Sodium formate and calcium formate
Sodium formate and calcium formate are two kinds of common metal salts of formic acid, sodium formate, also known as sodium formate, There are two kinds of molecular forms of sodium formate compounds in nature:
① as a white crystalline powder, anhydrous sodium formate is slightly hygroscopic, poisonous. The relative density is 1.92 (20 ℃), m.p. is 253 ℃. It is dissolved in water, slightly soluble in ethanol and insoluble in ether.
② sodium formate dihydrate is colorless crystals. With slight formic acid odor, it is toxic. It is dissolved in water and glycerine, slightly soluble in ethanol. It broke down into hydrogen and sodium oxalate under strong heat, and finally converted into sodium carbonate. It is produced by the interaction of formic acid and sodium hydroxide.
The main purpose of sodium formate as follows:
Sodium formate can be used as chemical analysis reagent, used for determination of arsenic and phosphorus, also used as a disinfectant, mordant and so on. Powdered sodium formate is used in industrial instand of formic acid to improve the performance of limestone FGD systems, the advantage is application safety and health.
Preparation of sodium formate: Sodium bicarbonate reacts with formic acid in laboratory, remain the solution basic, remove Fe3 +, filtered, and add formic acid into the filtrate, and the solution was acidic, then evaporate, crystallize to obtain crude sodium.
Calcium is a free-flowing white crystalline powder, with mouldproof, fungicidal, antibacterial effects, is an organic acid feed additive. Its content is 99%, with 69% formic acid, 31% calcium, low water content. This product has a high melting point, is not easy to be destroyed in the particle mass. Feed is added 0.9% to 1.5%. This product is broken down into formic acid in the stomach, reduces the pH of the stomach, maintains digestive acidity, prevents the growth of bacteria to control and prevent bacterial infection-related diarrhea. Trace acid activates pepsinogen role in enhancing the absorption of active ingredients in feed, and producing chelation with minerals in feed to promote digestion and absorption of minerals, also be used as a supplement of calcium. For the prevention of diarrhea of piglets and improve survival, promote feed conversion and daily gain.
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Precipitant for noble metals.
A saturated aqueous solution at 90o (0.8mL water/g) is filtered and allowed to cool slowly. (The final temperature should be above 30o to prevent formation of the hydrate.) After two such crystallissations, the crystals are dried in an oven at 130o, then under high vacuum. [Westrum et al. J Phys Chem 64 1553 1960, Roecker & Meyer J Am Chem Soc 108 4066 1986.] The salt has also been recrystallised twice from 1mM DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, which was recrystallised 4x from MilliQ water and dried in a vacuum), then twice from water [Bielski & Thomas J Am Chem Soc 109 7761 1987]. [Beilstein 2 IV 3.]
1. Sodium formate is mainly for the production of formic acid, oxalic acid and insurance powder and so on.
2. It is used as the reagent for the determination of phosphorus and arsenic, disinfectant and mordant.
3. It is used as preservatives, with diuretic effect. It is mutatis mutandis in EEC countries, but the British are not allowed to use.
4. Sodium formate is used as intermediates in the production of formic acid and oxalic acid, but also for the production of dimethyl formamide, also used in medicine, printing and dyeing industry. It is also heavy metal precipitant.
5. It is used as alkyd paints, plasticizers, high explosives, acid-resistant materials, aviation lubricants, additives of adhesives.
6. It is used for precipitating noble metal, may form trivalent metal complex ions in the solution. With buffer effect, it can be used for correcting pH value of strong mineral acids to be higher. It is precipitant of heavy metal.
ChEBI: An organic sodium salt which is the monosodium salt of formic acid.
It is a white powder, with water absorption and a slight odor of formic acid. It is dissolved in water and glycerol, slightly soluble in ethanol and insoluble in ether.
1. It is obtained in industrial by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide at 150-170 ℃, about 2MPa. In fact, the production process of sodium formate is part of the production of sodium oxalate, the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution for absorbing the reaction was 25%-30%. Sodium formate can be produced by the reaction of formic acid with oxygen or sodium bicarbonate. Material consumption fixed: Carbon monoxide (> 28%) 1630kg/t, caustic soda (> 30%) 2160kg/t. 2. It is the byproduct of pentaerythritol.
2. It is obtained by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide at 160 ℃, 2MPa.
In dyeing and printing fabrics; also In animal chemistry as a precipitant for the "noble" metals. Solubilizes trivalent metal ions in solution by forming complex ions. Buffering action adjusts the pH of strong mineral acids to higher values.
Solubility in water
Dissolved quantity per 100 ml of water at different temperatures (℃) in grams:
43.9g/0 ℃, 62.5g/10 ℃, 81.2g/20 ℃, 102g/30 ℃, 108g/40 ℃
122g/60 ℃, 138g/80 ℃, 147g/90 ℃, 160g/100 ℃