ChEBI: A butadiene with unsaturation at positions 1 and 3.
A colorless gas, 1,3-BUTADIENE can react with oxidizing reagents. Upon long exposure to air 1,3-BUTADIENE forms explosive peroxides. They are sensitive to heat or shock; sudden polymerization may occur [Scott, D. A., Chem. Eng. News, 1940, 18, p.404]. Butadiene polyperoxides are insoluble in liquefied butadiene (m. p. -113° C, b. p. -2.6° C) and progressively separate leading to local concentration build up. Self-heating from a spontaneous decomposition will lead to explosion [Hendry, D. G. et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 1968, 7, p. 136, 1145]. Explodes on contact with aluminum tetrahydroborate, potentially explosive reaction with chlorine dioxide (peroxide) and crotonaldehyde (above 180° C). Reaction with sodium nitrite forms a spontaneously flammable product [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 539].
Behavior in Fire: Vapors heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flashback. Containers may explode in a fire due to polymerization.
Slight anesthetic effect at high concentrations; causes ``frostbite'' from skin contact; slight irritation to eyes and nose at high concentrations.
1,3-Butadiene is a simple conjugated diene. It is a colourless gas with a mild aromatic or
gasoline-like odour and incompatible with phenol, chlorine dioxide, copper, and crotonaldehyde.
The gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition
is possible. It is an important industrial chemical used as a monomer in the production
of synthetic rubber. Most butadiene is polymerised to produce synthetic rubber. While
polybutadiene itself is a very soft, almost liquid, material, polymers prepared from
mixtures of butadiene with styrene or acrylonitrile, such as ABS, are both tough and
elastic. Styrene–butadiene rubber is the material most commonly used for the production
of automobile tyres. Smaller amounts of butadiene are used to make nylon via the intermediate adiponitrile, other synthetic rubber materials such as chloroprene, and the
solvent sulpholane. Butadiene is used in the industrial production of cyclododecatriene
via a trimerisation reaction.
colourless gas, or pressurised liquid (odour TLV 1.6 ppm)
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. In contact with air, butadiene may form violently explosive peroxides, which can be exploded by mild heat or shock. Solid butadiene absorbs enough oxygen at sub atmospheric pressures to make 1,3-BUTADIENE explode violently when heated just above its melting point [Ind. Eng. Chem. 51:733 1959].
Butadiene, inhibited is a colorless gas with an aromatic odor. 1,3-BUTADIENE is shipped as a liquefied gas under its vapor pressure. Contact with the liquid can cause frostbite. 1,3-BUTADIENE is easily ignited. Its vapors are heavier than air and a flame can flash back to the source of leak very easily. 1,3-BUTADIENE can asphyxiate by the displacement of air. 1,3-BUTADIENE must be shipped inhibited as butadiene is liable to polymerization. If polymerization occurs in the container, 1,3-BUTADIENE may violently rupture. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket. 1,3-BUTADIENE is used to make synthetic rubber and plastics, and to make other chemicals.