Welcome to LookChem.com Sign In|Join Free
  • or


Carboxylic acids and derivatives

Carboxylic acids and their derivatives are a diverse and essential group of organic compounds that share a common functional group, the carboxyl group (–COOH). This group consists of a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to a hydroxyl group (–OH), located at the end of a carbon chain. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives exhibit a wide range of chemical properties and applications, making them crucial in various fields of chemistry and biology.

  1. Carboxylic Acids: Carboxylic acids are the simplest members of this group and are characterized by the –COOH functional group. They are commonly found in nature as components of organic acids in foods, such as citric acid in citrus fruits and acetic acid in vinegar. Carboxylic acids are weak acids, capable of donating a proton (H+) to form a carboxylate ion (–COO?) and a hydronium ion (H?O?).

  2. Carboxylate Ions: When carboxylic acids lose a proton, they form carboxylate ions, which are negatively charged. These ions are often involved in various biochemical processes and are essential for the functioning of enzymes and proteins in living organisms.

  3. Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids: Carboxylic acids can undergo various chemical reactions to yield a range of derivatives, including esters, amides, anhydrides, and acid chlorides. Each of these derivatives has distinct chemical properties and applications:

    • Esters: Esters are formed through the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol. They are commonly found in natural fragrances and flavors and are used as solvents, plasticizers, and in the synthesis of various chemicals.

    • Amides: Amides result from the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an amine. They are integral components of proteins and play a vital role in biological processes. Additionally, amides are used in the production of pharmaceuticals and polymers.

    • Anhydrides: Anhydrides are formed when two carboxylic acid molecules lose water. They are employed in organic synthesis, particularly in the formation of peptide bonds in protein synthesis.

    • Acid Chlorides: Acid chlorides are highly reactive derivatives formed by reacting a carboxylic acid with thionyl chloride or phosphorus chloride. They are crucial intermediates in the synthesis of various organic compounds.

Carboxylic acids and their derivatives are fundamental in organic chemistry and have numerous applications in industries such as pharmaceuticals, food, and plastics. Their versatile reactivity and ability to participate in a wide range of chemical transformations make them essential compounds for both chemical synthesis and biological processes.

  • Structure
  • Product name
  • CAS No.
  • Molecular formula
  • Inquiry
  • Total:1174 Page 1 of 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1524 Next>>