Welcome to LookChem.com Sign In|Join Free

CAS

  • or

108-32-7

Post Buying Request

108-32-7 Suppliers

Recommended suppliersmore

  • Product
  • FOB Price
  • Min.Order
  • Supply Ability
  • Supplier
  • Contact Supplier

108-32-7 Usage

Chemical Properties

Propylene carbonate is a clear, colorless, mobile liquid, with a faint odor.

Uses

propylene carbonate is used in chemical reactions as a solvent, plasticizer, solubilizer, or dilutent. It is also used in the synthesis of solar cells as well as lithium ion batteries.

Production Methods

Propylene carbonate may be prepared by the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with propylene chlorohydrin.

General Description

Propylene carbonate is a cyclic carbonate that is commonly used as a solvent and as a reactive intermediate in organic synthesis. It is being considered as a potential electrochemical solvent due to its low vapor pressure, high dielectric constant and high chemical stability.Propylene carbonate can be synthesized from propylene oxide and CO2. Optically active form of propylene carbonate can be prepared from the reaction between CO2 and racemic epoxides. Decomposition of propylene carbonate on the graphite electrode in lithium batteries results in the formation of a lithium intercalated compound.

Flammability and Explosibility

Notclassified

Pharmaceutical Applications

Propylene carbonate is used mainly as a solvent in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations. In topical applications, propylene carbonate has been used in combination with propylene glycol as a solvent for corticosteroids. The corticosteroid is dissolved in the solvent mixture to yield microdroplets that can then be dispersed in petrolatum.Propylene carbonate has been used as a dispensing solvent in topical preparations. Propylene carbonate has also been used in hard gelatin capsules as a nonvolatile, stabilizing, liquid carrier. For formulations with a low dosage of active drug, a uniform drug content may be obtained by dissolving the drug in propylene carbonate and then spraying this solution on to a solid carrier such as compressible sugar; the sugar may then be filled into hard gelatin capsules Propylene carbonate may additionally be used as a solvent, at room and elevated temperatures, for many cellulose-based polymers and plasticizers. Propylene carbonate is also used in cosmetics.

Safety

Propylene Carbonate is listed in The Design for the Environment (DfE) Safer Chemistry Program by the EPA as a Solvent category and indicated by the Green circle, meaning the chemical has been verified to be of low concern for human and environmental health based on experimental and modeled data.In animal studies, propylene carbonate was found to cause tissue necrosis after parenteral administration.(mouse, oral): 20.7 g/kg(mouse, SC): 15.8 g/kg(rat, oral): 29 g/kg(rat, SC): 11.1 g/kg

storage

Propylene carbonate and its aqueous solutions are stable but may degrade in the presence of acids or bases, or upon heating; Store in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods

It is manufactured by reaction of 1,2-propylene oxide with CO2 in the presence of a catalyst (quaternary ammonium halide). Contaminants include propylene oxide, carbon dioxide, 1,2-and 1,3-propanediols, allyl alcohol and ethylene carbonate. It can be purified by percolation through molecular sieves (Linde 5A, dried at 350o for 14hours under a stream of argon), followed by distillation under a vacuum. [Jasinski & Kirkland Anal Chem 39 163 1967.] It can be stored over molecular sieves under an inert gas atmosphere. When purified in this way it contains less than 2ppm of water. Activated alumina and dried CaO have also been used as drying agents prior to fractional distillation under reduced pressure. It has been dried with 3A molecular sieves and distilled under nitrogen in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid, then redistilled and the middle fraction collected. [Beilstein 19 III/IV 1564, 19/4 V 21.]

Incompatibilities

Propylene carbonate hydrolyzes rapidly in the presence of strong acids and bases, forming mainly propylene oxide and carbon dioxide. Propylene carbonate can also react with primary and secondary amines to yield carbamates.

Regulatory Status

Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (topical ointments). Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Nonmedicinal Ingredients.

Check Digit Verification of cas no

The CAS Registry Mumber 108-32-7 includes 6 digits separated into 3 groups by hyphens. The first part of the number,starting from the left, has 3 digits, 1,0 and 8 respectively; the second part has 2 digits, 3 and 2 respectively.
Calculate Digit Verification of CAS Registry Number 108-32:
(5*1)+(4*0)+(3*8)+(2*3)+(1*2)=37
37 % 10 = 7
So 108-32-7 is a valid CAS Registry Number.
InChI:InChI:1S/C4H6O3/c1-3-2-6-4(5)7-3/h3H,2H2,1H3

108-32-7 Well-known Company Product Price

  • Brand
  • (Code)Product description
  • CAS number
  • Packaging
  • Price
  • Detail
  • TCI America

  • (P0525)  Propylene Carbonate  >98.0%(GC)

  • 108-32-7

  • 25g

  • 105.00CNY

  • Detail
  • TCI America

  • (P0525)  Propylene Carbonate  >98.0%(GC)

  • 108-32-7

  • 500g

  • 220.00CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A15552)  Propylene carbonate, 99%   

  • 108-32-7

  • 250g

  • 237.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A15552)  Propylene carbonate, 99%   

  • 108-32-7

  • 1000g

  • 429.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A15552)  Propylene carbonate, 99%   

  • 108-32-7

  • 5000g

  • 1761.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (310328)  Propylenecarbonate  anhydrous, 99.7%

  • 108-32-7

  • 310328-100ML

  • 590.85CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (310328)  Propylenecarbonate  anhydrous, 99.7%

  • 108-32-7

  • 310328-500ML

  • 725.40CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (310328)  Propylenecarbonate  anhydrous, 99.7%

  • 108-32-7

  • 310328-1L

  • 1,150.11CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (310328)  Propylenecarbonate  anhydrous, 99.7%

  • 108-32-7

  • 310328-2L

  • 1,742.13CNY

  • Detail
  • Vetec

  • (V900252)  Propylenecarbonate  Vetec reagent grade, 98%

  • 108-32-7

  • V900252-500G

  • 98.28CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (414220)  Propylenecarbonate  for HPLC, 99.7%

  • 108-32-7

  • 414220-1L

  • 1,239.03CNY

  • Detail
  • USP

  • (1576504)  Propylenecarbonate  United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard

  • 108-32-7

  • 1576504-200MG

  • 4,662.45CNY

  • Detail

108-32-7SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 10, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 10, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name Propylene Carbonate

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names 1,3-Dioxolan-2-one, 4-methyl-

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Solvents
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:108-32-7 SDS

108-32-7Synthetic route

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap; CrTTPCl at 60℃; under 37751.8 - 40337.5 Torr; for 40h;100%
With triphenylphosphine; sodium iodide; phenol at 120℃; under 30002.4 Torr; for 4h;100%
pentabutyl propyl guanidinium chloride; silica gel at 120℃; under 33752.7 Torr; for 4h;100%
propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

carbonic acid dimethyl ester
616-38-6

carbonic acid dimethyl ester

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 120℃; for 7h; Product distribution / selectivity; Molecular sieve;100%
In neat (no solvent) at 110℃; for 24h; Temperature; Molecular sieve; Green chemistry;99%
With 1,1,1-trioctyl-1-methylphosphonium methylcarbonate at 90℃; for 1h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst;96%
5-methyl-1,3-dioxolane-2,4-dione
17578-13-1

5-methyl-1,3-dioxolane-2,4-dione

methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With [N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tertbutylsalicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediimine]CoCl; bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium chloride at 20℃; for 1h; Catalytic behavior; Time; Reagent/catalyst; Solvent;100%
methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With (2S)-N,N,N-2-trimethylethanaminium-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid hydroiodide at 120℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 6h; Pressure;99%
With carbon dioxide In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 99.84℃; under 4137.29 Torr; for 10h; Autoclave;
With [Ti(5-(2-hydroxyphenyl)tetrazole(-H))2Cl2]*2tetrahydrofuran; tetra-(n-butyl)ammonium iodide at 75℃; under 16501.7 Torr; for 4.5h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Concentration; Inert atmosphere; Schlenk technique; Glovebox; Autoclave;
With [AlCl((OC6H4CHN)2C6H4)]; carbon dioxide; tetrabutylammomium bromide In water at 20℃; for 24h; Reagent/catalyst; Inert atmosphere;
With potassium iodide; L-Tryptophan at 120℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 1h;99 %Chromat.
propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 2-Cyanopyridine; cerium(IV) oxide at 139.84℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 1h; Temperature; Autoclave;99%
With 1,10-Phenanthroline; calcium carbide; zinc trifluoromethanesulfonate In 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one at 180℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 24h; Autoclave; Glovebox; Sealed tube;92%
With potassium carbonate; (S)-propyleneoxide at 120℃; under 30003 Torr; for 10h; Reagent/catalyst; Pressure; Time; Autoclave; Green chemistry;78%
methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

5-benzyl L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride
3190-71-4

5-benzyl L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With (R,R)-N,N-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediaminochromium(III) chloride; bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium chloride In tetrahydrofuran Reagent/catalyst; Inert atmosphere; Schlenk technique; Glovebox;99%
piperazine-1-carboxylic acid
10430-90-7

piperazine-1-carboxylic acid

methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

piperazine
110-85-0

piperazine

B

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium iodide at 160℃; for 10h; Reagent/catalyst;A 97.6%
B 95.3%
N-β-aminoethylcarbamic acid
109-58-0

N-β-aminoethylcarbamic acid

methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

B

ethylenediamine
107-15-3

ethylenediamine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium fluoride at 100℃; for 0.5h;A 90.2%
B 96.3%
carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 1-carboxypropyl-imidazolium bromide at 120℃; under 11251.1 Torr; for 2h; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature;95.7%
at 25℃; under 750.075 Torr; for 24h; Inert atmosphere; Schlenk technique;95%
3-methyloxetane
2167-38-6

3-methyloxetane

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With di(pyrazin-2-yl)amine; erbium(III) chloride; tetrabutylammomium bromide; zinc at 100℃; under 11251.1 Torr; for 1h; Temperature; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;95%
propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

2-methyl-but-3-yn-2-ol
115-19-5

2-methyl-but-3-yn-2-ol

A

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

B

3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone
115-22-0

3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene; zinc(II) chloride In acetonitrile at 80℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 24h; Mechanism; Autoclave; Sealed tube; chemoselective reaction;A 95%
B 67 %Chromat.
With silver(l) oxide; N,N,N',N'-tetramethylguanidine In acetonitrile at 80℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 12h; Autoclave;A 94 %Spectr.
B 98 %Spectr.
Stage #1: carbon dioxide; 2-methyl-but-3-yn-2-ol With C15H18N2O2 In acetonitrile at 25℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 24h; Inert atmosphere; Schlenk technique;
Stage #2: propylene glycol With 1-methyl-2,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidine In acetonitrile at 80℃; for 24h; Solvent; Temperature; Inert atmosphere; Schlenk technique;
A 98 %Spectr.
B 92 %Spectr.
propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

urea
57-13-6

urea

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With zinc-magnesium mixed oxide at 169.84℃; under 300 Torr; for 0.5h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Green chemistry;94.8%
With zinc(II) chloride at 160℃; under 112.511 Torr; for 3h; Ionic liquid;94.1%
With 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride; zinc(II) chloride In neat (no solvent) at 160℃; under 112.511 Torr; for 3h; Green chemistry;94.1%
carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

B

propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
tetra-n-butylphosphonium chloride at 180℃; under 15001.5 - 37503.8 Torr; for 4h; Product distribution / selectivity; Gas phase;A 0.3%
B 93.4%
tetraethylphosphonium bromide at 180℃; under 15001.5 - 37503.8 Torr; for 4h; Product distribution / selectivity; Gas phase;A 0.5%
B 92.7%
With 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene; cellulose at 120℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 2h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Autoclave; Green chemistry;A 90%
B n/a
propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

3-methyl-1-nonyn-3-ol
5430-01-3

3-methyl-1-nonyn-3-ol

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

A

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

B

3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-nonanone
88630-72-2

3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-nonanone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene; zinc(II) chloride In acetonitrile at 80℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 24h; Autoclave; Sealed tube; chemoselective reaction;A 92%
B 62%
2-Phenyl-3-butyn-2-ol
127-66-2

2-Phenyl-3-butyn-2-ol

propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

A

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

B

3-hydroxy-3-phenyl-butan-2-one
3155-01-9

3-hydroxy-3-phenyl-butan-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene; zinc(II) chloride In acetonitrile at 80℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 24h; Autoclave; Sealed tube; chemoselective reaction;A 91%
B 67%
1-bromo-2-propanol
19686-73-8

1-bromo-2-propanol

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: carbon dioxide With potassium carbonate In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 30℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 4h;
Stage #2: 1-bromo-2-propanol In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 30℃; for 20h; Pressure;
90%
With tetraethylammonium perchlorate 1.) electrolysis, MeCN, 0 deg C, 2.) room temperature, 6 h; Yield given. Multistep reaction;
bis(phenyl) carbonate
102-09-0

bis(phenyl) carbonate

propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidine In 2-methyltetrahydrofuran at 30℃; for 2h;90%
propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

1-Ethynyl-1-cyclohexanol
78-27-3

1-Ethynyl-1-cyclohexanol

A

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

B

1-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)ethan-1-one
1123-27-9

1-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)ethan-1-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene; zinc(II) chloride In acetonitrile at 80℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 24h; Autoclave; Sealed tube; chemoselective reaction;A 87%
B 59%
propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

Diethyl carbonate
105-58-8

Diethyl carbonate

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 1,1,1-trioctyl-1-methylphosphonium methylcarbonate at 90℃; for 3h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst;86%
With sodium at 135℃;
With 1,3-dichlorotetrabutyldistannoxane at 100℃; for 2h;99.4 %Chromat.
With sodium hydroxide at 130℃;
propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

2,2'-dipyridyl carbonate
1659-31-0

2,2'-dipyridyl carbonate

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dmap In dichloromethane for 2.5h; Ambient temperature;85%
propene
187737-37-7

propene

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: propene With oxygen; isobutyraldehyde In acetonitrile at 100℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 6h; High pressure;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In acetonitrile at 100℃; under 26252.6 Torr; for 4h; Catalytic behavior; High pressure;
85%
Stage #1: propene With piperidine; norbornene; manganese(II,III) oxide; 3-chloro-benzenecarboperoxoic acid In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 90℃; for 2h;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 20 - 130℃; under 4560.31 Torr; for 6h; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Pressure;
49%
With oxygen In 1,4-dioxane at 150℃; under 26252.6 Torr; for 5h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;
propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With N-chloro-succinimide; (neocuproine)Pd(OAc)2; sodium acetate In acetonitrile at 55℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 24h; Molecular sieve;83%
Stage #1: propylene glycol; carbon monoxide With sulfur; triethylamine In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 80℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 5h; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;
Stage #2: With copper(ll) bromide In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 20℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 16h;
74%
With palladium 10% on activated carbon; oxygen; sodium acetate; potassium iodide In 1,2-dimethoxyethane at 100℃; under 10343.2 Torr; for 8h; Autoclave; Inert atmosphere;73%
methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

HOCO2Cu(t-BuNC)3

HOCO2Cu(t-BuNC)3

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 130℃;82%
phosgene
75-44-5

phosgene

4-methyl-1,3-dioxa-2-stannolane-Bu2
3590-60-1

4-methyl-1,3-dioxa-2-stannolane-Bu2

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
for 0.5h;79%
OCA-Cbzlysine
951168-35-7

OCA-Cbzlysine

methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With [N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tertbutylsalicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediimine]CoCl; bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium chloride at 20℃; for 1h; Catalytic behavior; Time;76%
carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

(S)-propyleneoxide
287-25-2

(S)-propyleneoxide

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With ZnCl2 supported on mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 140℃; for 6h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;72.7%
With C32H32N12Ni(2+)*2ClO4(1-)*2H2O; tetrabutylammomium bromide at 100℃; under 11251.1 Torr; for 1.5h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Pressure; Temperature; Time; Autoclave;63.54%
With potassium iodide; L-Tryptophan at 120℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 1h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;99 %Chromat.
methanol
67-56-1

methanol

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

B

propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

C

1-methoxy-2-propanol
107-98-2

1-methoxy-2-propanol

D

2-methoxypropanol
1589-47-5

2-methoxypropanol

E

carbonic acid dimethyl ester
616-38-6

carbonic acid dimethyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 6,7,9,10,12,13,20,21-octahydrodibenzo[b,h][1,4,7,10,13,16]hexaoxacyclooctadecine; potassium chloride at 130℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 8h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave; High pressure;A 69.2%
B 12.5%
C n/a
D n/a
E 13.2%
With 6,7,9,10,12,13,20,21-octahydrodibenzo[b,h][1,4,7,10,13,16]hexaoxacyclooctadecine; potassium bromide at 130℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 8h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave; High pressure;A 62.9%
B 14.4%
C n/a
D n/a
E 12.5%
With potassium bromide at 130℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 8h; Autoclave; High pressure;A 44.1%
B 6.7%
C n/a
D n/a
E 5.8%
carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

B

poly(propylene carbonate), copolymer with poly(propylene oxide), N of propylene oxide units much less N of propylene carbonate units, Mw = 159900, Mn = 33100; monomer(s): propylene oxide; carbon dioxide

poly(propylene carbonate), copolymer with poly(propylene oxide), N of propylene oxide units much less N of propylene carbonate units, Mw = 159900, Mn = 33100; monomer(s): propylene oxide; carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With zinc adipate In dichloromethane at 86℃; under 19760 Torr; for 13h;A n/a
B 67.33%
carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

methyloxirane
75-56-9, 16033-71-9

methyloxirane

A

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

B

poly(propylene carbonate), copolymer with poly(propylene oxide), N of propylene oxide units much less N of propylene carbonate units, Mw = 180000, Mn = 67000; monomer(s): propylene oxide; carbon dioxide

poly(propylene carbonate), copolymer with poly(propylene oxide), N of propylene oxide units much less N of propylene carbonate units, Mw = 180000, Mn = 67000; monomer(s): propylene oxide; carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With zinc adipate In various solvent(s) at 75 - 78℃; under 20520 Torr; for 10h;A 5.5%
B 67.1%
1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

propylene glycol
57-55-6

propylene glycol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With [carbonylchlorohydrido{bis[2-(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethyl]amino}ethylamino] ruthenium(II); potassium tert-butylate; hydrogen In tetrahydrofuran at 140℃; under 38002.6 Torr; for 10h; Catalytic behavior; Temperature; Time; Solvent; Pressure; Autoclave;99%
With potassium tert-butylate; hydrogen; C16H18BrCoINO2 In dibutyl ether at 160℃; under 45004.5 Torr; for 20h; Reagent/catalyst; Sealed tube; Autoclave;92%
With water; aluminum hydroxide; magnesium hydroxide at 140℃; Conversion of starting material;
1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

titanium(IV) tetraethanolate

titanium(IV) tetraethanolate

A

C7H16O4Ti
1450828-10-0

C7H16O4Ti

B

Diethyl carbonate
105-58-8

Diethyl carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Heating;A 99%
B 86%
1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1,3,2]-dioxaboralane
25015-63-8

4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1,3,2]-dioxaboralane

C15H30B2O6

C15H30B2O6

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With manganese(II) triflate bis-acetonitrile solvate; potassium tert-butylate In benzene-d6 at 20℃; for 3h; Solvent; Inert atmosphere; Glovebox;99%
With tris(bis(trimethylsilyl)amido)lanthanum(III) at 20℃; for 6h; Inert atmosphere;97 %Spectr.
With C42H50Mg2N4 for 6h;99 %Spectr.
1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

α-chloro-4-methyl propiophenone
69673-92-3

α-chloro-4-methyl propiophenone

C13H17ClO2

C13H17ClO2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With octyltrimethylammonium bromide; toluene-4-sulfonic acid In toluene for 20h; Concentration; Reagent/catalyst; Reflux;97.5%
1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

1-anilino-propan-2-ol
3233-06-5

1-anilino-propan-2-ol

5-methyl-3-phenyl-oxazolidin-2-one
708-57-6

5-methyl-3-phenyl-oxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C24H25N4O3(1+)*I(1-); 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene at 90℃; Reagent/catalyst;97%
1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

boron trifluoride
7637-07-2

boron trifluoride

C4H6BF3O3

C4H6BF3O3

Conditions
ConditionsYield
for 48h; Schlenk technique; Inert atmosphere; Glovebox;97%
tetrabutoxytitanium

tetrabutoxytitanium

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

A

Dibutyl carbonate
542-52-9

Dibutyl carbonate

B

C11H24O4Ti
1482505-53-2

C11H24O4Ti

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Heating;A 96%
B n/a
tetrabutoxytitanium

tetrabutoxytitanium

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

Dibutyl carbonate
542-52-9

Dibutyl carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Heating;96%
1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

aniline
62-53-3

aniline

5-methyl-3-phenyl-oxazolidin-2-one
708-57-6

5-methyl-3-phenyl-oxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With triethylamine; adenine In neat (no solvent) at 120℃; for 18h; regioselective reaction;95%
With IL(OAc-)-MIL-101-NH2 In neat (no solvent) at 140℃; for 9h; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature;92%
With C19H31KNO5(1+)*2C2H3O2(1-)*H(1+) at 130℃; for 5h; Reagent/catalyst;72.7%
With lithium chloride at 176℃; for 48h;
1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one
872-50-4

1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

2,4-Toluene diisocyanate
584-84-9

2,4-Toluene diisocyanate

poly(toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-co-propylene carbonate-co-N-methylpyrrolidone); monomer(s): toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, 60 mol % in feed; propylene carbonate, 20 mol % in feed; N-methylpyrrolidone, 20 mol % in feed

poly(toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-co-propylene carbonate-co-N-methylpyrrolidone); monomer(s): toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, 60 mol % in feed; propylene carbonate, 20 mol % in feed; N-methylpyrrolidone, 20 mol % in feed

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With triethylamine at 20℃;95%
1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

1,4-bis(2’6‘-dimethyl-4‘-hydroxyanilino)anthraquinone
51287-59-3

1,4-bis(2’6‘-dimethyl-4‘-hydroxyanilino)anthraquinone

C36H38N2O6

C36H38N2O6

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate; potassium iodide In propylene glycol at 150℃; for 2.5h;95%
1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

4-bromo-aniline
106-40-1

4-bromo-aniline

3-(4-bromophenyl)-5-methyloxazolidin-2-one

3-(4-bromophenyl)-5-methyloxazolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With IL(OAc-)-MIL-101-NH2 In neat (no solvent) at 140℃; for 9h;94%
morpholine
110-91-8

morpholine

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

morpholine-4-carboxylic acid-(2-hydroxy-propyl ester)
117500-95-5

morpholine-4-carboxylic acid-(2-hydroxy-propyl ester)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In ethanol at 45℃; for 3h;93.6%
pyrrolidine
123-75-1

pyrrolidine

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

C8H15NO3

C8H15NO3

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In dichloromethane at 50℃; for 6h;93.5%
1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

methanol
67-56-1

methanol

carbonic acid dimethyl ester
616-38-6

carbonic acid dimethyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 90℃; for 3h; Temperature; Time;93%
With calcined hollow titanium silicon molecular sieve modified with sodium carbonate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate In water at 100℃; for 8h; Time; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Autoclave;74%
at 140℃; for 6h;35%
1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate
108-32-7

1,2-propylene cyclic carbonate

2-bromo-4'-methylpropiophenone
92821-88-0, 1451-82-7

2-bromo-4'-methylpropiophenone

C13H17BrO2

C13H17BrO2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With tetra-(n-butyl)ammonium iodide; toluene-4-sulfonic acid In toluene for 25h; Concentration; Reagent/catalyst; Reflux;92.6%

108-32-7Related news

Conductivity, viscosity, and thermodynamic properties of Propylene carbonate (cas 108-32-7) solutions in ionic liquids08/27/2019

Ionic liquids (ILs) are a series of stable, non-flammable, non-volatile organic compounds containing only ionic species. ILs can be used to make stable electrolyte solutions with low viscosity and high conductivity for electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices such as lithium ion bat...detailed

Microparticle preparation by a Propylene carbonate (cas 108-32-7) emulsification-extraction method08/25/2019

The use of various harmful organic solvents for microparticle formulations is still widespread. Here, an alternative low toxicity solvent (propylene carbonate; PC) is proposed for the preparation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA) microparticles. Based on the classical emulsification-solven...detailed

Kinetic modeling of carboxylation of propylene oxide to Propylene carbonate (cas 108-32-7) using ion-exchange resin catalyst in a semi-batch slurry reactor08/24/2019

Kinetic modeling of carboxylation of propylene oxide with CO2 to propylene carbonate has been investigated in a semi-batch slurry reactor. Propylene oxide can be selectively transformed into propylene carbonate (selectivity: 99+%) in the presence of ion exchange resin catalysts with basic functi...detailed

Accurate prediction of electrical conductivity of ionic liquids + Propylene carbonate (cas 108-32-7) binary mixtures08/21/2019

Ionic liquids (ILs) have remarkable features which make them applicable in numerous processes as environmentally friendly and promising chemicals. However, high viscosity and moderate conductivity of pure ILs have limited their application. Propylene carbonate (PC) is one of the most important a...detailed

108-32-7Relevant articles and documents

Selective formation of polycarbonate over cyclic carbonate: Copolymerization of epoxides with carbon dioxide catalyzed by a cobalt(III) complex with a piperidinium end-capping arm

Nakano, Koji,Kamada, Toshihiro,Nozaki, Kyoko

, p. 7274 - 7277 (2006)

(Chemical Equation Presented) Sidestepping a cyclic side product: Copolymerization of terminal epoxides with CO2 was investigated by using a cobalt(III) complex bearing a piperidinium end-capping arm and a piperidinyl arm (see scheme; DME = 1,2-dimethoxyethane). The catalyst system can selectively produce copolymers without contaminant formation of cyclic carbonates even at high conversion of the epoxide (> 99 %).

Exploring the catalytic potential of ZIF-90: Solventless and co-catalyst-free synthesis of propylene carbonate from propylene oxide and CO2

Tharun, Jose,Mathai, George,Kathalikkattil, Amal Cherian,Roshan, Roshith,Won, Yong-Sun,Cho, Sung June,Chang, Jong-San,Park, Dae-Won

, p. 715 - 721 (2014)

Reported is the application of ZIF-90, which is a highly porous zeolitic imidazolate framework, as a novel catalyst for the cycloaddition of propylene oxide (PO) with CO2 in the absence of co-catalysts and solvents under moderate reaction conditions. The effects of various reaction parameters were investigated. The activity of ZIF-90 was compared with that of various metal-organic-framework (MOF)-based catalysts for the cycloaddition of PO with CO2. Density functional theory calculations elucidated the role of ZIF-90 in creating a favorable environment for the PO-CO2 cycloaddition reaction. A reaction mechanism for the ZIF-90-catalyzed PO-CO2 cycloaddition on the basis of DFT calculations is proposed and the regeneration of ZIF-90 is discussed.

Thermodynamic favorable CO2 conversion via vicinal diols and propargylic alcohols: A metal-free catalytic method

Han, Li-Hua,Li, Jing-Yuan,Song, Qing-Wen,Zhang, Kan,Zhang, Qian-Xia,Sun, Xiao-Fang,Liu, Ping

, p. 341 - 344 (2020)

Organocatalysis represents a promising field in chemical fixation of CO2. Herein, a facile metal-free strategy was reported for the one-pot preparation of cyclic carbonates and α-hydroxy ketones from vicinal diols, propargylic alcohols and CO2. Wide scope of vicinal diols and propargylic alcohols was demonstrated to be efficient under the DBU-catalyzed conditions. A plausible mechanism was proposed, which included detailed main and side reactions under the metal-free conditions.

Reaction of CO2 with propylene oxide and styrene oxide catalyzed by a chromium(iii) amine-bis(phenolate) complex

Dean, Rebecca K.,Devaine-Pressing, Katalin,Dawe, Louise N.,Kozak, Christopher M.

, p. 9233 - 9244 (2013)

A diamine-bis(phenolate) chromium(iii) complex, {CrCl[O 2NN′]BuBu}2 catalyzes the copolymerization of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide. The synthesis of this metal complex is straightforward and it can be obtained in high yields. This catalyst incorporates a tripodal amine-bis(phenolate) ligand, which differs from the salen or salan ligands typically used with Cr and Co complexes that have been employed as catalysts for the synthesis of such polycarbonates. The catalyst reported herein yields low molecular weight polymers with narrow polydispersities when the reaction is performed at room temperature. Performing the reaction at elevated temperatures causes the selective synthesis of propylene carbonate. The copolymerization activity for propylene oxide and carbon dioxide, as well as the coupling of carbon dioxide and styrene oxide to give styrene carbonate are presented.

Regioselective functionalization of glycerol with a dithiocarbamate moiety: An environmentally friendly route to safer fungicides

De Sousa, Rodolphe,Thurier, Cyril,Len, Christophe,Pouilloux, Yannick,Barrault, Joel,Jerome, Franois

, p. 1129 - 1132 (2011)

We report here a convenient pathway for the direct functionalization of glycerol with a dithiocarbamate moiety. This work opens up a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly route to safer fungicides. It should be noted that whereas functionalization of glycerol usually suffers from a lack of selectivity, we show here that our process is fully regioselective.

An efficient catalyst system at mild reaction conditions containing rare earth metal complexes

Wu, Ya,Wang, Wen-Zhen,Wu, Yang,Duan, Yan-Shan,Zhang, Jun-Tao,Yang, Peng-Hui,Ni, Bing-Hua

, p. 1463 - 1466 (2013)

An efficient rare earthmetal complex-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction of CO2 with propylene oxide using Hdpza (di(2-pyrazyl)amine) as a N-donor ligand has been accomplished in good to excellent yields with high selectivity. The effects of different rare earth metal salts, ligands and reaction conditions were examined. Catalytic reaction tests demonstrated that the incorporation of ErCl3 and Hdpza can significantly enhance the catalytic reactivity of the TBAB (nBu4NBr, tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide) towards cycloaddition reaction of CO2 and propylene oxide that produce cyclic carbonates under mild conditions without any co-solvent.

Propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene glycol, carbon dioxide and benzonitrile by alkali carbonate catalysts

Da Silva,Dayoub,Mignani,Raoul,Lemaire

, p. 58 - 62 (2012)

The synthesis of propylene carbonate from propylene glycol and carbon dioxide in the presence of various catalysts has been reported. Benzonitrile has been used as both solvent and dehydrating agent. Under optimal conditions, the best results were obtained in the presence of alkali carbonate catalysts. The propylene carbonate yield could reach up to 20% with a propylene-1,2-glycol conversion of 44%.

Electrochemical activation of carbon dioxide: Synthesis of organic carbonates

Casadei, M. Antonietta,Inesi, Achille,Rossi, Leucio

, p. 3565 - 3568 (1997)

Electrochemically activated CO2 reacts, under mild conditions, with primary and secondary alcohols bearing a leaving group at the α-position affording the corresponding cyclic carbonates in high yields; unsubstituted alcohols are converted, after addition of EtI, into the corresponding unsymmetrical ethyl carbonates in moderate to good yields. Tertiary alcohols and phenols are stable to the reagent.

Economical synthesis of cyclic carbonates from carbon dioxide and halohydrins using K2CO3

Hirose, Takuji,Shimizu, Shinsuke,Qu, Shujie,Shitara, Hiroaki,Kodama, Koichi,Wang, Lin

, p. 69040 - 69044 (2016)

A highly simple, economical, and selective synthesis of five-membered cyclic carbonates was achieved by the reaction of CO2 with 1,2-halohydrins in the presence of K2CO3. This method allows the efficient preparation of cyclic carbonates (72-95% yields for monosubstituted cyclic carbonates and 43% for 1,1- and 1,2-disubstituted cyclic carbonates) under mild reaction conditions, atmospheric pressure of CO2 at 30 °C, and not only in dry DMF, but also in commercial "anhydrous" DMF. The reaction mechanism was elucidated using the SEM and XRD data of the by-products, KHCO3 and KBr.

Facile alkali-assisted synthesis of g-C3N4 materials and their high-performance catalytic application in solvent-free cycloaddition of CO2 to epoxides

Xu, Jie,Shang, Jie-Kun,Jiang, Quan,Wang, Yue,Li, Yong-Xin

, p. 55382 - 55392 (2016)

A series of graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized using guanidine hydrochloride (GndCl) as a precursor with the aid of alkali treatment. The introduction of alkali successfully enabled GndCl to be transformed into g-C3N4 at much lower calcination temperatures (450-475 °C). The g-C3N4 samples synthesized under various conditions have been characterized by several techniques including XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, 13C NMR, and XPS spectroscopy. The results confirmed that the alkali could effectively accelerate further condensation of melem-like fragments to g-C3N4. Meanwhile, a possible mechanism of alkali-assisted synthesis of g-C3N4 from GndCl has been proposed. In solvent-free catalytic cycloaddition of CO2 to propylene oxide to propylene carbonate (PC), g-C3N4-NaOH and g-C3N4-KOH materials demonstrated high and stable catalytic performances, affording PC yields of ca. 90% under optimized reaction conditions. Moreover, the activities were superior to those obtained over g-C3N4 prepared without alkali treatment. In addition, the catalytic activity along with preparation method for the present g-C3N4 has also been compared with other reported g-C3N4-based catalysts.

Highly active, binary catalyst systems for the alternating copolymerization of CO2 and epoxides under mild conditions

Lu, Xiao-Bing,Wang, Yi

, p. 3574 - 3577 (2004)

Excellent activity and selectivity in the copolymerization of CO 2 with epoxides at extremely mild temperature and pressure are observed in the presence of binary nucleophile-electrophile catalyst systems based on chiral [(salcy)CoIIIX] complexes and quaternary ammonium salts (see scheme). Completely alternating copolymers are obtained with > 95% head-to-tail linkages.

Calcium carbide as a dehydrating agent for the synthesis of carbamates, glycerol carbonate, and cyclic carbonates from carbon dioxide

Choi, Jun-Chul,Fujitani, Tadahiro,Fukaya, Norihisa,Lin, Xiao-Tao,Sato, Kazuhiko,Yuan, Hao-Yu,Zhang, Qiao

, p. 4231 - 4239 (2020)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a nontoxic and inexpensive C1 building block, which can be used for the synthesis of valuable chemicals such as aromatic carbamates from anilines and methanol (MeOH), glycerol carbonate from glycerol, and cyclic carbonates from diols. However, these reactions generate water as the byproduct and suffer from thermodynamic limits, which lead to low yields. Calcium carbide (CaC2) is a renewable chemical, which can be recycled from calcium that is abundant in the Earth's crust. Furthermore, CaC2 rapidly reacts with water. In this work, we used CaC2 as a dehydrating agent for the direct synthesis of carbamates (including polyurethane precursors) from amines, CO2, and MeOH. All reagents were commercially available. In addition, CaC2 was employed for the synthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol and CO2 with a zinc catalyst and N-donor ligand. A similar protocol was applied to synthesize cyclic carbonates from diols and CO2.

Diphenyl Carbonate: A Highly Reactive and Green Carbonyl Source for the Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates

Baral, Ek Raj,Lee, Jun Hee,Kim, Jeung Gon

, p. 11768 - 11776 (2018)

A practical, safe, and highly efficient carbonylation system involving a diphenyl carbonate, an organocatalyst, and various diols is presented herein and produces highly valuable cyclic carbonates. In reactions with a wide range of diols, diphenyl carbonate was activated by bicyclic guanidine 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) as a catalyst, which successfully replaced highly toxic and unstable phosgene or its derivatives while maintaining the desired high reactivity. Moreover, this new system can be used to synthesize sterically demanding cyclic carbonates such as tetrasubstituted pinacol carbonates, which are not accessible via other conventional methods.

Propylene oxide as a dehydrating agent: Potassium carbonate-catalyzed carboxylative cyclization of propylene glycol with CO2 in a polyethylene glycol/CO2 biphasic system

Diao, Zhen-Feng,Zhou, Zhi-Hua,Guo, Chun-Xiang,Yu, Bing,He, Liang-Nian

, p. 32400 - 32404 (2016)

The synthesis of propylene carbonate (PC) from 1,2-propylene glycol (PG) and CO2 was smoothly performed in a PEG800 (polyethylene glycol)/CO2 biphasic system with K2CO3 as a catalyst and propylene oxide (PO) as a dehydrating agent. In the reaction of PG with CO2, PO presumably removes the water produced, and simultaneously generates more PG, both of which shift the thermodynamic control process and thus accelerate the PC synthesis. The PC yield directly from PG and CO2 reached 78% under relatively mild reaction conditions (4 MPa, 120 °C, 10 h). Notably, no additional by-product was detected in this process, resulting in economic benefits and the ease of workup procedure.

Superbase/cellulose: An environmentally benign catalyst for chemical fixation of carbon dioxide into cyclic carbonates

Sun, Jian,Cheng, Weiguo,Yang, Zifeng,Wang, Jinquan,Xu, Tingting,Xin, Jiayu,Zhang, Suojiang

, p. 3071 - 3078 (2014)

An environmentally benign catalytic system consisting of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene (DBU) and cellulose was developed for CO2 chemical fixation with epoxides under metal-free and halide-free conditions. Due to the dual roles played by DBU and cellulose on the activations of CO2 and epoxide, the reaction could be performed with high activity and selectivity. A possible catalytic cycle for the hydrogen bond assisted ring-opening of epoxide and the activation of CO2 induced by DBU was proposed. The process herein represents a simple, ecologically safe and efficient route for CO2 chemical fixation into high value chemicals. This journal is the Partner Organisations 2014.

Chemoselective synthesis of asymmetrical carbonate from alcohol and dimethyl carbonate catalyzed by ytterbium(III) triflate

Yu, Chuanming,Zhou, Baocheng,Su, Weike,Xu, Zhenyuan

, p. 647 - 653 (2007)

Catalyzed by ytterbium(III) triflate, asymmetrical carbonate can be chemoselectively synthesized from alcohols and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in moderate to good yield under the mild conditions. Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Zn-Mg mixed oxide as high-efficiency catalyst for the synthesis of propylene carbonate by urea alcoholysis

Zhang, Tiantian,Zhang, Bingsheng,Li, Lei,Zhao, Ning,Xiao, Fukui

, p. 38 - 41 (2015)

Zn/Mg catalysts with different atomic ratios of zinc to magnesium were prepared via urea-precipitation. The products were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, CO2-TPD, and ICP. Compared with pure ZnO, the mixed oxide possessed appropriate alkaline d

-

Peppel

, p. 767,770 (1958)

-

Highly synergistic effect of ionic liquids and Zn-based catalysts for synthesis of cyclic carbonates from urea and diols

Cheng, Weiguo,Deng, Lili,Dong, Li,He, Hongyan,Li, Zengxi,Qian, Wei,Shi, Zijie,Su, Qian,Sun, Wenzhong

, (2020)

The development of stable and efficient catalysts is an attractive topic for green chemistry reactions under mild reaction conditions. In order to improve solvent-free synthesis of cyclic carbonates from urea and diols, a binary catalyst systems of Zn-based and different ionic liquids (ILs) were developed and examined in this study. The yield of ethylene carbonate (EC) could reach to 92.2% in the presence of C16mimCl/ZnCl2 catalyst. Through exploring the structure-activity relationships of cation and anion, it was confirmed that a synergistic effect of cation and anion of catalyst had important influences on urea alcoholysis. Additionally, the controlling step of EC synthesis reaction involving the elimination of an ammonia molecule from intermediates had been revealed by in situ FT-IR. This could afford a guided insight for synthesizing cyclic carbonates with high yield. Furthermore, a possible mechanism for the catalytic process was proposed based on DFT and the experimental results via FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C NMR analysis, which revealed that not only a probable synergistic effects of cation-anion matters, but also C(2)-H of ILs and Zn2+ played a key role in accelerating the reaction of urea alcoholysis. This catalytic mechanism study is to provide a preliminary basis to develop novel catalysts for cyclic carbonates from urea and diols through a green synthetic pathway.

Self-assembled bimetallic aluminum-salen catalyst for the cyclic carbonates synthesis

Abboud, Khalil A.,Hahm, Hyungwoo,Hong, Sukwon,Kim, Seyong,Park, Jongwoo,Seong, Wooyong

, (2021)

Bimetallic bis-urea functionalized salen-aluminum catalysts have been developed for cyclic carbonate synthesis from epoxides and CO2. The urea moiety provides a bimetallic scaffold through hydrogen bonding, which expedites the cyclic carbonate formation reaction under mild reaction conditions. The turnover frequency (TOF) of the bis-urea salen Al catalyst is three times higher than that of a μ-oxo-bridged catalyst, and 13 times higher than that of a monomeric salen aluminum catalyst. The bimetallic reaction pathway is suggested based on urea additive studies and kinetic studies. Additionally, the X-ray crystal structure of a bis-urea salen Ni complex supports the self-assembly of the bis-urea salen metal complex through hydrogen bonding.

CO2 activation and promotional effect in the oxidation of cyclic olefins over mesoporous carbon nitrides

Ansari, Mohd Bismillah,Min, Byung-Hoon,Mo, Yong-Hwan,Park, Sang-Eon

, p. 1416 - 1421 (2011)

Mesoporous carbon nitrides (MCN) were prepared by a nano-casting method using mesoporous silica as a template with different carbon and nitrogen sources like melamine only (MS-MCN), urea-formaldehyde (UF-MCN) and melamine-glyoxal (MG-MCN). These mesoporous carbon nitride materials possess nitrogen moieties which behave like a CO2-philic surface facilitating oxidation of cyclic olefins by molecular oxygen in the co-presence of CO2 below supercritical conditions. The co-presence of CO2 augmented the conversions of cyclic olefins at low pressures of CO2, depicting a promotional effect. Approaches towards quantification of promotional effects and insights into the promotional aspects have been studied.

Controlled synthesis of asymmetric dialkyl and cyclic carbonates using the highly selective reactions of imidazole carboxylic esters

Rannard, Steve P.,Davis, Nicola J.

, p. 933 - 936 (1999)

(equation presented) A new highly selective synthesis of dialkyl carbonates is described. The procedures rely on the previously unknown selectivity of imidazole carboxylic esters synthesized by the reaction of 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole with alcohols. The imidazole carboxylic esters of secondary or tertiary alcohols form carbonates through the exclusive reaction with primary alcohols in polyols containing mixtures of primary, secondary, and tertiary hydroxyl groups without the need for protection. Controlled cyclic carbonate formation is also described.

Synthesis of 5-membered cyclic carbonates by oxidative carbonylation of 1,2-diols promoted by copper halides

Giannoccaro, Potenzo,Casiello, Michele,Milella, Antonella,Monopoli, Antonio,Cotugno, Pietro,Nacci, Angelo

, p. 162 - 171 (2012)

Copper halides, CuX2 (X = Cl, Br), promote the oxidative carbonylation of vicinal diols [1,2-ethandiol (1,2-ED), 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD), 1,2-butanediol (1,2-BD)] into the corresponding 5-membered cyclic carbonates, under CO/O2 (Ptot = 3 MPa; P(O2) = 0.5 MPa), at 373 K, in CH3CN and in the presence of a base as co-catalyst. Under these conditions, however, copper salts catalysts proved to be unstable (max turnover, 21.1 mol/mol), evolving into a pale green, insoluble and inactive material, by reaction with water, by-product of the carbonylation process. Contrarily, by carrying out reactions directly in diol, and using DMF as the base, catalytic systems showed to be stable and efficient. Under these conditions, when approximately 40% of the diol has been converted into carbonate, CO2 begins to be formed, deriving from the CO oxidation promoted by H2O that accumulates in the system. The extent of this side reaction, which lowers the yield of CO into cyclic carbonate, increases with the progress of carbonylation. After a diol conversion of 70%, the oxidation of CO to CO2 becomes the main reaction and prevents the complete carbonylation of the diol. The most probable reaction mechanism is also reported and discussed.

One-pot conversion of CO2 and glycerol to value-added products using propylene oxide as the coupling agent

Ma, Jun,Song, Jinliang,Liu, Huizhen,Liu, Jinli,Zhang, Zhaofu,Jiang, Tao,Fan, Honglei,Han, Buxing

, p. 1743 - 1748 (2012)

The effective conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and glycerol is an interesting topic in green chemistry. In this work, we studied the simultaneous transformation of CO2 and glycerol to value-added products using propylene oxide (PO)

Novel chromium (III) complexes with N4-donor ligands as catalysts for the coupling of CO2 and epoxides in supercritical CO2

Cuesta-Aluja, Laia,Djoufak, Mary,Aghmiz, Ali,Rivas, Raquel,Christ, Lorraine,Masdeu-Bultó, Anna M.

, p. 161 - 170 (2014)

New neutral and cationic chromium(III) complexes with N4 Schiff base ligands have been prepared and characterized. These complexes are active catalysts for the cycloaddition of CO2 and styrene oxide in CH 2Cl2 solutions, affording epoxide conversions in a 39-92% range, with encouraging cyclic carbonate yields (up to 63%). It is to notice that the cationic species were significantly more active than their neutral analogs. Addition of tetrabutylammonium halides improved the selectivity toward styrene carbonate (87% yield). Dichloromethane could be avoided using solvent free or supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent (scCO2) and, moreover, this improved the catalytic activity of the cationic complexes (TOF up to 652 h-1). Using scCO2, these chromium catalysts afforded the rapid and selective formation of cyclic carbonates from the coupling of CO2 to various linear terminal epoxides, such as epichlorydrin, propylene oxide and long chain terminal oxiranes. Coupling of cyclohexene oxide and carbon dioxide led to mixtures of poly(cyclohexene) carbonate and cyclic carbonate depending on the conditions (pressure and co-catalyst/catalyst ratio). Poly(cyclohexene) carbonate was isolated with a productivity 388 g/g Cr. Selective formation of the cyclic cyclohexene carbonate was obtained working under scCO2 conditions.

Method for synthesizing cyclic carbonate by using metalloporphyrin ion framework to catalyze urea and dihydric alcohol

-

Paragraph 0073-0074, (2021/08/28)

The invention relates to a method for preparing cyclic carbonate by using a metalloporphyrin ion framework catalyst. The method is characterized in that urea and a dihydric alcohol compound are subjected to urea alcoholysis reaction under the catalysis of the catalyst to obtain the cyclic carbonate, wherein the catalyst is a metalloporphyrin ion framework heterogeneous catalyst, and the cyclic carbonate prepared by the method has high yield. The method has the characteristics that compared with a traditional catalyst, the used metalloporphyrin ion framework heterogeneous catalyst has multiple active sites, double active components, high catalytic efficiency and stable performance, is easy to separate and recycle from a reaction solution, and has a relatively high industrial application value.

METHOD FOR SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL FIXATION OF CO2

-

Page/Page column 16, (2021/02/19)

A method for sustainable fixation of CO2, is disclosed herein. A sustainable chemical fixation of CO2 into epoxide to form value added product such as cyclic carbonates using bimetallic spinel oxide hollow microspheres as an efficient and recyclable catalyst under solvent free and mild reaction conditions.

Post a RFQ

Enter 15 to 2000 letters.Word count: 0 letters

Attach files(File Format: Jpeg, Jpg, Gif, Png, PDF, PPT, Zip, Rar,Word or Excel Maximum File Size: 3MB)

1

What can I do for you?
Get Best Price

Get Best Price for 108-32-7