Charcoal (50g) is added to 1L of 6M HCl and boiled for 45minutes. The supernatant is discarded, and the charcoal is boiled with two more lots of HCl, then with distilled water until the supernatant no longer gives a test for chloride ion. The charcoal (now phosphate-free) is filtered onto a sintered-glass funnel and air dried at 120o for 24hours. [Lippin et al. J Am Chem Soc 76 2871 1954.] The purification can be carried out using a Soxhlet extractor (without cartridge), allowing longer extraction times. Treatment with conc H2SO4 instead of HCl has been used to remove reducing substances.
Flammable/combustible material. May be ignited by friction, heat, sparks or flames. Some may burn rapidly with flare burning effect. Powders, dusts, shavings, borings, turnings or cuttings may explode or burn with explosive violence. Substance may be transported in a molten form at a temperature that may be above its flash point. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished.
Black grains that have been treated to improve absorptive ability. May heat spontaneously if not properly cooled after manufacture.
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Dust is explosive when exposed to heat or flame. Freshly prepared material can heat and spontaneously ignite in air. The presence of water assists ignition, as do contaminants such as oils. Insoluble in water.
Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.
Carbon is incompatible with very strong oxidizing agents such as fluorine, ammonium perchlorate, bromine pentafluoride, bromine trifluoride, chlorine trifluoride, dichlorine oxide, chlorine trifluoride, potassium peroxide, etc. . Also incompatible with air, metals, unsaturated oils. [Lewis].
Carbon, C, is a nonmetallic element, grey solid. It is found in nature as graphite (specific gravity2.25), diamond(specific gravity 3.51), and coal (specific gravity 1.88). Carbon is found in all living things, is insoluble in common solvents,and forms an almost infinite numberof organic compounds. Anaturally occurring radioactive isotope,14C, has a half-life of 5780 years and is used in archaeo logical investigations to date artifacts and ancient documents. Other uses of carbon depend on its form. For example, diamonds for jewels and abrasives,graphite for lubricants, activated carbon to absorb color and gases, and wood carbon for fuel are some common examples.