Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless gas. Hydrogen is easily ignited. Once ignited Hydrogen burns with a pale blue, almost invisible flame. The vapors are lighter than air. Hydrogen is flammable over a wide range of vapor/air concentrations. Hydrogen is not toxic but is a simple asphyxiate by the displacement of oxygen in the air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket. Hydrogen is used to make other chemicals and in oxyHydrogen welding and cutting.
In oxy-hydrogen blowpipe (welding) and limelight; autogenous welding of steel and other metals; manufacture of ammonia, synthetic methanol, HCl, NH3; hydrogenation of oils, fats, naphthalene, phenol; in balloons and airships; in metallurgy to reduce oxides to metals; in petroleum refining; in thermonuclear reactions (ionizes to form protons, deuterons (D) or tritons (T)). liquid hydrogen used in bubble chambers to study subatomic particles; as a coolant.
EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE. Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Will form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. CAUTION: Hydrogen (UN1049), Deuterium (UN1957), Hydrogen, refrigerated liquid (UN1966) and Methane (UN1971) are lighter than air and will rise. Hydrogen and Deuterium fires are difficult to detect since they burn with an invisible flame. Use an alternate method of detection (thermal camera, broom handle, etc.) Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Cylinders exposed to fire may vent and release flammable gas through pressure relief devices. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket.
Finely divided platinum and some other metals will cause a mixture of Hydrogen and oxygen to explode at ordinary temperatures. If a jet of Hydrogen in air impinges on platinum black the metal surface gets hot enough to ignite the gases, [Mellor 1:325(1946-1947)]. Explosive reactions occur upon ignition of mixtures of nitrogen trifluoride with good reducing agents such as ammonia, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide or methane. Mixtures of Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or methane and oxygen difluoride are exploded when a spark is discharged, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:192(1956)]. An explosion occurred upon heating 1'-pentol and 1''-pentol under Hydrogen pressure. Hydrogen appears that this acetylenic compound under certain conditions suddenly breaks down to form elemental carbon, Hydrogen, and carbon monoxide with the release of sufficient energy to develop pressures in excess of 1000 atmospheres, [AIChE Loss Prevention, p1, (1967)].
Vapors may cause dizziness or asphyxiation without warning. Some may be irritating if inhaled at high concentrations. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases.
Hydrogen,H2, is a tasteless,colorless, odorless gas that may be liquified by cooling under pressure. Hydrogen is used in welding, in the production of ammonia, methanol, and other chemicals, for the hydrogenation of oil and coal,and for the reduction of metallic oxide ores.It is obtained by the dissociation of water and as a by-product in the electrolysis of brine solutions. Molecular hydrogen at ambient temperature is relatively innocuous to most metals.However, atomic hydrogen is detrimental to most metals.
ChEBI: An elemental molecule consisting of two hydrogens joined by a single bond.
Air & Water Reactions
It is usually purified by passing through a suitable absorption train of tubes. Carbon dioxide is removed with KOH pellets, soda-lime or NaOH pellets. Oxygen is removed with a “De-oxo” unit or by passage over Cu heated to 450-500o and Cu on Kieselguhr at 250o. Passage over a mixture of MnO2 and CuO (Hopcalite) oxidises any CO to CO2 (which is removed as above). Hydrogen can be dried by passage through dried silica-alumina at -195o, through a dry-ice trap followed by a liquid-N2 trap packed with glass wool, through CaCl2 tubes, or through Mg(ClO4)2 or P2O5. Other purification steps include passage through a hot palladium thimble [Masson J Am Chem Soc 74 4731 1952], through an activated-charcoal trap at -195o, and through a non-absorbent cotton-wool filter or small glass spheres coated with a thin layer of silicone grease. Potentially VERY EXPLOSIVE in air.