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7429-90-5 Usage

Uses

Aluminum finds wide applications for industrialand domestic purposes. Fine powder isused in explosives, in fireworks, as flashlightsin photography, and in aluminumpaints. It is commonly used in alloys withother metals and is nonhazardous as alloys.

Potential Exposure

Most hazardous exposures to aluminum occur in smelting and refining processes. Aluminum is mostly produced by electrolysis of Al2O3 dissolved in molten cryolite (Na3AlF6). Aluminum is alloyed with copper, zinc, silicon, magnesium, manganese, and nickel; special additives may include chromium, lead, bismuth, titanium, zirconium, and vanadium. Aluminum and its alloys can be extruded or processed in rolling mills, wire works, forges, or foundries; and are used in the shipbuilding, electrical, building, aircraft, automobile, light engineering, and jewelry industries. Aluminum foil is widely used in packaging. Powdered aluminum is used in the paints and pyrotechnic industries. Alumina, emery, and corundum has been used for abrasives, refractories, and catalysts; and in the past in the first firing of china and pottery.

Health Hazard

Exposures to aluminum metallic powder have been known to cause health effects with symptoms such as irritation, redness, and pain to the eyes, coughing, shortness of breath, irritation to the respiratory tract, nausea, and vomiting in extreme cases. In prolonged periods of inhalation exposures, as in occupational situations, aluminum metallic powder is known to cause pulmonary fi brosis, numbness in fi ngers, and (in limited cases) brain effects. Workers with pre-existing skin disorders, eye problems, or impaired respiratory function are known to be more susceptible to the effects of aluminum metallic powder.

Occurrence

Aluminum is the third most abundant element found in the Earth’s crust. It is found inconcentrations of 83,200 ppm (parts-per-million) in the crust. Only the nonmetals oxygenand silicon are found in greater abundance. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is the fourth mostabundant compound found on Earth, with a weight of 69,900 ppm. Another alum-typecompound is potassium aluminum sulfate [KAl(SO4)2?12H2O]. Although aluminum is notfound in its free metallic state, it is the most widely distributed metal (in compound form) onEarth. Aluminum is also the most abundant element found on the moon.Almost all rocks contain some aluminum in the form of aluminum silicate minerals foundin clays, feldspars, and micas. Today, bauxite is the major ore for the source of aluminummetal. Bauxite was formed eons ago by the natural chemical reaction of water, which thenformed aluminum hydroxides. In addition to the United States, Jamaica and other Caribbeanislands are the major sources of bauxite. Bauxite deposits are found in many countries, butnot all are of high concentration.

Uses

Aluminum is a very versatile metal with many uses in today’s economy, the most common ofwhich are in construction, in the aviation-space industries, and in the home and automobile industries.Its natural softness is overcome by alloying it with small amounts of copper or magnesium thatgreatly increase its strength. It is used to make cans for food and drinks, in pyrotechnics, for protectivecoatings, to resist corrosion, to manufacture die-cast auto engine blocks and parts, for homecooking utensils and foil, for incendiary bombs, and for all types of alloys with other metals.Aluminum does not conduct electricity as well as copper, but because it is much lighter inweight, it is used for transmission lines, though not in household wiring. A thin coating ofaluminum is spread on glass to make noncorroding mirrors. Pure oxide crystals of aluminumare known as corundum, which is a hard, white crystal and one of the hardest substancesknown. Corundum finds many uses in industry as an abrasive for sandpaper and grindingwheels. This material also resists heat and is used for lining high-temperature ovens, to formthe white insulating part of spark plugs, and to form a protective coating on many electronicdevices such a transistors.Aluminum oxide is used to make synthetic rubies and sapphires for lasers beams. It hasmany pharmaceutical uses, including ointments, toothpaste, deodorants, and shaving creams.

Air & Water Reactions

Violent reaction with water; contact may cause an explosion or may produce a flammable gas (hydrogen). Moist air produces hydrogen gas. Does not burn on exposure to air.

Characteristics

Alloys of aluminum are light and strong and can easily be formed into many shapes—thatis, it can be extruded, rolled, pounded, cast, and welded. It is a good conductor of electricityand heat. Aluminum wires are only about 65% as efficient in conducting electricity as arecopper wires, but aluminum wires are significantly lighter in weight and less expensive thancopper wires. Even so, aluminum wiring is not used in homes because of its high electricalresistance, which can build up heat and may cause fires.Aluminum reacts with acids and strong alkali solutions. Once aluminum is cut, the freshsurface begins to oxidize and form a thin outer coating of aluminum oxide that protects themetal from further corrosion. This is one reason aluminum cans should not be discarded inthe environment. Aluminum cans last for many centuries (though not forever) because atmosphericgases and soil acids and alkalis react slowly with it. This is also the reason aluminumis not found as a metal in its natural state.

Waste Disposal

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposalpractices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal of Aluminum Oxide-Disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mixing of industrial process wastes and municipal wastes at such sites is not encouraged however. Aluminum powder may be recovered and sold as scrap. Recycling and recovery is a viable option to disposal for aluminum metal and aluminum fluoride (A-57).

Shipping

UN1309 Aluminum powder, coated, Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid. UN1383 Pyrophoric metals, n.o.s. or Pyrophoric alloys, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.2; Labels: 4.2-Spontaneously combustible material, Technical Name Required. UN1396 Aluminum powder, uncoated, Hazard Class: 4.3; Labels: 4.3-Dangerous when wet material. NA9260 (North America) Aluminum, molten, Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material.

Hazard

Aluminum dust and fine powder are highly explosive and can spontaneously burst intoflames in air. When treated with acids, aluminum chips and coarse powder release hydrogen.The heat from the chemical reaction can then cause the hydrogen to burn or explode. Purealuminum foil or sheet metal can burn in air when exposed to a hot enough flame. Fumesfrom aluminum welding are toxic if inhaled.

Precautions

The dry powder is stable but the damp or moist bulk dust may heat spontaneously and form flammable hydrogen gas. Moist aluminum powder may ignite in air, with the formation of flammable hydrogen gas and a combustible dust. Powdered material may form explosive dust-air mixtures. Contact with water, strong acids, strong bases, or alcohols releases flammable hydrogen gas. The dry powder can react violently or explosively with many inorganic and organic chemicals

Origin of Name

From the Latin word alumen, or aluminis, meaning “alum,” which is a bitter tasting form of aluminum sulfate or aluminum potassium sulfate.

Safety Profile

Although aluminum is not generally regarded as an industrial poison, inhalation of finely dwided powder has been reported to cause pulmonary fibrosis. It is a reactive metal and the greatest industrial hazards are with chemical reactions. As with other metals the powder and dust are the most dangerous forms. Dust is moderately flammable and explosive by heat, flame, or chemical reaction with powerful oxidizers. To fight fire, use special mixtures of dry chemical. following dangerous interactions: explosive reaction after a delay period with KClO4 + Ba(NO3)2 + mo3 + H20, also with Ba(NO3)2 + mo3 + sulfur + vegetable adhesives + H2O. Wxtures with powdered AgCl, NH4NO3 or NH4NO3 + Ca(NO3)2 + formamide + H20 are powerful explosives. Murture with ammonium peroxodisulfate + water is explosive. Violent or explosive "thermite" reaction when heated with metal oxides, oxosalts (nitrates, sulfates), or sulfides, and with hot copper oxide worked with an iron or steel tool. Potentially explosive reaction with ccl4 during ball milling operations. Many violent or explosive reactions with the following halocarbons have occurred in industry: bromomethane, bromotrifluoromethane, ccl4, chlorodfluoromethane, chloroform, chloromethane, chloromethane + 2methylpropane, dchlorodifluoromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,2dichloropropane, 1,2-difluorotetrafluoroethane, fluorotrichloroethane, hexachloroethane + alcohol, polytrifluoroethylene oils and greases, tetrachloroethylene, tetrafluoromethane, 1,1,1trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2trichlorotrifluoro-ethane, and trichlorotrifluoroethane-dchlorobenzene. Potentially explosive reaction with chloroform amidinium nitrate. Ignites on contact with vapors of AsCl3, SC4, Se2Cl2, and PCl5. Reacts violently on heating with Sb or As. Ignites on heating in SbCl3 vapor. Ignites on contact with barium peroxide. Potentially violent reaction with sodium acetylide. Mixture with sodum peroxide may ignite or react violently. Spontaneously igmtes in CS2 vapor. Halogens: ignites in Powdered aluminum undergoes the chlorine gas, foil reacts vigorously with liquid Br2, violent reaction with H20 + 12. Violent reaction with hydrochloric acid, hydro-fluoric acid, and hydrogen chloride gas. Violent reaction with disulfur dbromide. Violent reaction with the nonmetals phosphorus, sulfur, and selenium. Violent reaction or ignition with the interhalogens: bromine pentafluoride, chlorine fluoride, iodne chloride, iodine pentafluoride, and iodne heptafluoride. Burns when heated in CO2. Ignites on contact with O2, and mixtures with O2 + H20 ignite and react violently. Mixture with picric acid + water ignites after a delay period. Explosive reaction above 800°C with sodium sulfate. Violent reaction with sulfur when heated. Exothermic reaction with iron powder + water releases explosive hydrogen gas. Aluminum powder also forms sensitive explosive mixtures with oxidants such as: liquid Cl2 and other halogens, N2O4, tetranitromethane, bromates, iodates, NaClO3, KClO3, and other chlorates, NaNO3, aqueous nitrates, KClO4 and other perchlorate salts, nitryl fluoride, ammonium peroxodisulfate, sodium peroxide, zinc peroxide, and other peroxides, red phosphorus, and powdered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). following dangerous interactions: exothermic reaction with butanol, methanol, 2-propanol, or other alcohols, sodium hydroxide to release explosive hydrogen gas. Reaction with dborane forms pyrophoric product. Ignition on contact with niobium oxide + sulfur. Explosive reaction with molten metal oxides, oxosalts (nitrates, sulfates), sulfides, and sodium carbonate. Reaction with arsenic trioxide + sodum arsenate + sodium hydroxide produces the toxic arsine gas. Violent reaction with chlorine trifluoride. Incandescent reaction with formic acid. Potentially violent alloy formation with palladium, platinum at mp of Al, 600℃. Vigorous dssolution reaction in Bulk aluminum may undergo the ALUMINUM CHLORIDE HYDROXIDE AHAOOO 45 methanol + carbon tetrachloride. Vigorous amalgamation reaction with mercury(Ⅱ) salts + moisture. Violent reaction with molten silicon steels. Violent exothermic reaction above 600℃ with sodium diuranate.

Isotopes

There are 23 isotopes of aluminum, and only one of these is stable. The singlestable isotope, Al-27, accounts for 100% of the element’s abundance in the Earth’scrust. All the other isotopes are radioactive with half-lives ranging from a few nanosecondsto 7.17×10+15 years.

Fire Hazard

Substance is transported in molten form at a temperature above 705°C (1300°F). Violent reaction with water; contact may cause an explosion or may produce a flammable gas. Will ignite combustible materials (wood, paper, oil, debris, etc.). Contact with nitrates or other oxidizers may cause an explosion. Contact with containers or other materials, including cold, wet or dirty tools, may cause an explosion. Contact with concrete will cause spalling and small pops.

History

The ancient Greeks and Romans used alum in medicine as an astringent, and as a mordant in dyeing. In 1761 de Morveau proposed the name alumine for the base in alum, and Lavoisier, in 1787, thought this to be the oxide of a still undiscovered metal. Wohler is generally credited with having isolated the metal in 1827, although an impure form was prepared by Oersted two years earlier. In 1807, Davy proposed the name alumium for the metal, undiscovered at that time, and later agreed to change it to aluminum. Shortly thereafter, the name aluminium was adopted to conform with the “ium” ending of most elements, and this spelling is now in use elsewhere in the world. Aluminium was also the accepted spelling in the U.S. until 1925, at which time the American Chemical Society officially decided to use the name aluminum thereafter in their publications. The method of obtaining aluminum metal by the electrolysis of alumina dissolved in cryolite was discovered in 1886 by Hall in the U.S. and at about the same time by Heroult in France. Cryolite, a natural ore found in Greenland, is no longer widely used in commercial production, but has been replaced by an artificial mixture of sodium, aluminum, and calcium fluorides. Bauxite, an impure hydrated oxide ore, is found in large deposits in Jamaica, Australia, Suriname, Guyana, Russia, Arkansas, and elsewhere. The Bayer process is most commonly used today to refine bauxite so it can be accommodated in the Hall–Heroult refining process used to make most aluminum. Aluminum can now be produced from clay, but the process is not economically feasible at present. Aluminum is the most abundant metal to be found in the Earth’s crust (8.1%), but is never found free in nature. In addition to the minerals mentioned above, it is found in feldspars, granite, and in many other common minerals. Twenty-two isotopes and isomers are known. Natural aluminum is made of one isotope, 27Al. Pure aluminum, a silvery- white metal, possesses many desirable characteristics. It is light, nontoxic, has a pleasing appearance, can easily be formed, machined, or cast, has a high thermal conductivity, and has excellent corrosion resistance. It is nonmagnetic and nonsparking, stands second among metals in the scale of malleability, and sixth in ductility. It is extensively used for kitchen utensils, outside building decoration, and in thousands of industrial applications where a strong, light, easily constructed material is needed. Although its electrical conductivity is only about 60% that of copper, it is used in electrical transmission lines because of its light weight. Pure aluminum is soft and lacks strength, but it can be alloyed with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements to impart a variety of useful properties. These alloys are of vital importance in the construction of modern aircraft and rockets. Aluminum, evaporated in a vacuum, forms a highly reflective coating for both visible light and radiant heat. These coatings soon form a thin layer of the protective oxide and do not deteriorate as do silver coatings. They have found application in coatings for telescope mirrors, in making decorative paper, packages, toys, and in many other uses. The compounds of greatest importance are aluminum oxide, the sulfate, and the soluble sulfate with potassium (alum). The oxide, alumina, occurs naturally as ruby, sapphire, corundum, and emery, and is used in glassmaking and refractories. Synthetic ruby and sapphire have found application in the construction of lasers The Elements 4-3 for producing coherent light. In 1852, the price of aluminum was about $1200/kg, and just before Hall’s discovery in 1886, about $25/kg. The price rapidly dropped to 60¢ and has been as low as 33¢/kg. The price in December 2001 was about 64¢/ lb or $1.40/kg.

Chemical Properties

Aluminum metallic powder is a light, silvery-white to gray, odorless powder. Aluminum metallic powder is reactive and flammable. Aluminum is normally coated with a layer of aluminum oxide unless the particles are freshly formed. There are two main types of aluminum powder: the “fl ake” type made by stamping the cold metal and the “granulated” type made from molten aluminum. Pyro powder is an especially fi ne type of “fl ake” powder. Aluminum powders are used in paints, pigments, protective coatings, printing inks, rocket fuel, explosives, abrasives, and ceramics; the production of inorganic and organic aluminum chemicals; and as catalysts. Pyro powder is mixed with carbon and used in the manufacture of fi reworks. The coarse powder is used in aluminothermics.

General Description

Aluminum metal held above melting point of 1220°F (660°C) for ease in handling. Cools and solidifies if released. Contact causes thermal burns. Plastic or rubber may melt or lose strength upon contact. Protective equipment designed for chemical exposure only is not effective against direct contact. Take care walking on the surface of a spill to avoid stepping into a pocket of molten aluminum below the crust. Do not attempt to remove aluminum impregnated clothing because of the danger of tearing flesh if there has been a burn.

Uses

As pure metal or alloys (magnalium, aluminum bronze, etc.) for structural material in construction, automotive, electrical and aircraft industries. In cooking utensils, highway signs, fencing, containers and packaging, foil, machinery, corrosion resistant chemical equipment, dental alloys. The coarse powder in aluminothermics (thermite process); the fine powder as flashlight in photography; in explosives, fireworks, paints; for absorbing occluded gases in manufacture of steel. In testing for Au, As, Hg; coagulating colloidal solutions of As or Sb; pptg Cu; reducer for determining nitrates and nitrites; instead of Zn for generating hydrogen in testing for As. Forms complex hydrides with lithium and boron, such as LiAlH4, which are used in preparative organic chemistry.

storage

Aluminum metallic powder should be kept stored in a tightly closed container, in a cool, dry, ventilated area, protected against physical damage and isolated from sources of heat, ignition, smoking areas, and moisture. Aluminum metallic powder should be kept away from acidic, alkaline, combustible, and oxidizing materials and separate from halogenated compounds.

Incompatibilities

Aluminum powder forms an explosive mixture with air and is a strong reducing agent that reacts violently with oxidizers, strong bases; strong acids; somehalogenated hydrocarbons; nitrates, sulfates, metal oxides and many other substances. Keep away from combustible materials.

Physical properties

Pure metallic aluminum is not found in nature. It is found as a part of compounds,especially compounded with oxygen as in aluminum oxide (Al2O3). In its purified form, aluminumis a bluish-white metal that has excellent qualities of malleability and ductility. Purealuminum is much too soft for construction or other purposes. However, adding as little as1% each of silicon and iron will make aluminum harder and give it strength.Its melting point is 660.323°C, its boiling point is 2,519°C, and its density is 2.699 g/cm3.

Production Methods

Aluminum production involves four main steps: bauxite mining,refining of bauxite to yield alumina; electrolytic reduction of alumina to yield aluminum; and aluminum casting into ingots.

Industrial uses

Alloying aluminum with various elementsmarkedly improves mechanical properties,strength primarily, at only a slight sacrifice indensity, thus increasing specific strength, orstrength-to-weight ratio. Traditionally, wroughtalloys have been produced by thermomechanicallyprocessing cast ingot into mill productssuch as billet, bar, plate, sheet, extrusions, andwire. For some alloys, however, such mill productsare now made by similarly processing“ingot” consolidated from powder. Such alloysare called PM (powder metal) wrought alloysor simply PM alloys. To distinguish the traditionaltype from these, they are now sometimesreferred to as ingot-metallurgy (IM) alloys oringot-cast alloys. Another class of PM alloysare those used to make PM parts by pressingand sintering the powder to near-net shape.There are also many cast alloys. All told, thereare about 100 commercial aluminum alloys.

Description

Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the crust of the earth, accounting for 8.13% by weight. It does not occur in free elemental form in nature, but is found in combined forms such as oxides or silicates. It occurs in many minerals including bauxite, cryolite, feldspar and granite. Aluminum alloys have innumerable application; used extensively in electrical transmission lines, coated mirrors, utensils, packages, toys and in construction of aircraft and rockets. aluminum powder

Production Methods

Most aluminum is produced from its ore, bauxite, which contains between 40 to 60% alumina either as the trihydrate, gibbsite, or as the monohydrate, boehmite, and diaspore. Bauxite is refined first for the removal of silica and other impurities. It is done by the Bayer process. Ground bauxite is digested with NaOH solution under pressure, which dissolves alumina and silica, forming sodium aluminate and sodium aluminum silicate. Insoluble residues containing most impurities are filtered out. The clear liquor is then allowed to settle and starch is added to precipitate. The residue, so-called “red-mud”, is filtered out. After this “desilication,” the clear liquor is diluted and cooled. It is then seeded with alumina trihydrate (from a previous run) which promotes hydrolysis of the sodium aluminate to produce trihydrate crystals. The crystals are filtered out, washed, and calcined above 1,100°C to produce anhydrous alumina. The Bayer process, however, is not suitable for extracting bauxite that has high silica content (>10%). In the Alcoa process, which is suitable for highly silicious bauxite, the “red mud” is mixed with limestone and soda ash and calcined at 1,300°C. This produces “lime-soda sinter” which is cooled and treated with water. This leaches out water-soluble sodium alumnate, leaving behind calcium silicate and other impurites. Alumina may be obtained from other minerals, such as nepheline, sodium potassium aluminum silicate, by similar soda lime sintering process.Metal aluminum is obtained from the pure alumina at 950 to 1000°C electrolysis (Hall-Heroult process). Although the basic process has not changed since its discovery, there have been many modifications. Aluminum is also produced by electrolysis of anhydrous AlCl3. Also, the metal can be obtained by nonelectrolytic reduction processes. In carbothermic process, alumina is heated with carbon in a furnace at 2000 to 2500°C. Similarly, in “Subhalide” process, an Al alloy, Al-Fe-Si-, (obtained by carbothermic reduction of bauxite) is heated at 1250°C with AlCl vapor. This forms the subchloride (AlCl), the vapor of which decomposes when cooled to 800°C.

Agricultural Uses

Aluminum, the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust, is a silvery-white lustrous metal belonging to Group 13 of the Periodic Table. The metal is highly reactive and is protected by a thick transparent oxide layer that gets formed quickly in air. Aluminum and its oxides are amphoteric. Pure aluminum, which exists in a large number of alloys, is extracted from purified bauxite by electrolysis. Its lightness, strength (when alloyed), corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity make aluminum suitable for a variety of uses, including in the construction of vehicles, aircrafts, buildings and overhead power cables. Aluminum (Al) is an important soil constituent. It is toxic to most plants at a soil pH below 6.0. Aluminum ion forms octahedral coordination with water molecules and hydroxyl ions. If soil is not strongly acidic, one (or more) of the water molecules ionizes, releasing the hydrogen ion (H+)in to the solution and increasing the soil acidity. The toxic level of soluble and exchangeable aluminum can be substantially reduced by first raising the soil pH in the range of 5.2 to 5.5 and by further liming to make it in the range of 6.0 to 6.5. In acidic soils, aluminum may compete for uptake with copper and make the soil copper deficient. Molybdenum is adsorbed strongly by oxides of aluminum and iron, thereby making the molybdenum unavailable to plants. Increasing aluminum in the soil solution also restricts the uptake of calcium and magnesium by plants. Aluminum ions are toxic to the roots of many plants such as cotton, tomato, alfalfa, celery, barley, corn, sorghum, and sugar beets. Aluminum toxicity is probably the most important growth limiting factor in many acid soils. The symptoms of aluminum toxicity caused by excess soluble aluminum are not easily recognize in crop plants. White-yellow interveinal blotches form on leaves causing them to dry out and die. Aluminum toxicity also reduces the growth of both shoots and roots. An excess of aluminum interferes with cell division in plant roots, inhibits nodule initiation (by fixing the soil phosphorus to forms that are less available to plant roots), and decreases root respiration. Aluminum interferes with enzymes controlling the deposition of polysaccharides in cell walls and increases cell wall rigidity by cross-linking with pectins. It reduces the uptake, transport, and use of nutrients and water by the plant. Aluminum-injured roots are characteristically stubby and brittle. The root tips and lateral roots thicken and turn brown. The root system as a whole, appears coralline, with many stubby lateral roots but no fine branching. The toxicity problem of aluminum is not economically correctable with conventional liming practices. A genetic approach has the potential to solve the problem of aluminum toxicity in acid soils.

Reactivity Profile

ALUMINUM , MOLTEN, is a reducing agent. Coating moderates or greatly moderates its chemical reactivity compared to the uncoated material. Reacts exothermically if mixed with metal oxides and heated (thermite process). Heating a mixture with copper oxides caused a strong explosion [Mellor 5:217-19 1946-47]. Reacts with metal salts, mercury and mercury compounds, nitrates, sulfates, halogens, and halogenated hydrocarbons to form compounds that are sensitive to mechanical shock [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 135]. A number of explosions in which ammonium nitrate and powdered aluminum were mixed with carbon or hydrocarbons, with or without oxidizing agents, have occurred [Mellor 5:219 1946-47]. A mixture with powdered ammonium persulfate and water may explode [NFPA 491M 1991]. Heating a mixture with bismuth trioxide leads to an explosively violent reaction [Mellor 9:649 (1946-47)]. Mixtures with finely divided bromates(also chlorates and iodates) of barium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium or zinc can explode by heat, percussion, and friction, [Mellor 2:310 (1946-47]. Burns in the vapor of carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, sulfur dichloride, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, or nitrogen peroxide, [Mellor 5:209-212,1946-47]. A mixture with carbon tetrachloride exploded when heated to 153° C and also by impact, [Chem. Eng. News 32:258 (1954)]; [UL Bull. Research 34 (1945], [ASESB Pot. Incid. 39 (1968)]. Mixing with chlorine trifluoride in the presence of carbon results in a violent reaction [Mellor 2 Supp. 1: 1956]. Ignites in close contact with iodine. Three industrial explosions involving a photoflash composition containing potassium perchlorate with aluminum and magnesium powder have occurred [ACS 146:210 1945], [NFPA 491M 1991]. Is attacked by methyl chloride in the presence of small amounts of aluminum chloride to give flammable aluminum trimethyl. Give a detonable mixture with liquid oxygen [NFPA 491M 1991]. The reaction with silver chloride, once started, proceeds with explosive violence [Mellor 3:402 1946-47]. In an industrial accident, the accidental addition of water to a solid mixture of sodium hydrosulfite and powdered aluminum caused the generation of SO2, heat and more water. The aluminum powder reacted with water and other reactants to generate more heat, leading to an explosion that killed five workers [Case Study, Accident Investigation: Napp Technologies, 14th International Hazardous Material Spills Conference].

Definition

aluminium: Symbol Al. A silverywhitelustrous metallic element belongingto group 3 (formerly IIIB) ofthe periodic table; a.n. 13; r.a.m.26.98; r.d. 2.7; m.p. 660°C; b.p.2467°C. The metal itself is highly reactivebut is protected by a thintransparent layer of the oxide, whichforms quickly in air. Aluminium andits oxide are amphoteric. The metalis extracted from purified bauxite(Al2O3) by electrolysis; the mainprocess uses a Hall–Heroult cell butother electrolytic methods are underdevelopment, including conversionof bauxite with chlorine and electrolysisof the molten chloride. Pure aluminiumis soft and ductile but itsstrength can be increased by workhardening.A large number of alloysare manufactured; alloying elementsinclude copper, manganese, silicon,zinc, and magnesium. Its lightness,strength (when alloyed), corrosion resistance,and electrical conductivity(62% of that of copper) make it suitablefor a variety of uses, includingvehicle and aircraft construction,building (window and door frames),and overhead power cables. Althoughit is the third most abundantelement in the earth’s crust (8.1% byweight) it was not isolated until 1825by H. C. Oersted.

Carcinogenicity

Most animal studies have failed to demonstrate carcinogenicity attributable to aluminum administered by various routes in rats, rabbits, mice, and guinea pigs. Some of these studies even suggested some antitumor activity. However, aluminum was found to cause cancer in a few experimental studies such as sarcomas in rats when implanted subcutaneously. This observation was attributed to the dimensions of the implants rather than the chemical composition. Significantly increased incidence of gross tumors was reported in male Long Evans rats and lymphoma leukemia in female Swiss mice given aluminum potassium sulfate in drinking water respectively for 2–2.5 years. A dose–response relationship could not be determined for either species because only one dose of aluminum was used and the type of tumors and organs in which they were found were not specified.
InChI:InChI=1/Al

7429-90-5SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 16, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 16, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name aluminium atom

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names aluminium Powder

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Food additives
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:7429-90-5 SDS

7429-90-5Synthetic route

aluminium trichloride
7446-70-0

aluminium trichloride

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In neat (no solvent) byproducts: HCl; other Radiation; AlCl3 powder placed in quartz tube; tube evacuated and flushed with Ar and then heated under Ar/H2 flow to 90°C; rf discharge ignited for20 min and tube then cooled; XRD;100%
With potassium In neat (no solvent) heating AlCl3 in a rectangular glass tube and passing the vapor over pieces of K in the horizontal part of the tube;;
With lithium hydride; 1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride In neat (no solvent) mixed by stirring; deposited at 25-45°C for 15 min - 2 h;
bis(η6-diphenyl)chromium(0)
12099-15-9

bis(η6-diphenyl)chromium(0)

aluminium bromide
7727-15-3

aluminium bromide

A

{(C6H5C6H5)2Cr}(1+)*AlBr4(1-)*0.25C6H6={(C6H5C6H5)2Cr}AlBr4*0.25C6H6

{(C6H5C6H5)2Cr}(1+)*AlBr4(1-)*0.25C6H6={(C6H5C6H5)2Cr}AlBr4*0.25C6H6

B

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In benzene at room temp.;A 92%
B n/a
In benzene at room temp.;A 92%
B n/a
trimethylamine alane
16842-00-5, 855944-65-9

trimethylamine alane

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In 1,2,5-trimethyl-benzene High Pressure; a soln. of Al complex degassed, pressurized with 3 bar of H2, heated to 150°C for 1 h; allowed to settle, the supernatant removed, washed (n-pentane), dried (vac.); obtained as nanoparticles;86%
With hydrogen In further solvent(s) byproducts: N(CH3)3; High Pressure; pressurized with 3 bar of H2 in mesitylene-d12, heated to 150°C for 1 h;
byproducts: N(CH3)3, H2; film deposition using CVD method (P<1E-6 Torr, gold covered quartz crystal, Teflon, silicon or gallium arsenide as substrates, laser at 5 or 500mW, cooling with liq. N2); SEM;
aluminium trichloride
7446-70-0

aluminium trichloride

bis(η6-toluene)titanium(0)
55527-82-7

bis(η6-toluene)titanium(0)

A

Ti(ηtoluene){(μ-Cl)2(AlCl2)}2

Ti(ηtoluene){(μ-Cl)2(AlCl2)}2

B

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In toluene under purified Ar atm.; AlCl3 added to soln. of Ti(η6-MeC6H5)2 in toluene; mixt. stirred for 18 h at room temp.; solid sepd. by filtration; washed (toluene); dried (vac.); identified asAl; soln. evapd. to dryness; solid washed (heptane); dried (vac.); iden tified as Ti-Al complex;A 80%
B 85%
decamethylsamarocene(II) bis(tetrahydrofurane)
79372-14-8

decamethylsamarocene(II) bis(tetrahydrofurane)

trimethylaluminum
75-24-1

trimethylaluminum

A

tetrahydrofuran
109-99-9

tetrahydrofuran

B

(C5Me5)2Sm{(μ-Me)AlMe2(μ-Me)}2Sm(C5Me5)2
115756-72-4

(C5Me5)2Sm{(μ-Me)AlMe2(μ-Me)}2Sm(C5Me5)2

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In toluene byproducts: methane; all manipulations conducted under nitrogen excluding air and water; after 24 h standing of the reaction mixt. the formed metallic-like ppt. was removed by filtration and washed with hot toluene, filtrates combined, solvent removed by rotary evapn.;; recrystn. (hot toluene), elem. anal.;;A n/a
B 80%
C n/a
strontium(II) hydride

strontium(II) hydride

strontium tetrahydroaluminate

strontium tetrahydroaluminate

A

strontium pentahydroaluminate

strontium pentahydroaluminate

B

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In solid SrH2 mechanically treated for 3-4 h, mixed with AlH3 at molar ratio 1:1 in vibrating mechanical load, heated for 3-4 h; DTA-DGV, XRD, IR;A 80%
B n/a
C n/a
In solid mechanolysis at 165-220°C; DTA-DGV, IR, XRD;
aluminum oxide
1333-84-2, 1344-28-1

aluminum oxide

beryllium

beryllium

A

B

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) heating a 1:1 mixture up to 1280°C for 3h; formation of a mixture of the metals and oxides;;A 64%
B n/a
aluminium trichloride
7446-70-0

aluminium trichloride

(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)Al
137013-38-8

(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)Al

A

{(η5-C5Me5)2Al}{(η1-C5Me5)AlCl3}

{(η5-C5Me5)2Al}{(η1-C5Me5)AlCl3}

B

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In toluene under N2, after 3 days heated at 100°C for 15 h; slowly cooled;A 50%
B n/a
[1,3-(tBu)2(C5H3)]2Sm

[1,3-(tBu)2(C5H3)]2Sm

aluminium hydride
7784-21-6

aluminium hydride

aluminium hydride*TMEDA

aluminium hydride*TMEDA

A

(C5H3(C(CH3)3)2)5Sm4(AlH4)4H3((CH3)2NC2H4N(CH3)2)2

(C5H3(C(CH3)3)2)5Sm4(AlH4)4H3((CH3)2NC2H4N(CH3)2)2

B

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In diethyl ether byproducts: H2; dropwise addn. of AlH3 in ether to soln. of Sm-compd. in diethyl ether, addn. of AlH3*TMEDA, stirred for 24 h; pptn. filtered off, filtrate concd., sepn. after 48 h, washed with pentane, dried in vac.; elem. anal.;A 35%
B n/a
aluminum(I) chloride

aluminum(I) chloride

diethyl ether
60-29-7

diethyl ether

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

lithium hexamethyldisilazane
4039-32-1

lithium hexamethyldisilazane

A

54Al*15Al(1+)*18N(SiC3H9)2(1-)*2Li(OC4H10)3(1+)*Li(OC4H10)4(1+)*1.5C6H5CH3=[Al69N18Si36C108H324](C40H100Li3O10)*1.5C7H8

54Al*15Al(1+)*18N(SiC3H9)2(1-)*2Li(OC4H10)3(1+)*Li(OC4H10)4(1+)*1.5C6H5CH3=[Al69N18Si36C108H324](C40H100Li3O10)*1.5C7H8

B

diethyl ether ; compound with aluminium trichloride
17634-40-1

diethyl ether ; compound with aluminium trichloride

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In diethyl ether; toluene byproducts: LiCl*3Et2O; soln. of AlCl in toluene/Et2O (3/1) was added to LiN(SiMe3)2 at -78°C; soln. was warmed to room temp. within 1 d; heated at 60°C for 1 h; filtered; soln. was left at 60°C for 2 mo; pptd.;A 7%
B n/a
C n/a
aluminium hydride*(dibutyl ether)0.3

aluminium hydride*(dibutyl ether)0.3

A

AlH2OC3H6CH3

AlH2OC3H6CH3

B

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) Kinetics; byproducts: O(C4H9)2, H2; thermal decompn. at 50-100°C; identification of products by IR;A 5%
B n/a
aluminum(I) chloride

aluminum(I) chloride

diethyl ether
60-29-7

diethyl ether

toluene
108-88-3

toluene

lithium hexamethyldisilazane
4039-32-1

lithium hexamethyldisilazane

A

54Al*15Al(1+)*18N(Si(CH3)3)2(1-)*3Li(O(C2H5)2)4(1+)*6C6H5CH3=[Al69(N(Si(CH3)3)2)18](Li(O(C2H5)2)4)3*6C6H5CH3

54Al*15Al(1+)*18N(Si(CH3)3)2(1-)*3Li(O(C2H5)2)4(1+)*6C6H5CH3=[Al69(N(Si(CH3)3)2)18](Li(O(C2H5)2)4)3*6C6H5CH3

B

diethyl ether ; compound with aluminium trichloride
17634-40-1

diethyl ether ; compound with aluminium trichloride

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In diethyl ether; toluene byproducts: LiCl*3Et2O; gaseous AlCl were condensed with toluene and diethyl ether at -196°C; soln. of AlCl*Et2O was added to LiN(SiMe3)2 at 25°C; mixt. was left for 1 h; filtered; soln. was heated at 60°C for 1.5 h; pptd.;A 5%
B n/a
C n/a
Na/K alloy

Na/K alloy

triethylaluminum
97-93-8

triethylaluminum

A

potassium tetraethylaluminate

potassium tetraethylaluminate

B

sodium tetraethylaluminate
2397-68-4

sodium tetraethylaluminate

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: Na/K alloy; triethylaluminum at 85 - 90℃; for 1.25h;
Stage #2: triethylaluminum In toluene at 60 - 80℃; for 4h; Product distribution / selectivity;
Stage #1: Na/K alloy; triethylaluminum at 87 - 95℃; for 3.5h;
Stage #2: triethylaluminum In toluene at 20 - 88℃; for 1h; Product distribution / selectivity;
In toluene at 20 - 35℃; for 9.25h; Product distribution / selectivity;
lithium aluminium tetrahydride
16853-85-3

lithium aluminium tetrahydride

A

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

B

lithium hydride

lithium hydride

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
titanium(III) chloride at 90℃; for 5h; Product distribution / selectivity; Neat (no solvent); Balled milled;
In solid Kinetics; thermal decomposition of ball milled for various times or as-received LiAlH4; powder XRD;
chromium(VI) oxide In diethyl ether; toluene Kinetics; Catalytic decompn. of LiAlH4 in solution;
lithium aluminium tetrahydride
16853-85-3

lithium aluminium tetrahydride

A

lithium hexahydroaluminate

lithium hexahydroaluminate

B

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
titanium(III) chloride at 50 - 150℃; under 760.051 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Neat (no solvent); Balled milled;
at 100 - 200℃; under 760.051 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Neat (no solvent); Balled milled;
In neat (no solvent) 170°C - 220°C;
With magnesium hydride; titanium(II) hydride In neat (no solvent) at 54 - 171℃; Kinetics; Inert atmosphere;
magnesium hydride

magnesium hydride

A

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

B

magnesium
7439-95-4

magnesium

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
titanium(III) chloride at 250 - 350℃; under 760.051 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Neat (no solvent); Balled milled;
sodium aluminum tetrahydride

sodium aluminum tetrahydride

A

sodium alanate

sodium alanate

B

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
titanium(III) chloride at 50 - 200℃; under 760.051 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Neat (no solvent); Balled milled;
In neat (no solvent) in stainless steel reactor, at 480-490 K for 3 h, according to: E. C. Ashby, P. Kobertz, Inorg. Chem., 1966, 5, 1615.; XRD;
In neat (no solvent) on heating;
at 210℃;
sodium alanate

sodium alanate

A

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

B

sodium hydride
7646-69-7

sodium hydride

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
titanium(III) chloride at 200 - 250℃; under 760.051 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Neat (no solvent); Balled milled;
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) decompd. at heating;
lithium hexahydroaluminate

lithium hexahydroaluminate

A

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

B

lithium hydride

lithium hydride

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
titanium(III) chloride at 150 - 250℃; under 760.051 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Neat (no solvent); Balled milled;
at 200 - 250℃; under 760.051 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Neat (no solvent); Balled milled;
In solid 220°C - 275°C;

A

magnesium hydride

magnesium hydride

B

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
titanium(III) chloride at 50 - 250℃; under 760.051 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Neat (no solvent); Balled milled;
at 100℃; under 760.051 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Neat (no solvent); Balled milled;
at 145 - 305℃;
Al12Mg17

Al12Mg17

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

magnesium
7439-95-4

magnesium

A

magnesium hydride

magnesium hydride

B

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
hydrogenation at 30 bar H2 at 350°C for 0 to 24 h; detd. by XRD;
aluminum sulfide

aluminum sulfide

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With iron In neat (no solvent) Al2S3 is decomposed on Fe;; not isolated;;
With iron In neat (no solvent) Al2S3 is molten with iron shavings;;
With H2 or hydrocarbons reduction of Al2S3 by hydrogen or hydrocarbons;;
aluminum oxide
1333-84-2, 1344-28-1

aluminum oxide

aluminum sulfide

aluminum sulfide

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
byproducts: SO2;
With pyrographite In neat (no solvent) fractionated reduction; first portion: Al alloy with contaminating metalls (Si, Fe, Ti), second portion (using charcoal as reducing reagent):pure Al;;
With pyrographite In neat (no solvent) fractionated reduction; first portion: Al alloy with contaminating metalls (Si, Fe, Ti), second portion (using charcoal as reducing reagent):pure Al;;
aluminum oxide
1333-84-2, 1344-28-1

aluminum oxide

A

aluminium nitride

aluminium nitride

B

aluminium carbide
1299-86-1

aluminium carbide

C

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With pyrographite In neat (no solvent) byproducts: graphite; Electric Arc; on heating in an electric arc; formation of Al4C3 containing Al2O3, AlN, Al and graphite;; yield of Al (at best: 30%) increases with decreasing cooling velocity;;
With pyrographite In neat (no solvent) on heating in an electric furnace; formation of Al4C3 containing Al2O3, AlN and Al;; yield of Al (at best: 30%) increases with decreaseing cooling velocity;;
aluminum oxide
1333-84-2, 1344-28-1

aluminum oxide

A

aluminium carbide
1299-86-1

aluminium carbide

B

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With caebon In neat (no solvent) byproducts: CO; heating Al2O3 with carbon; formation of solid Al, Al2O3, and Al4C3 as product mixture with residual carbon; reaction mechanism discussed;;
With pyrographite In neat (no solvent) byproducts: CO; Electric Arc; reaction temp. above b.p. of Al at 1 atm; favouring by pressure or by elimination of CO by flushing with H or city gas;; best yield about 49g Al per 106g Al4C3;;
With pyrographite; calcium oxide In neat (no solvent) byproducts: CO; Electric Arc; heating with BaO or Sr-compunds; requirement of energy: 5kWh;;
aluminum oxide
1333-84-2, 1344-28-1

aluminum oxide

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With pyrographite In melt byproducts: CO, CO2; Electrolysis; in molten cryolite; coal-electrodes; decompn. voltage 1.2 V;;
Electrolysis; if Al2O3 contaminated with 0.45% (Fe2O3+SiO2), purity of product 99%, if with 0.15-0.25%, then 99.5%; other impurities: water (<1%), alkali (0.5-2%);
Electrolysis; impurities of Al2O3: water 0.18%, Fe2O3 0.04%, SiO2 0.05%, Na2O 0.18 %;
cadmium sulfate

cadmium sulfate

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

A

aluminum(III) sulfate

aluminum(III) sulfate

B

cadmium
7440-43-9

cadmium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water Al powder activated with HCl; pptn. of Cd;A n/a
B 100%
In water Al powder activated with HCl; pptn. of Cd;A n/a
B 100%
In water Al wire; incomplete pptn. of Cd; pptn. within some minutes in presence of sodium potassium tartrate;
In water Al wire; incomplete pptn. of Cd; pptn. within some minutes in presence of sodium potassium tartrate;
lithium
7439-93-2

lithium

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

silicon
7440-21-3

silicon

lithium aluminium silicide

lithium aluminium silicide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt in a tantalum tube weld-seald under Ar and protected from air by a silica jacket sealed under vac.; mixt. Li, Al, Si (15:3:6 mol) heated at 1223K, 10 h in vertical furnace and shaken several times;; cooled at rate of 6 K h**-1; elem. anal.;100%
(C4H9)4N(1+)*F(1-)*14HF*7H2O = (C4H9)4NF*14HF*7H2O

(C4H9)4N(1+)*F(1-)*14HF*7H2O = (C4H9)4NF*14HF*7H2O

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

(C4H9)4N(1+)*AlF4(1-) = (C4H9)4NAlF4
115631-72-6

(C4H9)4N(1+)*AlF4(1-) = (C4H9)4NAlF4

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetonitrile Electrolysis; galvanostatic conditions (300 mA, 10-70 V, 1.7 Ah), aluminum anode, platinum cathode; filtn., evapn. (reduced pressure), recrystn. (Et2O/CHCl3 1:4); elem. anal.;100%
lanthanum(III) bromide
13536-79-3

lanthanum(III) bromide

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

La4Br2Al5

La4Br2Al5

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) all manipulations under Ar atm.; stoich. mixt. of compds. sealed in Ta tubes then tubes sealed inside silica ampoules under vac. (ca. 1E-2 mbar), heated at 900°C for 10 d;100%
[Ni(ammonia)6](2+)

[Ni(ammonia)6](2+)

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

A

Al(3+)*4OH(1-)=Al(OH)4(1-)

Al(3+)*4OH(1-)=Al(OH)4(1-)

nickel

nickel

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Sulfate In further solvent(s) Kinetics; byproducts: NH3, H2; ammine Ni complex reacted with metallic Al in aq. soln. at pH 11.0-12.0; unreacted Al is removed by dissoln. in alkaline soln.;A n/a
B 99.9%
With Nitrate In further solvent(s) Kinetics; byproducts: NH3, H2; ammine Ni complex reacted with metallic Al in aq. soln. at pH 11.0-12.0;A n/a
B 0%
diphenylmercury(II)
587-85-9

diphenylmercury(II)

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

A

diphenylzinc
1078-58-6

diphenylzinc

B

triphenylaluminium
841-76-9

triphenylaluminium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent)A 1%
B 99%
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

aluminum(I) chloride

aluminum(I) chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) liquid Al reacted with HCl gas in graphite furnace in high vac. at 750°C (by Schnoeckel, H. Z. Naturforsch. 1976, 31b, 1291);99%
In neat (no solvent) passing HCl gas over liq. Al at 1000°C and 1E-5 mbar;
In neat (no solvent) passing HCl over Al in graphite cell heated to 900°C;
isopropyl alcohol
67-63-0

isopropyl alcohol

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

AlCl3*4(CH3)2CHOH

AlCl3*4(CH3)2CHOH

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen chloride org. compd. cooling to -80°C, satn. with hydrogen chloride for 3 h, metal turnings addn., mixt. heating under reflux condenser for 5-6 h,crystn. at room temp.; crystals sepn. from mother liquor, washing (isopropyl alcohol), recrystn. from alcohol; elem. anal.; X-ray diffraction;99%
strontium

strontium

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

SrAl2

SrAl2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt under Ar atm. mixt. Sr and Al was pressed into pellets and arc-melted;99%
In melt Electric Arc; remelted several times; XRD;
In melt Electric Arc; arc melting of elements with 3 wt. % excess of Sr, remelting four times;
germanium
7440-56-4

germanium

rubidium pentasulfide

rubidium pentasulfide

sulfur
7704-34-9

sulfur

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Rb3(AlS2)3(GeS2)7

Rb3(AlS2)3(GeS2)7

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) stoich. amt. of Rb2S5, Al, Ge and S sealed in fused silica tube; heated at 850°C for 3 d; cooled to 400°C over 4 d; detd. by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis;99%
aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Al0733Rh0267

Al0733Rh0267

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: rhodium; aluminium In melt Electric arc; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: at 999.84℃; for 72h; Sealed tube; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #3: at 999.84℃; under 675068 Torr; for 0.333333h; Inert atmosphere;
99%
iridium

iridium

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Al0.733(Rh0.75Ir0.25)0.267

Al0.733(Rh0.75Ir0.25)0.267

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: rhodium; iridium; aluminium In melt Electric arc; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: at 999.84℃; for 72h; Sealed tube; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #3: at 999.84℃; under 675068 Torr; for 0.333333h; Inert atmosphere;
99%
iridium

iridium

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Al0.733(Rh0.5Ir0.5)0.267

Al0.733(Rh0.5Ir0.5)0.267

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: rhodium; iridium; aluminium In melt Electric arc; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: at 999.84℃; for 72h; Sealed tube; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #3: at 999.84℃; under 675068 Torr; for 0.333333h; Inert atmosphere;
99%
iridium

iridium

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Al0.733(Rh0.25Ir0.75)0.267

Al0.733(Rh0.25Ir0.75)0.267

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: rhodium; iridium; aluminium In melt Electric arc; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: at 999.84℃; for 72h; Sealed tube; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #3: at 999.84℃; under 675068 Torr; for 0.333333h; Inert atmosphere;
99%
iridium

iridium

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Al0733Ir0267

Al0733Ir0267

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: iridium; aluminium In melt Electric arc; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: at 999.84℃; for 72h; Sealed tube; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #3: at 999.84℃; under 675068 Torr; for 0.333333h; Inert atmosphere;
99%
ethene
74-85-1

ethene

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

triethylaluminum
97-93-8

triethylaluminum

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Na; Al2(C2H5)3Cl3 In not given byproducts: NaCl; NMR spect. anal.;98.7%
With titanium; hydrogen at 120 - 130℃; under 2250.23 - 75007.5 Torr; for 13h;
aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

barium(II) oxide

barium(II) oxide

barium
7440-39-3

barium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
5h in vac. at 1300-1340 °C; Metal distilles off. Repeated distn. gives 99.5% purity;98.5%
4h in vac. at 1010-1030 °C; opening of apparatus under CO2, crushing of product under desiccated toluene to avoid self inflammation; Metal sublimes off. Repeated distn. gives 99.48% purity;
sublimation in vac.; 99.9% Ba;
sublimation in vac.; 99.9% Ba;
ethyl bromide
74-96-4

ethyl bromide

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

triethylaluminum
97-93-8

triethylaluminum

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Mg; Na In not given byproducts: MgBr2, NaBr; NMR spect. anal.;98.2%
gallium
7440-55-3

gallium

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

aluminum gallium

aluminum gallium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) Al and Ga metals were heated in sealed quartz tube to 700° and then cooled to room temp.;98%
In neat (no solvent)
In neat (no solvent)
In neat (no solvent) melting Ga and Al in a porcelain tube in vac.;;
iodine
7553-56-2

iodine

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

aluminium(III) iodide
7784-23-8

aluminium(III) iodide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In hexane thin foil of Al was suspended in degassed n-hexane under argon, 1.5 equiv. I2 was added, mixt. was boiled under reflux for 1-3 h; filtered into a heated receiver; elem. anal.;96%
In further solvent(s) sheet aluminium in I2/ethyl iodide soln.;; impurities of I2;;
In neat (no solvent) addn. of Al to molten I2, ignition and melting of the metal;;
tetrahydrofuran
109-99-9

tetrahydrofuran

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

C12H24O3Al2

C12H24O3Al2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With catalyst: HgCl2-ZnCl2-MeI In tetrahydrofuran refluxing (60°C, 5 h); addn. of benzene, filtration, evapn.; elem. anal.;96%
tantalum(V) oxide

tantalum(V) oxide

hafnium(IV) oxide

hafnium(IV) oxide

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

Hf(b),Ta(185-19) (W%)

Hf(b),Ta(185-19) (W%)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Al; KClO3; CaO In melt Electric Arc; thermit smelting; ball-milled powdered mixt. HfO2, Ta2O5, CaO, CaF2, KClO3 (10:1.2:4:3:6.5 wt.), 15% excess Al was poured inside MgO-lined steelreactor; ignition with burning Mg of trigger mixt. (KClO3:Al=2:1); also in Ar in copper double wall reactor; remelting by electron beam (2.7 kW, 1 h, vac. 3.9E-4 Pa) or arc melting (under Ar, tungsten electrode) to evap. Al excess; elem. anal.;95.5%
With Al; KClO3; CaO In melt Electric Arc; thermit smelting; ball-milled powdered mixt. HfO2, Ta2O5, CaO, CaF2, KClO3 (10:1.2:4:3:6.5 wt.), 10% excess Al was poured inside MgO-lined steelreactor; ignition with burning Mg of trigger mixt. (KClO3:Al=2:1); also in Ar in copper double wall reactor; remelting by electron beam (2.7 kW, 1 h, vac. 3.9E-4 Pa) or arc melting (under Ar, tungsten electrode) to evap. Al excess; elem. anal.;95%
With Al; KClO3; CaO In melt Electric Arc; thermit smelting; ball-milled powdered mixt. HfO2, Ta2O5, CaO, CaF2, KClO3 (10:1.2:4:3:6.5 wt.), 5% excess Al was poured inside MgO-lined steel reactor; ignition with burning Mg of trigger mixt. (KClO3:Al=2:1); also in Ar in copper double wall reactor; remelting by electron beam (2.7 kW, 1 h, vac. 3.9E-4 Pa) or arc melting (under Ar, tungsten electrode) to evap. Al excess; elem. anal.;85%
aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

phenol
108-95-2

phenol

aluminium(III) phenoxide
15086-27-8

aluminium(III) phenoxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With mercury dichloride In tetrahydrofuran for 24h; Reflux; Inert atmosphere;95%
titanium
7440-32-6

titanium

graphite

graphite

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

titanium-aluminium carbide

titanium-aluminium carbide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Sn In neat (no solvent) other Radiation; mixt. milled for 2 h; coldly pressed into rods; combustion reaction carried out in CO2 laser; XRD;95%
In solid self-propagating high-temperature synthesis;
triethylaluminum
97-93-8

triethylaluminum

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

A

trimethylaluminum
75-24-1

trimethylaluminum

B

diethylaluminum iodide
2040-00-8

diethylaluminum iodide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With iodine; methyl iodide In ethanol Sonication; N2; CH3I, I2 and Al introduced in a condenser with C2H5OH at -20°C, ultrasonic acceleration at room temp. for 2 h, Et3Al (ratio MeI/Et3Al = 1.50) dropped into soln. within 10 min, sonication for 30 min; distilled (vac.);A 86%
B 95%
chromium
7440-47-3

chromium

nickel
7440-02-0

nickel

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

tungsten
7440-33-7

tungsten

A

Ni(77.1),Cr(2.0),Al(17.9),W(3.0) (A%)

Ni(77.1),Cr(2.0),Al(17.9),W(3.0) (A%)

B

Ni(79.8),Cr(5.8),Al(12.2),W(2.2) (A%)

Ni(79.8),Cr(5.8),Al(12.2),W(2.2) (A%)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt Electric Arc; ingots by arc melting of Ni(75)-Cr(2.5)-Al(20)-W(2.5) (at%), several remelts, sealed in silica tube under vac. with partial pressure of Ar, 1573K (2 weeks), furnace cooled to 1523K, 4 weeks, 1273K (6 weeks), quenched in iced water; electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, x-ray diffraction;A 95%
B 5%
dicyclopropylmercury
13955-96-9

dicyclopropylmercury

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

{((CH2)2CH)3Al}2

{((CH2)2CH)3Al}2

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) The reactants in sealed tube were heated in an oil bath to 75°C for 1 week;; sublimed at 50°C and 10E-6 torr;;95%
(-)-menthol
2216-51-5

(-)-menthol

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

aluminium tri(-)-menthylate

aluminium tri(-)-menthylate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In toluene byproducts: H2; (inert atmosphere); reflux (12-15 h); decantation, extn., centrifugation, distn., recrystn. (benzene); elem. anal.;95%
In benzene byproducts: H2; (inert atmosphere); reflux (25-30 h); decantation, extn., centrifugation, distn., recrystn. (benzene); elem. anal.;87%
isopropyl alcohol
67-63-0

isopropyl alcohol

aluminium
7429-90-5

aluminium

aluminum tris(iso-propoxide)

aluminum tris(iso-propoxide)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With mercury dichloride for 9h; Reflux; Inert atmosphere;95%

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