(1) Used as food flavors according to GB 2760-96. Mainly used for the preparation of apple and banana flavor.
(2) Used as chromatographic reagent and extractant, and also used in the pharmaceutical industry
(3) Used in the manufacture of spices, pharmaceuticals and mineral processing agents, and also used as solvents
(4) This goods have apple brandy aroma and spicy flavor. China's GB 2760-86 provides for its allowable use as food spices, mainly for the preparation of apple and banana flavor. Isoamyl alcohol and sodium nitrite can perform esterification to form isoamyl nitrite, which is the fastest nitrous esters short-acting vasodilator. Isoamyl alcohol can be used to synthesize sedatives and hypnotics, such as bromural and amytal. Isoamyl alcohol can also be used as solvents and the reagents for chemical analysis. It is also used as the raw materials to produce plasticizers and photographic pharmaceutical. In addition, it is one component of the fuel oil.
(5) Used for the manufacture of spices, pharmaceuticals and photographic drugs, and also used as solvents.
(6) Used as the solvents of fat, resin and alkaloid. Used for the determination of fat in milk and the determination of iron, silicon, thorium and fusel oil. Also used for the complexation extraction of iron, cobalt, copper salt and diphenylcarbazide. Used for the separation of lithium Chloride from other alkali metal chlorides.
Isoamylol is one of the several isomers of amyl alcohol and the main ingredient in the production of banana oil.
Colorless to pale yellow clear oily liquid. Apple brandy aroma and spicy flavor. Melting point:-117.2 °C. Boiling point: 130 °C. Relative density (d2525): 0.813. Refractive index (nD20): 1.4075. Vapors are toxic. Miscible in ethanol and ether. Slightly soluble in water.
Natural products present in the form of esters in strawberries, peppermint, lemongrass, eucalyptus oil and rum and so on.
3-Methyl-1-butanol attacks plastics [Handling Chemicals Safely, 1980. p. 236]. Mixtures with concentrated sulfuric acid and strong hydrogen peroxide may cause explosions. Mixing with hypochlorous acid in water or water/carbon tetrachloride solution can generate isoamyl hypochlorites, which may explode, particularly on exposure to sunlight or heat. Mixing with chlorine would also yield isoamyl hypochlorites [NFPA 491 M, 1991]. Base-catalysed reactions with isocyanates can occur with explosive violence [Wischmeyer,1969].
Very high vapor concentrations irritate eyes and upper respiratory tract. Continued contact with skin may cause irritation.
Dry the alcohol by heating with CaO and fractionally distilling, then heating with BaO and redistilling. Alternatively, boil it with concentrated KOH solution, wash it with dilute H3PO4, and dry it with K2CO3, then anhydrous CuSO4, before fractionally distilling it. If very dry alcohol is required, the distillate is refluxed with the appropriate alkyl phthalate or succinate as described for ethanol. It is separated from 2-methyl-1-butanol by fractional distillation, fractional crystallisation and preparative gas chromatography. [Beilstein 1 IV 1677.]
ChEBI: An alkyl alcohol that is butan-1-ol substituted by a methyl group at position 3.
Hazards & Safety Information
Category Flammable liquids
Toxic classification moderate toxic
Acute Toxicity Oral-rat LD50: 1300 mg/kg; celiac-mouse LD50: 233 mg/kg
Stimulation Data Skin-Rabbit 20mg/24hours Moderate; Eye-Rabbit 20mg/24hours Moderate
Explosives hazardous characteristics Mix with air to be explosive
Flammability hazard characteristics In case of fire, high temperature and oxidant flammable; combustion to release excitive smoke
Storage and transportation characteristics Ventilation; Low temperature; dry; Separate storage with oxidizing agent
Extinguishing agent dry powder, dry sand, carbon dioxide, foam, 1211 extinguishing agent
Occupational Standard TLV-TWA 100 PPM (360 mg /m3); STEL 125 PPM (450 mg/m3)
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Water soluble.
determined through non-polar column method of gas chromatography(GT-10-4).
Toxicity GRAS (FEMA).
FEMA (mg/kg): soft drinks 17; cold drinks 7.6; candy 52; baked goods 24; pudding 46; gum 300; alcohol 100. Modest limit (FDA § 172.515, 2000).
Solvent for fats, resins, alkaloids, etc.; manufacture of isoamyl (amyl) Compounds, isovaleric acid, mercury fulminate, pyroxylin, artificial silk, lacquers, smokeless powders; in microscopy; for dehydrating celloidin solutions; for determining fat in milk.
Colorless liquid with a mild, choking alcohol odor. Less dense than water, soluble in water. Hence floats on water. Produces an irritating vapor.
(1) This product naturally presents in the form of esters in strawberries, peppermint, lemongrass, eucalyptus oil and rum and so on. It can be synthesized by acid method or the hydroformylation of C4 alkenes. 3-methyl-1-butanol (85% in the fusel oil) can be obtained by chemical treatment and distillation separation of the fusel oil that is the side products form the alcohol fermentation of starch and sugar.
(2) Derived from fusel oil fractionation.
Pentane performs chlorination and hydrolysis reaction to form mixed alcohol, and then isoamyl alcohol can be derived from the mixed alcohol.