1. Sodium benzoate is also an important preservative of acid type food. It transforms into effective form of benzoic acid during application. See benzoic acid for application range and dosage. In addition, it also can be used as fodder preservative. 2. Preservatives; antimicrobial agent. 3. Sodium benzoate agent is a very important preservative of acid type fodder. It transforms into effective form of benzoic acid during application. See benzoic acid for application range and dosage. In addition, it also can be used as food preservative. 4. Used in the research of pharmaceutical industry and plant genetic, also used as dye intermediates, fungicide and preservatives. 5. The product is used as food additive (preservative), fungicide in pharmaceutical industry, dye mordant, plasticizer in plastic industrial, and also used as organic synthetic intermediate of spices and others.
Dust may form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides.
Ingested sodium benzoate is conjugated with glycine in the liver to
yield hippuric acid, which is excreted in the urine. Symptoms of systemic benzoate toxicity resemble those of salicylates. Whereas
oral administration of the free-acid form may cause severe gastric
irritation, benzoate salts are well tolerated in large quantities: e.g. 6
g of sodium benzoate in 200mL of water is administered orally as a
liver function test.
Clinical data have indicated that sodium benzoate can produce
nonimmunological contact urtcaria and nonimmunological
immediate contact reactions. However, it is also recognized that
these reactions are strictly cutaneous, and sodium benzoate can
therefore be used safely at concentrations up to 5%. However, this
nonimmunological phenomenon should be considered when
designing formulations for infants and children.
Other adverse effects include anaphylaxis and urticarial
reactions, although a controlled study has shown that the incidence
of urticaria in patients given benzoic acid is no greater than that
with a lactose placebo.
It has been recommended that caffeine and sodium benzoate
injection should not be used in neonates; however, sodium
benzoate has been used by others in the treatment of some neonatal
metabolic disorders. It has been suggested that there is a general
adverse effect of benzoate preservatives on the behavior of 3-yearold
children, which is detectable by parents, but not by a simple
The WHO acceptable daily intake of total benzoates, calculated
as benzoic acid, has been estimated at up to 5 mg/kg of bodyweight.
LD50 (mouse, IM): 2.3 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 1.4 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 1.6 g/kg
LD50 (rabbit, oral): 2.0 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IV): 1.7 mg/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 4.1 g/kg
sodium benzoate: An either colourlesscrystalline or white amorphouspowder, C6H5COONa, soluble inwater and slightly soluble in ethanol.It is made by the reaction of sodiumhydroxide with benzoic acid and isused in the dyestuffs industry and asa food preservative. It was formerlyused as an antiseptic.
Sodium Benzoate is a preservative that is the sodium salt of benzoic
acid. it converts to benzoic acid, which is the active form. it has a
solubility in water of 50 g in 100 ml at 25°c. sodium benzoate is 180
times as soluble in water at 25°c as is the parent acid. the optimum
functionality occurs between ph 2.5 and 4.0 and it is not recom-
mended above ph 4.5. it is active against yeasts and bacteria. it is
used in acidic foods such as fruit juices, jams, relishes, and bever-
ages. its use level ranges from 0.03 to 0.10%.
Sodium benzoate is prepared by adding benzoic acid to a hot concentrated solution of sodium carbonate until effervescence ceases. The solution is then evaporated, cooled and allowed to crystallize or evaporate to dryness, and then granulated.
sodium benzoate is a non-toxic, organic salt preservative that is particularly effective against yeast, with some activity against molds and bacteria. It is generally used in concentrations of 0.1 to 0.2 percent.
Mechanism of food preservation
The mechanism starts with the absorption of benzoic acid into the cell. If the intracellular pH changes to 5 or lower, the anaerobic fermentation of glucose through phosphofructokinase is decreased by 95 %, thereby inhibiting the growth and survival of micro-organisms that cause food spoilage.
Sodium benzoate, also known as benzoic acid sodium, is commonly used as food preservatives in food industry, odorless or with slight smell of benzoin, and tastes sweet astringency. Stable in air, can absorb moisture in open air. It’s naturally found in blueberry, apple, plum, cranberry, prunes, cinnamon and cloves, with weaker antiseptic performance than benzoic acid. Antiseptic performance of 1.180g sodium benzoate is equivalent of about 1g benzoic acid. In acidic environment, sodium benzoate have obvious inhibitory effect on a variety of microorganisms: when pH is at 3.5, 0.05% solution can completely inhibit the growth of yeast; while when pH is above 5.5, it has poor effect on a lot of mold and yeast; hardly has any effect in alkaline solution. After sodium benzoate enters into the body, in the process of biotransformation, it would combine with glycine to be uric acid, or combine with glucuronic acid to be glucosiduronic acid, and all to be eliminated from the body in urine, not to accumulate in the body. As long as it is within the scope of the normal dosage, it would be harmless to the human body, and it is a safe preservatives. It also can be used for carbonated beverages, concentrated juice, margarine, chewing gum base, jam, jelly, soy sauce, etc. Human acceptable daily intake (ADI) < 5 mg/kg body weight (take benzoic acid as calculation basis). Sodium benzoate has big lipophilicity, and it is easy to penetrate cell membrane into the cells, interfere in permeability of cell membrane, and inhibit cell membrane’s absorption of amino acids; cause Ionization acidification of alkaline storage in the cell when entering into, inhibit activity of respiratory enzymes, and stop condensation reaction of acetyl coenzyme A, and thereby achieve the purpose of food antiseptic. The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook He Liaopu.
Crystallise it from EtOH (12mL/g). [Beilstein 9 IV 27.]
Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants and in animals. The salt is not found to occur naturally.
White crystals or granules, or colorless powder, with sweet astringency. Soluble in water, ethanol, glycerol and methanol.
Produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide.
ChEBI: An organic sodium salt resulting from the replacement of the proton from the carboxy group of benzoic acid by a sodium ion.
Sodium benzoate has the chemical formula NaC7H5O2; it is a widely used food preservative, with E number E211. It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. It can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid.
GRAS listed. Accepted as a food additive in Europe. Included in the
FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental preparations; IM and IV
injections; oral capsules, solutions and tablets; rectal; and topical
preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the
UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal
A benzene compound used as a synthetic reagent.
ADI 0～5mg/kg (take benzoic acid as calculation basis, total value of ADI including benzoic acid and its salts and esters; FAO/WHO, 2001).
LD50 4070mg/kg (rats, by oral).
Sodium benzoate is used as a food and feed additive, flavor, packaging material; pharmaceutical; preservative for food products and tobacco; anti-fungal agent; antiseptic, rust, and mildew inhibitor; intermediate in the manufacture of dyes. Used as a human hygiene biocidal product.
Prepared by the treatment of benzoic acid with either sodium
carbonate or sodium bicarbonate.
Sodium benzoate occurs as a white granular or crystalline, slightly
hygroscopic powder. It is odorless, or with faint odor of benzoin
and has an unpleasant sweet and saline taste.
1. Neutralized by benzoic acid and sodium bicarbonate. Put water and sodium bicarbonate into the neutralizing pot, boil it and make it dissolved into sodium bicarbonate solution. Mix it with benzoic acid until PH value of the reaction solution reaches to 7-7.5. Heat it to emit over carbon dioxide, and then add active carbon to decolorize it for half an hour. Do suction filtration, after filtrate gets concentrated, put it into flaker tray, dry it to be sheets in the drum, crush it, and then sodium benzoate is made. Consumption rate of benzoic acid (99.5%) 1045kg/t and sodium bicarbonate (98%) 610kg/t.
2. Use 32% soda solution to neutralize benzoic acid in the pot to reach PH value of 7.5, and neutralization temperature is 70℃. Use 0.3% active carbon to decolorize the neutralized solution, vacuum filter it, concentrate, dry it and then it comes to powdered sodium benzoate.
3. To get it by toluene oxidation made benzoic acid reacting with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide.
white crystalline powder
Antimicrobial agent, flavoring agent and adjuvant in food; not to exceed a maximum level of 0.1% in food (21 CFR, 184.1733, 582.3733). Antifungal and bacteriostatic preservative in pharmaceuticals at concentrations of ~0.1%. Clinical reagent (bilirubin assay).
Sodium benzoate is a preservative. It is bacteriostatic and fungistatic under acidic conditions. It is most widely used in acidic foods such as salad dressings (vinegar), carbonated drinks (carbonic acid), jams and fruit juices (citric acid), pickles (vinegar), and condiments. It is also used as a preservative in medicines and cosmetics. As a food additive, sodium benzoate has the E number E211. It is also used in fireworks as a fuel in whistle mix, a powder that emits a whistling noise when compressed into a tube and ignited. The fuel is also one of the fastest burning rocket fuels and provides a lot of thrust and smoke. It does have its downsides: there is a high danger of explosion when the fuel is sharply compressed because of the fuel's sensitivity to impact.
Take dried sample 1.5g into a 250ml conical flask, dissolve it with 25ml water, and then add 50ml ether and bromophenol.
UN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.
Use in foods limited to 0.1%.
Aqueous solutions may be sterilized by autoclaving or filtration. The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container, in
a cool, dry place.
Sodium benzoate is used primarily as an antimicrobial preservative
in cosmetics, foods, and pharmaceuticals. It is used in concentrations
of 0.02–0.5% in oral medicines, 0.5% in parenteral products,
and 0.1–0.5% in cosmetics. The usefulness of sodium benzoate as a
preservative is limited by its effectiveness over a narrow pH range.
Sodium benzoate is used in preference to benzoic acid in some
circumstances, owing to its greater solubility. However, in some
applications it may impart an unpleasant flavor to a product.
Sodium benzoate has also been used as a tablet lubricant at 2–5%
w/w concentrations. Solutions of sodium benzoate have also been administered, orally or intravenously, in order to determine liver
Benzoic acid is almost odorless or exhibits a sweet, faint, balsamic odor and a sweet–sour to acrid taste. For a detailed description, refer to Burdock (1997).
Incompatible with quaternary compounds, gelatin, ferric salts,
calcium salts, and salts of heavy metals, including silver, lead, and
mercury. Preservative activity may be reduced by interactions with
kaolin or nonionic surfactants.
Poison by subcutaneous and intravenous routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion, intramuscular, and intraperitoneal routes. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. Larger doses of 8-10 g by mouth may cause nausea and vomiting. Small doses have little or no effect. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Na2O. See also BENZOIC ACID.
In combination with ascorbic acid (vitamin C, E300), sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate form benzene, a known carcinogen. However, in most beverages that contain both, the benzene levels are below those considered dangerous for consumption. Heat, light and shelf life can affect the rate at which benzene is formed.
Sodium benzoate is a white crystalline solid. It is odorless and nonflammable