that the proposed photocatalyst is durable with a fair phenol degradation ability after recycling 5 times.

A high-nuclearity CuI/CuIInanocluster catalyst for phenol degradation

Liu, Li-Juan,Zhang, Jiang-Wei,Asad, Muhammad,Wang, Zhao-Yang,Zang, Shuang-Quan,Mak, Thomas C. W.

supporting information, p. 5586 - 5589 (2021/06/12)

Herein, we report a 54-nuclei copper nanocluster, [Cu54S13O6(tBuS)20(tBuSO3)12] (Cu54), which is the largest atom-precise CuI/CuIImix-valent cluster reported. The Cu54nanoclusters supported by TiO2exhibit decent photocatalytic activity for phenol degradation under visible light. This work provides a platform to explore the catalytic behaviors of CuI/CuIInanosystems.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

2,4-Dinitrophenol
51-28-5

2,4-Dinitrophenol

hydroquinone
123-31-9,8027-02-9

hydroquinone

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate; dihydrogen peroxide; sodium dodecyl-sulfate; In acetic acid; for 48h; Ambient temperature;
22%
30%
15%
With ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate; dihydrogen peroxide; sodium dodecyl-sulfate; In water; acetic acid; at 30 ℃; for 2h;
30 % Spectr.
15 % Spectr.
22 % Spectr.
With ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate; dihydrogen peroxide; sodium dodecyl-sulfate; In acetic acid; for 48h; Mechanism; Ambient temperature;
With ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate; dihydrogen peroxide; In water; acetic acid; at 30 ℃; for 2h;
22 % Spectr.
30 % Spectr.
15 % Spectr.
o-Phenoxyphenol
2417-10-9

o-Phenoxyphenol

2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl
1806-29-7

2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl

cis,cis-Muconic acid
1119-72-8

cis,cis-Muconic acid

2,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl
611-62-1

2,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl

hydroquinone
123-31-9,8027-02-9

hydroquinone

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With sodium hydroxide; ozone; at 0 - 20 ℃; Kinetics; Mechanism; Product distribution; dependence from NaOH concn.;
2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl
1806-29-7

2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl

hydroquinone
123-31-9,8027-02-9

hydroquinone

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With 3,10-di-n-butylisoalloxazine N-oxide; In acetonitrile; for 6h; Yields of byproduct given; Irradiation;
2%
2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl
1806-29-7

2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl

cis,cis-Muconic acid
1119-72-8

cis,cis-Muconic acid

4,6-dioxo-2-hexenoic acid
121259-83-4

4,6-dioxo-2-hexenoic acid

hydroquinone
123-31-9,8027-02-9

hydroquinone

p-benzoquinone
106-51-4

p-benzoquinone

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With ozone; In water; at 19.9 ℃; Mechanism; Product distribution; Kinetics; other solvents; other phenols;
4-chloro-phenol
106-48-9,82344-39-6

4-chloro-phenol

2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl
1806-29-7

2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl

4,4'-Dihydroxybiphenyl
92-88-6

4,4'-Dihydroxybiphenyl

4-methoxy-phenol
150-76-5

4-methoxy-phenol

hydroquinone
123-31-9,8027-02-9

hydroquinone

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With methanol; In water; Quantum yield; Ambient temperature; Irradiation;
p-nitrosophenol
104-91-6

p-nitrosophenol

4-amino-phenol
123-30-8

4-amino-phenol

hydroquinone
123-31-9,8027-02-9

hydroquinone

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With air; titanium(IV) oxide; In water; at 50 ℃; pH=5.8; Kinetics; UV-irradiation;
p-nitrosophenol
104-91-6

p-nitrosophenol

hydroquinone
123-31-9,8027-02-9

hydroquinone

2-hydroxynitrobenzene
88-75-5,78813-12-4

2-hydroxynitrobenzene

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With tempol; peroxynitrite; sodium hydrogencarbonate; In phosphate buffer; pH=6.5; Further Variations:; Reagents; pH-values; Product distribution;
Conditions
Conditions Yield
With Peroxynitrite anion; In phosphate buffer; pH=6.8; Further Variations:; pH-values; Solvents; Temperatures; Kinetics; Product distribution;
4-methoxy-benzaldehyde
123-11-5

4-methoxy-benzaldehyde

4-methoxy-phenol
150-76-5

4-methoxy-phenol

4-methoxybenzoic acid
100-09-4

4-methoxybenzoic acid

hydroquinone
123-31-9,8027-02-9

hydroquinone

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With dihydrogen peroxide; methyltrioxorhenium(VII); 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate; In water; at 50 ℃; for 4h;
1-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethanone
100-06-1

1-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethanone

4-methoxyphenyl acetate
1200-06-2

4-methoxyphenyl acetate

4-methoxy-phenol
150-76-5

4-methoxy-phenol

4-methoxybenzoic acid
100-09-4

4-methoxybenzoic acid

hydroquinone
123-31-9,8027-02-9

hydroquinone

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With dihydrogen peroxide; methyltrioxorhenium(VII); 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate; In water; at 80 ℃; for 5h;

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  • DB BIOTECH CO., LTD
  • Business Type:Trading Company
  • Contact Tel:86--1829 2989 553
  • Emails:info@db-biotech.com
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  • Country:China (Mainland)
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  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:86-571-86465881,86-571-87157530,86-571-88025800
  • Emails:sales@dingyanchem.com
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  • Country:China (Mainland)
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  • Contact Tel:86-29-86107037-8015
  • Emails:info@konochemical.com
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  • Country:China (Mainland)
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  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:86-532-81906761
  • Emails:josen@eastchem-cn.com
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  • Country:China (Mainland)
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  • Business Type:Lab/Research institutions
  • Contact Tel:86-571-89925085
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  • Country:China (Mainland)
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  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:021-51086038
  • Emails:sales@chemwill.com
  • Main Products:56
  • Country:China (Mainland)
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