Endogenous androgen receptor agonist.
Indications and Uses
Testosterone is the main natural male sex hormone in mammals and is
a steroid hormone with 19 carbon atoms. It is the main male sex
hormone secreted by the testes, and it is also the most active male
sex hormone. It promotes humans’ and animals’ sex organ and
secondary sex characteristic development, sperm maturation, and
protein metabolism for muscle strengthening.
Testosterone controls the growth and development of male sex organs
and male secondary sex characteristics. It is mainly used in
replacement therapy for eunuchism, treatment for male menopause
syndrome, and treatment for impotence, and it is also used in
white crystalline odourless solid
Secreted by the testis and is converted to dihydrotestosterone in the target tissue where is appears to mediate many of the biological actions of testosterone.
A confirmed carcinogen.
White crystalline powder with no aroma. Its melting point is 155℃,
specific rotary power is [α]24D+109° (4%, ethanol), and its
ethanol solution has the greatest absorbance at a wavelength of
240nm. It is easily soluble in ethanol (1:5), soluble in ether
(1:100), and insoluble in water. LD50 (Large mice, venal
transfusion) 326mg/kg. Studies show that it has latent carcinogenic
effects on test animals.
ChEBI: An androstanoid having 17beta-hydroxy and 3-oxo groups, together with unsaturation at C-41C-5..
Application in Particular Diseases
- Testosterone replacement is not FDA approved for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. It should not be used solely for these indications but might be beneficial to reduce bone loss in patients needing therapy for hypogonadal symptoms. In a few studies, women receiving oral methyltestosterone 1.25 or 2.5 mg daily or testosterone implants 50 mg every 3 months had increased BMD. Various salt forms of testosterone were associated with increased BMD in some studies of hypogonadal men or senior men with normal hormone levels or mild hormonal deficiency. Transdermal gel, oral, intramuscular, and pellet testosterone products are available.
- Patients using them should be evaluated within 1 to 2 months of initiation and then every 3 to 6 months thereafter.
Testosterone secreted by the testis is converted to dihydrotestosterone in the target tissues where it appears to mediate many of the biological actions of testosterone. Androgens direct the development of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and at puberty.
Testosterone can bind non-specifically with plasma albumins in
blood, and it can also bind with plasma sex hormone binding
globulins. It can be converted into estradiol and estrone in
peripheral tissue. Testosterone is mostly degraded in the liver,
where its A-ring is restored, and it is converted into 17-
ketosteroid under the effects of 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.
Along with androsterone, epiandrosterone, and etiocholanlone, it is
combined with glucuronic acid or sulfate and excreted in urine. Most
metabolites in urine that are excreted by binding to glucuronic acid
belong to 17-ketosteroids.
Testosterone, Principal hormone of the testes, produced by the interstitial cells. Major circulating androgen; converted by 5α-reductase in androgen-dependent target tissues to 5α-dehydrotestosterone
which is required for normal male sexual differentiation. Also converted by aromatization to Estradiol.
Testerone is a controlled substance (anabolic steroid). Androgen.
Crystallise testosterone from aqueous acetone, hexane or isoPrOH. The long needles that separated from EtOH/AcOH were used for X-ray crystallography [Roberts et al. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans II 1978 1973.] The acetate [1045-69-8] crystallises from MeOH or aqueous Me2CO, with m 140-141o and  D 20 +87.8o (c 1, EtOH). [Ruzicka et al. Helv Chim Acta 18 1478 1935 and 19 99, 842 1936, Beilstein 8 IV 974.]