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Xylitol

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Xylitol

EINECS 201-788-0
CAS No. 87-99-0 Density 1.525 g/cm3
Solubility soluble in water Melting Point 94-97 °C(lit.)
Formula C5H12O5 Boiling Point 494.5 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 152.17 Flash Point 261.9 °C
Transport Information Appearance white crystalline powder
Safety 24/25-36-26 Risk Codes 36/37/38
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 87-99-0 (Xylitol) Hazard Symbols IrritantXi
Synonyms

Xylit;Klinit;Xylitol (JP14/NF);meso-xylitol;Xylite;(2S,4R)-pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol;Klinit (TN);Xylitol [USAN];Kannit;pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol;Eutrit;Newtol;Xyliton;1,2,3,4,5-Pentahydroxypentane;TORCH;Xylitol powder (food grade);Xylo-oligosaccharide;Acesulfame-K;Xylitol,food additive;Xylitol EP6;

 

Xylitol Chemical Properties

Molecular Structure:

Molecular Formula: C5H12O5
Molecular Weight: 152.1458
IUPAC Name: Pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol
Classification Code: Flavoring Agents ; Food Additives ; Mutation data ; Pharmaceutic aid [vehicle, sweetened] ; Sweetening Agents
Melting point: 94-97 °C 
Index of Refraction: 1.57
Molar Refractivity: 32.76 cm3
Molar Volume: 99.7 cm3
Surface Tension: 89.6 dyne/cm
Density: 1.525 g/cm3
Flash Point: 261.9 °C
Enthalpy of Vaporization: 87.76 kJ/mol
Boiling Point: 494.5 °C at 760 mmHg
Vapour Pressure of Xylitol (CAS NO.87-99-0): 7.47E-12 mmHg at 25 °C

Xylitol History

   In the 20th century, Xylitol (CAS NO.87-99-0) was first derived from birch trees in Finland  and was first popularised in Europe as a safe sweetener for people with diabetes that would not impact insulin levels. 

Xylitol Uses

 Xylitol (CAS NO.87-99-0) is used as a naturally occurring sugar substitute found in the fibres of many fruits and vegetables, including various berries, oats, corn husks, and mushrooms. Many Finnish confectioneries employ Xylitol, or have a Xylitol version available. In Finland, Virtually all chewing gum sold  is sweetened with Xylitol.

Xylitol Production

 Xylitol (CAS NO.87-99-0) is produced by hydrogenation of xylose, which converts the sugar (an aldehyde) into a primary alcohol.Today, using hardwood or maize sources, the largest manufacturer globally is the Danish company Danisco, with several other suppliers from China.

Xylitol Toxicity Data With Reference

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
mouse LD50 intramuscular 10200mg/kg (10200mg/kg)   Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.
mouse LD50 intravenous 8500mg/kg (8500mg/kg)   Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 352, 1995.
mouse LD50 oral 12500mg/kg (12500mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC

GASTROINTESTINAL: ULCERATION OR BLEEDING FROM STOMACH

LIVER: OTHER CHANGES
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 36(2), Pg. 25, 1971.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 18300mg/kg (18300mg/kg)   Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.
mouse LDLo intraperitoneal 22100mg/kg (22100mg/kg)   Russian Pharmacology and Toxicology Vol. 34, Pg. 124, 1971.
rabbit LD50 intravenous 4gm/kg (4000mg/kg)   Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Vol. 31, Pg. 726, 1972.
rabbit LD50 oral 25gm/kg (25000mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC

GASTROINTESTINAL: ULCERATION OR BLEEDING FROM STOMACH

LIVER: OTHER CHANGES
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 36(2), Pg. 25, 1971.
rat LD50 intramuscular 15gm/kg (15000mg/kg)   Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.
rat LD50 intravenous 10800mg/kg (10800mg/kg)   Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.
rat LD50 oral 16500mg/kg (16500mg/kg)   Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.
rat LD50 subcutaneous > 25gm/kg (25000mg/kg)   Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 297, 1990.

Xylitol Safety Profile

  Xylitol (CAS NO.87-99-0) was consumed as much as 400 grams daily for long periods with no toxicity . Like most sugar alcohols, it has a laxative effect because sugar alcohols are not fully broken down during digestion.
   Dogs that have ingested foods containing high levels of xylitol(87-99-0) (greater than 100 milligram of xylitol(87-99-0) consumed per kilogram of bodyweight) have presented with low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) which can be life-threatening. Low blood sugar can result in a loss of coordination, depression, collapse and seizures in as soon as 30 minutes. Intake of very high doses of xylitol(87-99-0) (greater than 500 - 1000 mg/kg bwt) has also been implicated in liver failure in dogs, which can be fatal. These are points of controversy, however, as earlier World Health Organization studies using much higher doses on dogs for long periods showed no ill effect.  
Hazard Codes: IrritantXi
Risk Statements: 36/37/38 
R36/37/38: Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.
Safety Statements: 24/25-36-26 
S24/25: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. 
S36: Wear suitable protective clothing. 
S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
WGK Germany: 2
RTECS: ZF0800000

Xylitol Specification

  Xylitol (CAS NO.87-99-0), its Synonyms are Xylitol [USAN] ; Eutrit ; Kannit ; Klinit ; NSC 25283 ; Newtol ; UNII-VCQ006KQ1E ; Xylite ; Xylite (sugar) ; Xyliton .

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