Salts, basic, such as Ammonium formate, are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydroxide ions and have pH's greater than 7.0. They react as bases to neutralize acids. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of the bases in reactivity group 10 (Bases) and the neutralization of amines. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible.
Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic and irritating ammonia and formic acid gases may form in fire.
Air & Water Reactions
Ammonium formate is the ammonium salt of formic acid, and is a colorless, hydroscopic, crystalline solid. It can be synthesized through treating ammonium carbonate with 85% formic acid. It is widely used in many organic reactions such as Leuckart reaction which is the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones. It can also be used as a buffer in HPLC and LC/MS test. Moreover, it is also used in palladium on carbon (Pd/C) reduction of functional group. It can also be used for the preparation of formic acid in situ as well as being used to store formic acid.
White solid with a weak odor of ammonia. Sinks and mixes slowly with water.
In chemical analysis, especially to ppt base metals from salts of the "noble" metals.
Inhalation causes irritation of nose and throat. Ingestion irritates mouth and stomach. Contact with eyes or skin causes irritation.
Heat the solid in NH3 vapour and dry it in a vacuum till the NH3 odour is faint (note that it can evaporate completely in a vacuum). Recrystallise it from absolute EtOH and then keep it in a desiccator over 99% H2SO4 in vacuo. It is very hygroscopic. It exists in two forms, stable needles and less stable plates. It also forms acid salts, i.e. HCO2NH4.3HCO2H and HCO2NH4.HCO2H. [Kensall & Adler J Am Chem Soc 43 1473 1921, Beilstein 2 IV 18.]
ChEBI: The ammonium salt of formic acid.