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Sodium chloride

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Name

Sodium chloride

EINECS 231-598-3
CAS No. 7647-14-5 Density 2.165 g/cm3
Solubility in water: 359 g/L, in ammonia: 21.5 g/L, in methanol: 14.9 g/L Melting Point 801 °C, 1074 K, 1474 °F
Formula NaCl Boiling Point 1413 °C, 1686 K, 2575 °F
Molecular Weight 58.44 Flash Point 1413°C
Transport Information Appearance Colorless crystals
Safety 24/25-26-36 Risk Codes 36-36/37/38-22
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 7647-14-5 (Sodium chloride) Hazard Symbols IrritantXi
Synonyms

Sodium chloride (8CI);Table salt;Sodium chloric;Saline;Halite;Common salt;Hypersal;Natriumchlorid;Sodium chloride Pharma;Crude Salt (NaCl);Crude salt;Sodium chloride for injection;Rock salt;Anhydrous sodium chloride;Rode Salt;

 

Sodium chloride Consensus Reports

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.

Sodium chloride Specification

Both the IUPAC name and product name of this chemical are the same which is called Sodium chloride. With the CAS register number 7647-14-5. The substance is an ionic compound with the formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is soluble in water and glycerol, but insoluble in alcohol. Sodium chloride is stable. You must avoid contact with strong acids which when in contact may evolve chlorine gas. Sodium chloride will become corrosive to metals when wet. What's more, its EINECS number is 231-598-3.

Physical properties about Sodium chloride are: Water solution of Sodium chloride is alkaline with the PH value 6.7-7.3. It is soluble in water, salty, and has low thermal conductivity. In addition, it won't conduct electricity. Sodium chloride has a strong hygroscopicity and can deliquesce easily. Rock salt is the most widely content in salt mine.

Preparation of Sodium chloride: Salt is currently mass-produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources, such as brine wells and salt lakes, and by mining rock salt, called halite. Using sold salt dissoves in distilled water. The mixture is boiled after addition of sodium hydroxide, then is stored overnight and filtered. You should keep filtrate clean and then cool down it simultaneously put into pure HCl gas to make the mixture saturated. After that, crystal of Sodium chloride will separate out. There are also three methods of Sodium chloride production and purification: brine solution, rock salt mining, and the open pan or grainer process:

To produce Sodium chloride from brine, water is pumped into the salt deposit and the saturated salt solution containing 26% salt, 73.5% water, and 0.5% impurities, is removed. Hydrogen sulfide is removed by aeration, and oxidation with chlorine. Calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and iron (Fe3+) are precipitated as the carbonates using soda ash and are removed in a settling tank. The brine solution can be sold directly or it can be evaporated to give salt of 99.8% purity.

Rock salt is produced from deep mines so that the salt is taken directly from the deposit. Salt obtained by this method is 98.5 to 99.4% pure.

In the open pan or grainer salt method, hot brine solution is held in an open pan approximately 4 to 6 meters wide, 45 to 60 meters long, and 60 cm deep at 96°C. Flat, pure sodium chloride crystals form on the surface and fall to the bottom and are raked to a centrifuge, separated from the brine, and dried. A purity of 99.98% is obtained. A vacuum pan system is also available.

Uses of Sodium chloride: As the major ingredient in edible salt, Sodium chloride is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Sodium chloride can manufacture pulp and paper, to setting dyes in textiles and fabric, to producing soaps, detergents, and other bath products. Sodium chloride is sometimes used as a cheap and safe desiccant because of its hygroscopic properties.

Salt also is added to secure the soil and to provide firmness to the foundation on which highways are built. Road salt ends up in fresh water bodies and could harm aquatic plants and animals by disrupting their osmoregulation ability. The industrial uses of salt include, in descending order of quantity consumed, various applications, oil and gas exploration, textiles and dyeing, pulp and paper, metal processing, tanning and leather treatment, and rubber manufacture. It is used to flocculate and increase the density of the drilling fluid to overcome high downwell gas pressures.

In textiles and dyeing, salt is used as a brine rinse to separate organic contaminants, to promote “salting out” of dyestuff precipitates, and to blend with concentrated dyes to standardize them. In metal processing, salt is used in concentrating uranium ore into uranium oxide (yellow cake). It also is used in processing aluminium, beryllium, copper, steel and vanadium. In the pulp and paper industry, salt is used to bleach wood pulp. It also is used to make sodium chlorate. In rubber manufacture, salt is used to make buna, neoprene and white rubber types.

When you are using Sodium chloride, you should be very cautious about it. It is irritant and harmful if swallowed. In addition, Sodium chloride is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. You must avoid contact with skin and eyes. In case of contact with eyes, you should rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Whenever you will contact or use Sodium chloride, please wear suitable protective clothing.

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)Canonical SMILES: [Na+].[Cl-]
(2)InChI: InChI=1S/ClH.Na/h1H;/q;+1/p-1
(3)InChIKey: FAPWRFPIFSIZLT-UHFFFAOYSA-M

Toxicity data of Sodium chloride:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
dog LDLo intravenous 2gm/kg (2000mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 21, Pg. 119, 1886.
guinea pig LDLo intraarterial 300mg/kg (300mg/kg)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 131, Pg. 171, 1928.
guinea pig LDLo intravenous 300mg/kg (300mg/kg)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 131, Pg. 171, 1928.
guinea pig LDLo parenteral 300mg/kg (300mg/kg)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 131, Pg. 171, 1928.
guinea pig LDLo subcutaneous 2160mg/kg (2160mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.
human TDLo oral 12357mg/kg/23 (12357mg/kg) VASCULAR: BP ELEVATION NOT CHARACTERIZED IN AUTONOMIC SECTION American Journal of Digestive Diseases. Vol. 21, Pg. 180, 1954.
man LDLo oral 1gm/kg (1000mg/kg) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE

BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)
Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Vol. 65, Pg. 1587, 1990.
mouse LD50 intracervical 131mg/kg (131mg/kg)   Tohoku Yakka Daigaku Kenkyu Nempo. Annual Report of the Tohoku College of Pharmacy. Vol. 27, Pg. 131, 1980.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 2602mg/kg (2602mg/kg)   Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, Academie des Sciences. Vol. 256, Pg. 1043, 1963.
mouse LD50 intravenous 645mg/kg (645mg/kg)   Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 7, Pg. 445, 1957.
mouse LD50 oral 4gm/kg (4000mg/kg)   Farmaco, Edizione Pratica. Vol. 27, Pg. 19, 1972.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 3gm/kg (3000mg/kg)   Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 7, Pg. 445, 1957.
rabbit LD50 skin > 10gm/kg (10000mg/kg)   BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. Vol. 20-3/1971,
rabbit LDLo intravenous 1100mg/kg (1100mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY)

CARDIAC: OTHER CHANGES
Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 21, Pg. 119, 1886.
rabbit LDLo oral 8gm/kg (8000mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.
rat LC50 inhalation > 42gm/m3/1H (42000mg/m3)   BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. Vol. 20-3/1971,
rat LD50 oral 3gm/kg (3000mg/kg)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 20, Pg. 57, 1971.
rat LDLo subcutaneous 3500mg/kg (3500mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: IRRITABILITY Endocrinology Vol. 24, Pg. 523, 1939.

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