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Cas Database

75-85-4

75-85-4

Identification

  • Product Name:2-Butanol, 2-methyl-

  • CAS Number: 75-85-4

  • EINECS:200-908-9

  • Molecular Weight:88.1497

  • Molecular Formula: C5H12O

  • HS Code:2905199090

  • Mol File:75-85-4.mol

Synonyms:tert-Pentylalcohol (8CI);1,1-Dimethyl-1-propanol;2-Ethyl-2-propanol;2-Hydroxy-2-methylbutane;2-Methyl-2-hydroxybutane;Amylenehydrate;Dimethylethylcarbinol;Ethyldimethylcarbinol;NSC 25498;tert-Amylalcohol;tert-Pentanol;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):FlammableF,HarmfulXn

  • Hazard Codes: F:Flammable;

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H225 Highly flammable liquid and vapourH315 Causes skin irritation H332 Harmful if inhaled H335 May cause respiratory irritation

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled If breathed in, move person into fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. Consult a physician. In case of skin contact Wash off with soap and plenty of water. Consult a physician. In case of eye contact Rinse thoroughly with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and consult a physician. If swallowed Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water. Consult a physician. Excerpt from ERG Guide 129 [Flammable Liquids (Water-Miscible / Noxious)]: May cause toxic effects if inhaled or absorbed through skin. Inhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. (ERG, 2016) Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR as necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Higher alcohols (>3 carbons) and related compounds/

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped or safely confined. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. /Amyl alcohols/ Excerpt from ERG Guide 129 [Flammable Liquids (Water-Miscible / Noxious)]: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a (P) may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. (ERG, 2016) Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. Do not let product enter drains. Discharge into the environment must be avoided. Evacuate and restrict persons not wearing protective equipment from area of spill or leak until cleanup is complete. Remove all ignition sources. Establish forced ventilation to keep levels below explosive limit. Absorb liquids in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, peat, carbon, or similar material and deposit in sealed containers. It may be necessary to contain and dispose of this chemical as a hazardous waste. If material or contaminated runoff enters waterways, notify downstream users of potentially contaminated waters. Contact your Department of Environmental Protection or your regional office of the federal EPA for specific recommendations. If employees are required to clean up spills, they must be properly trained and equipped. OSHA 1910.120(q) may be applicable. /Amyl alcohols/

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Prior to working with this chemical you should be trained on its proper handling and storage. Before entering a confined space where amyl alcohols may be present, check to make sure that an explosive concentration does not exist. Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, well ventilated area away from strong oxidizers, strong acids, and hydrogen trifluoride since violent reactions occur. Metal containers involving the transfer of this chemical should be grounded and bonded. Where possible, automatically pump liquid from drums or other storage containers to process containers. Drums must be equipped with self-closing valves, pressure vacuum bungs, and flame arresters. Use only non-sparking tools and equipment, especially when opening and closing containers of this chemical. Sources of ignition such as smoking and open flames are prohibited where this chemical is used, handled, or stored in a manner that could create a potential fire or explosion hazard. /Amyl alcohols/

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesBiological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 104 Articles be found

In situ 13C DEPT-MRI as a tool to spatially resolve chemical conversion and selectivity of a heterogeneous catalytic reaction occurring in a fixed-bed reactor

Akpa, Belinda S.,Mantle, Michael D.,Sederman, Andrew J.,Gladden, Lynn F.

, p. 2741 - 2743 (2005)

The distortionless enhancement by polarisation transfer (DEPT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been used to provide the first in situ spatially-resolved and quantitative measurement of chemical conversion and selectivity within a fixed-bed reactor using natural abundance 13C NMR. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2005.

Lucas,Liu

, p. 2138 (1934)

In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of magnetic Fe@FexOy/Pd nanoparticle catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

Yao, Yali,Rubino, Stefano,Gates, Byron D.,Scott, Robert W.J.,Hu, Yongfeng

, p. 180 - 186 (2017)

Core@shell Fe@FexOy nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted a great deal of interest as potential magnetic supports for catalytic metals via galvanic exchange reactions. In this study Fe@FexOy/Pd bimetallic NPs were synthesized through galvanic exchange reactions using 50:1, 20:1 and 5:1 molar ratios of Fe@FexOy NPs to Pd(NO3)2. The resulting Fe@FexOy/Pd NPs have Pd NPs on the Fe oxide surfaces, and still retain their response to external magnetic fields. The materials could be recovered after the reaction by an external magnetic field, and agitation of the solution via a magnetic field led to improvements of mass transfer of the substrates to the catalyst surface for hydrogenation reactions. The Fe@FexOy/Pd NPs derived from the 5:1 molar ratio of their respective salts (Fe:Pd) exhibited a higher catalytic activity than particles synthesized from 20:1 and 50:1 molar ratios for the hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The highest turnover frequency reached 3600?h?1 using ethanol as a solvent. In situ XANES spectra show that the Fe@FexOy NPs in the Fe@FexOy/Pd system are easily oxidized when dispersed in water, while they are very stable if ethanol is used as a solvent. This oxidative stability has important implications for the sustainable use of such particles in real world applications.

Structure sensitivity of alkynol hydrogenation on shape- and size-controlled palladium nanocrystals: Which sites are most active and selective?

Crespo-Quesada, Micaela,Yarulin, Artur,Jin, Mingshang,Xia, Younan,Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov

, p. 12787 - 12794 (2011)

The activity and selectivity of structure-sensitive reactions are strongly correlated with the shape and size of the nanocrystals present in a catalyst. This correlation can be exploited for rational catalyst design, especially if each type of surface atom displays a different behavior, to attain the highest activity and selectivity. In this work, uniform Pd nanocrystals with cubic (in two different sizes), octahedral, and cuboctahedral shapes were synthesized through a solution-phase method with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) serving as a stabilizer and then tested in the hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (MBY). The observed activity and selectivity suggested that two types of active sites were involved in the catalysis-those on the planes and at edges-which differ in their coordination numbers. Specifically, semihydrogenation of MBY to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBE) occurred preferentially at the plane sites regardless of their crystallographic orientation, Pd(111) and/or Pd(100), whereas overhydrogenation occurred mainly at the edge sites. The experimental data can be fit with a kinetic modeling based on a two-site Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. By considering surface statistics for nanocrystals with different shapes and sizes, the optimal catalyst in terms of productivity of the target product MBE was predicted to be cubes of roughly 3-5 nm in edge length. This study is an attempt to close the material and pressure gaps between model single-crystal surfaces tested under ultra-high-vacuum conditions and real catalytic systems, providing a powerful tool for rational catalyst design.

Reasons for the Inverse Dependence of the Turnover Frequency of Hydrogenation of Unsaturated Compounds on Palladium Catalyst Concentration

Skripov,Belykh,Sterenchuk,Levchenko,Schmidt

, p. 299 - 306 (2021/04/26)

Abstract: The hypotheses about reasons for the inverse dependence of the turnover frequency of hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds (alkyne, alkynol, olefin) on the catalyst concentration were discriminated by kinetic methods combined with electron microscopy. The reasons are: dissociation of polycrystalline Pd–P particles, equilibrium shift (stabilized cluster–cluster + stabilizer), and aggregation–disaggregation of Pd–P particles, the latter being the main reason for the concentration range 0.125–1 mmol/L. The effect of aggregation–disaggregation of Pd–P particles on the catalyst activity differs depending on the substrate. The proposed kinetic model was shown to be consistent with the experimental data for styrene hydrogenation used as an example. The rate constants of some stages were determined.

Chromium-Catalyzed Production of Diols From Olefins

-

Paragraph 0111, (2021/03/19)

Processes for converting an olefin reactant into a diol compound are disclosed, and these processes include the steps of contacting the olefin reactant and a supported chromium catalyst comprising chromium in a hexavalent oxidation state to reduce at least a portion of the supported chromium catalyst to form a reduced chromium catalyst, and hydrolyzing the reduced chromium catalyst to form a reaction product comprising the diol compound. While being contacted, the olefin reactant and the supported chromium catalyst can be irradiated with a light beam at a wavelength in the UV-visible spectrum. Optionally, these processes can further comprise a step of calcining at least a portion of the reduced chromium catalyst to regenerate the supported chromium catalyst.

Novel nickel nanoparticles stabilized by imidazolium-amidinate ligands for selective hydrogenation of alkynes

López-Vinasco, Angela M.,Martínez-Prieto, Luis M.,Asensio, Juan M.,Lecante, Pierre,Chaudret, Bruno,Cámpora, Juan,Van Leeuwen, Piet W. N. M.

, p. 342 - 350 (2020/02/04)

The main challenge in the hydrogenation of alkynes into (E)- or (Z)-alkenes is to control the selective formation of the alkene, avoiding the over-reduction to the corresponding alkane. In addition, the preparation of recoverable and reusable catalysts is of high interest. In this work, we report novel nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) stabilized by three different imidazolium-amidinate ligands (ICy·(Ar)NCN; L1: Ar = p-tol, L2: Ar = p-anisyl and L3: Ar = p-ClC6H4). The as-prepared Ni NPs were fully characterized by (HR)-TEM, XRD, WASX, XPS and VSM. The nanocatalysts are active in the hydrogenation of various substrates. They present a remarkable selectivity in the hydrogenation of alkynes towards (Z)-alkenes, particularly in the hydrogenation of 3-hexyne into (Z)-3-hexene under mild reaction conditions (room temperature, 3% mol Ni and 1 bar H2). The catalytic behaviour of Ni NPs was influenced by the electron donor/acceptor groups (-Me, -OMe, -Cl) in the N-aryl substituents of the amidinate moiety of the ligands. Due to the magnetic character of the Ni NPs, recycling experiments were successfully performed after decantation in the presence of an external magnet, which allowed us to recover and reuse these catalysts at least 3 times preserving both activity and chemoselectivity.

Palladium-Phosphorus Nanoparticles as Effective Catalysts of the Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Alkynols

Belykh, L. B.,Dashabylova, T. M.,Gvozdovskaya, K. L.,Schmidt, F. K.,Skripov, N. I.,Sterenchuk, T. P.,Zherdev, V. V.

, p. 575 - 588 (2020/08/05)

Abstract: The effect of the composition of the catalytic system and reaction conditions on the properties of phosphorus-modified palladium catalysts in hydrogenations of alkynols was studied. Modification with phosphorus increased the activity and turnover number of palladium catalysts in the hydrogenation of the model compound 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (MBY) without any reduction in the selectivity to 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol at 95–98percent MBY conversion. The promoting effect of phosphorus on the properties of the palladium catalyst is caused not only by an increase in the particle size, but also, probably, by a change in the energy of interaction of reagents with the active sites. Hypotheses on the nature of the carriers of catalytic activity in Pd–P particles were discriminated using kinetic methods with the differential selectivity of catalytic systems as the main measured parameter under the conditions of competition between two alkynols. The hydrogenation of acetylenic alcohols involves only one of the two potentially active forms in Pd–P nanoparticles—Pd(0) clusters, whereas the hydrogenation of the resulting allyl alcohols involves both Pd(0) clusters and palladium phosphides.

Internal Surface Coating of a Capillary Microreactor for the Selective Hydrogenation of 2-Methyl-3-Butyn-2-Ol Using a PdZn/TiO2 Catalyst. The Effect of the Catalyst’s Activation Conditions on Its Catalytic Properties

Okhlopkova,Kerzhentsev,Ismagilov

, p. 347 - 356 (2018/06/12)

Finely divided polymer-stabilized PdZn bimetallic nanoclusters are prepared by the polyol method. TiO2 matrix-impregnated nanoclusters coated on the inner surface of a capillary microreactor are used as catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol. The effect of the activation conditions (duration, temperature, and gas medium composition) on the physicochemical and catalytic properties of the coatings is studied. It is shown that their catalytic activities decrease and the reaction’s selectivity increases with an increase in the reaction time and the time of hydrogen reduction at 573 K. The highest selectivity (96.5% at a conversion rate of 99%) is reached on the coatings reduced with hydrogen for 6 h. The coatings remain highly active and stable for 1 month in the continuous flow mode of the reaction. Kinetic simulation showed that a high selectivity level is ensured by a decrease in the rate constants of hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and the ratio of the alkene/alkyne adsorption constants after reductive treatment.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

2-iodo-2-methylbutane
594-38-7

2-iodo-2-methylbutane

water
7732-18-5

water

tert-Amyl alcohol
75-85-4

tert-Amyl alcohol

hydrogen iodide
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
benzaldehyde di-t-pentyl acetal

benzaldehyde di-t-pentyl acetal

tert-Amyl alcohol
75-85-4

tert-Amyl alcohol

benzaldehyde
100-52-7

benzaldehyde

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With acetate buffer; potassium chloride; In acetonitrile; at 25 ℃; pH=4.60 - 5.00; Further Variations:; Reagents; pH-values; Kinetics;
1-(1,1-Dimethyl-propoxy)-1-oxo-1H-1λ<sup>5</sup>-benzo[d][1,2]iodoxol-3-one

1-(1,1-Dimethyl-propoxy)-1-oxo-1H-1λ5-benzo[d][1,2]iodoxol-3-one

tert-Amyl alcohol
75-85-4

tert-Amyl alcohol

1-hydroxy-3H-benz[d][1,2]iodoxole-1,3-dione
61717-82-6

1-hydroxy-3H-benz[d][1,2]iodoxole-1,3-dione

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With water; In dimethylsulfoxide-d6; Equilibrium constant;
2-bromo-2-methylbutane
507-36-8

2-bromo-2-methylbutane

tert-Amyl alcohol
75-85-4

tert-Amyl alcohol

2-methyl-but-2-ene
513-35-9

2-methyl-but-2-ene

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 35 ℃; Hydrolysis;
at 45 ℃; Hydrolysis;
2-bromo-2-methylbutane
507-36-8

2-bromo-2-methylbutane

tert-Amyl alcohol
75-85-4

tert-Amyl alcohol

2-methyl-but-2-ene
513-35-9

2-methyl-but-2-ene

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 35 ℃; Hydrolysis;
at 45 ℃; Hydrolysis;
2-bromo-2-methylbutane
507-36-8

2-bromo-2-methylbutane

tert-Amyl alcohol
75-85-4

tert-Amyl alcohol

2-methyl-but-2-ene
513-35-9

2-methyl-but-2-ene

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 35 ℃; Hydrolysis;
at 45 ℃; Hydrolysis;
2-bromo-2-methylbutane
507-36-8

2-bromo-2-methylbutane

tert-Amyl alcohol
75-85-4

tert-Amyl alcohol

2-methyl-but-2-ene
513-35-9

2-methyl-but-2-ene

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 35 ℃;
at 45 ℃; Hydrolysis;
2-bromo-2-methylbutane
507-36-8

2-bromo-2-methylbutane

1-methyl-4-nitrosobenzene
623-11-0

1-methyl-4-nitrosobenzene

tert-Amyl alcohol
75-85-4

tert-Amyl alcohol

2-methyl-but-2-ene
513-35-9

2-methyl-but-2-ene

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 35 ℃; Hydrolysis;
at 45 ℃; Hydrolysis;
2-bromo-2-methylbutane
507-36-8

2-bromo-2-methylbutane

tert-Amyl alcohol
75-85-4

tert-Amyl alcohol

2-methyl-but-2-ene
513-35-9

2-methyl-but-2-ene

Conditions
Conditions Yield
Hydrolysis;
2-methyl-2-butanol nitrate
21823-36-9

2-methyl-2-butanol nitrate

tert-Amyl alcohol
75-85-4

tert-Amyl alcohol

2-methyl-but-2-ene
513-35-9

2-methyl-but-2-ene

Conditions
Conditions Yield

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  • Emails:sales@foreschem.com
  • Main Products:31
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Amadis Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • Business Type:Lab/Research institutions
  • Contact Tel:86-571-89925085
  • Emails:sales@amadischem.com
  • Main Products:29
  • Country:China (Mainland)
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