Dissolve iodic acid in the minimum volume of hot dilute HNO3, filter and evaporate in a vacuum desiccator until crystals are formed. Collect the crystals and wash them with a little cold H2O and dry them in air in the dark. It is soluble in H2O: 269g/100mL at 20o and 295g/100mL at 40o. It is soluble in dilute EtOH and darkens on exposure to light. It is converted to HIO3.I2O5 on heating at 70o, but at 220o complete conversion to HIO3 occurs. [Lamb et al. J Am Chem Soc 42 1636 1920, Bray & Caulkins J Am Chem Soc 53 44 1931.]
A strong acid in analytical chemistry.
Aqueous solutions of iodic acid serve as strong oxidizing agents. The acid also is used in redox titrations.
Iodic acid may be prepared by the reaction of sulfuric acid with barium iodate. The solution is filtered to remove barium sulfate and then crystallized to obtain iodic acid:
Ba(IO3)2 + H2SO4 → BaSO4 + 2HIO3
It also may be produced by oxidation of iodine with concentrated nitric acid:
3I2 + 10HNO3 → 6HIO3 + 10NO + 2H2O
Also, iodic acid may be obtained by oxidation of iodine with chlorine in dilute acidic solutions:
I2 + 5Cl2 + 6H2O → 2HIO3 + 10HCl
Another method of preparation involves oxidation of iodine with hydrogen peroxide:
I2 + 5H2O2 → 2HIO3 + 4H2O
It also may be prepared by treating hypoiodous acid with a base:
3HIO + 2OH¯ → HIO3 + 2H2O + I¯
Hypoiodous acid may be obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of iodine at pH 12:
I2 + H2O → HIO + H+ + I¯
Iodic acid dehydrates to iodine pentaoxide when heated at 180°C:
2HIO3 → I2H5 + H2O
Iodic acid is a relatively weak monoprotic acid, the Ka value at 25°C is 1.6 x 10–1. Several species have been detected in concentrated aqueous solutions, which include IO3¯, H+, HIO3, (HIO3)2 and (HIO3)3. Its solution turns blue litmus red and then bleaches the litmus paper because of its strong oxidizing properties.
When heated with potassium iodate, potassium hydrogen iodate is formed:
HIO3 + KIO3 → KH(IO3)2
An aqueous solution of iodic acid is a strong oxidizing agent. It liberates iodine from iodides:
IO3¯ + 5I¯ + 6H+ → 3I2 + 3H2O or,
HIO3 + 5HI → 3I2 + 3H2O
In an aqueous solution, iodic acid oxidizes hydrogen sulfide to sulfur:
2HIO3 + 5H2S → I2 + 6H2O + 5S
The solid iodic acid reacts vigorously with sulfur, phosphorus and other nonmetals.
White stable crystalline solid; rhombohedral crystals; occurs in two forms: the normal HIO3, and pyroiodic acid HI3O8.