HEXANE may be sensitive to light. Hexane may also be sensitive to prolonged exposure to heat. Hexane can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. This would include compounds such as liquid chlorine, concentrated O2, sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite. Hexane is also incompatible with dinitrogen tetraoxide. Hexane will attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings. .
Eye-Rabbit 10 mg Mild
N-hexane is a naturally existing hydrocarbon in petroleum and is also one of the main constituents of petroleum ether and naphtha. At room temperature, it appears as colorless transparent liquid with slightly oil smell. It is easily volatile with the vapor being heavier than air. It can form an explosive mixture with air with the explosion limit being 1.18% to 7.4% (volume fraction). N-Hexane is widely used as cooking oil extraction solvent, rubber solvent, artificial leather finishing agent, cleaning agent of precise device, clothes detergent, and pharmaceutical tablet detergent as well as used for preparation of mixed solvents. People can get acute poisoning upon 5000ppm with the symptoms of vertigo. At high concentrations, it can stimulate the eyes, nose and throat mucosa with anesthetic effect. Animal experiments have shown that rats, after inhalation of 400~600 ppm n-hexane with getting symmetrical foot ptosis after 45~69 days with significant proliferation of nerve fibers.
A portion of the n-hexane in the body is metabolized to produce 2-hexanone (methylbutyl ketone) and 2, 5-hexanedione. It is generally believed that these metabolites can impede the transport of material within the nerve fibers, causing nerve damage. Upon mixing exposure, ethyl methyl ketone can enhance the toxicity of n-hexane while toluene can weaken its toxicity, and other substances can easily change the toxicity of n-hexane. The maximal allowable concentration of the operating environment: Japan provides 100 ppm (360mg/m3), the United States: 50 ppm (180mg/m3). The maximal allowable concentration of its isomers is 500ppm (1800 mg/m3).
There are four kinds of isomers of N-hexane, being colorless volatile liquid alkanes with slight special smell, including 2-methylpentane (iso-hexane), 3-methylpentane, 2, 3-dimethylbutane (diisopropyl) and 2, 2-dimethylbutane (neohexane).
dry powder, carbon dioxide, foam
Determining refractive index of minerals; filling for thermometers instead of mercury, usually with a blue or red dye; extraction solvent for oilseed processing.
The content of n-hexane in straight-run gasoline, platinum reforming raffinate oil or wet natural gas is about 1%-15%. Currently, industrial production mainly separated it from the raffinate of the platinum reforming unit (containing 11% to 13% of hexane). The raffinate is fractionated to remove light components and recombined to give the fraction containing 60-80% of n-hexane. Use two-column continuous distillation, followed by hydrogenation mediated by 0501-type catalyst to remove benzene and other unsaturated hydrocarbons to obtain the qualified n-hexane. The United States also used adsorption separation for preparation of n-hexane.
It is fractionated from petroleum fractions (see 19313).
Purify as for n-heptane. Modifications include the use of chlorosulfonic acid or 35% fuming H2SO4 instead of conc H2SO4 in washing the alkane, and final drying and distilling from sodium hydride. Unsaturated impurities can be removed by shaking the hexane with nitrating acid (58% H2SO4, 25% conc HNO3, 17% water, or 50% HNO3, 50% H2SO4), then washing the hydrocarbon layer with conc H2SO4, followed by H2O, drying, and distilling over sodium or n-butyl lithium. It can also be purified by distillation under nitrogen from sodium benzophenone ketyl solubilised with tetraglyme. Also purify it by passage through a silica gel column followed by distillation [Kajii et al. J Phys Chem 91 2791 1987]. It is a FLAMMABLE liquid and a possible nerve toxin. [Beilstein 1 IV 338.] Rapid purification: Distil, discarding the first forerun and stored over 4A molecular sieves.
Behavior in Fire: Vapors may explode
Use the limit
It can be applied to solvent, extraction, organic synthesis, such as for the cleaning in the electronics industry, as extractant in the pharmaceutical industry and the extraction agent of edible vegetable oil.
Used as extraction solvent.
It is mainly used as solvents, such as vegetable oil extraction solvent, propylene polymerization solvent, rubber and paint solvents, pigment diluents. It is used for the extraction of oil fat contained in soybean, rice bran, cottonseed and spices. It is also a high-octane fuel.
It can be used for determination of moisture in the methanol. It can be used for UV spectrum analysis, pesticide residue analysis, high performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC). It can be used as standard for Gas Chromatographic Analysis. Used for biochemical studies, and protein sequencing, determination of mineral refractive index as well as organic synthesis. It can also used as substitute of mercury in a thermometer.
For analysis reagents and solvents
Clear colorless liquids with a petroleum-like odor. Flash points -9°F. Less dense than water and insoluble in water. Vapors heavier than air. Used as a solvent, paint thinner, and chemical reaction medium.
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.
Storage and transportation characteristics
Treasury: ventilated, low-temperature and dry; store it separately from oxidants and acids
N-hexane, molecular formula: C6H14, molecular weight: 86.2, belongs to straight-chain saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. It is obtained through the cracking and fractionation of crude oil. It appears as colorless and oily, evaporative liquid with melting point of 95 ℃, boiling point 68.95 of ℃ and vapor density of 2.97 (air = 1). It is almost insoluble in water, easily soluble in chloroform, ethyl ether and ethanol. N-hexane, as a kind of organic solvent, is commonly used in the production processes of rubber, pharmaceutical, perfume, footwear, leather, textiles, furniture and painting. In recent years, n-hexane, as a diluting agent, can be used for the production of adhesives, or as an organic cleanser, being the culprit of the occupational poisoning of hexane in our country.
It appears as colorless volatile liquid, being insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol and easily soluble in ether, chloroform, ketones and other organic solvents.
ChEBI: An unbranched alkane containing six carbon atoms.
Flammability and hazard characteristics
it is easily flammable in case of fire, high temperature, and oxidant with combustion generating irritant smoke
N-Hexane Poisoning and Health Hazards
The harmful effects and symptoms upon short-term exposure to N-hexane: inhalation or exposure of more than 500mg/kg can cause headaches, acute diarrhea, face fever, numbness and weakness of the fingers and toes. Exposure to more than 1300mg/kg can also cause nausea, rhinitis and pharyngitis. Exposure to more than 1500 mg/kg, in addition to causing the above symptoms, it can further cause blurred vision, loss of appetite and weight loss. Most of the symptoms disappear within a few months if the exposure is stopped. Inhalation of the liquid n-hexane into the lungs can cause pneumonia.
Occupational chronic n-hexane poisoning is kind of nervous system injury-based systemic diseases due to long-term exposure to n-hexane gas in the production environment. The n-hexane in the industrial products often contains a certain amount of benzene, toluene and other organic matter. People in the field of vegetable oil extraction, synthetic rubber, polyethylene film printing and other industries can be exposed to n-hexane solvent. After entering into the human body, its main effect is on the energy metabolism of the central nervous system, causing nerve fiber degeneration, leading to neurasthenic syndrome and autonomic dysfunction. The main clinical manifestations include distal limb touch, pain, diminished temperature sensation and reduced muscle strength or limb paralysis. At present, there are no uniform diagnostic criteria. Patients of mild symptoms should leave the n-hexane operation as soon as possible. Patients of moderate symptoms generally can be cured while those of critical cases can get permanent disability. In 1957, Italy had first reported about the cases of poisonous peripheral nerve damage in the footwear industry;
In 1968, the Japanese scholars reported the population sickening of peripheral nerve damage of nearly one hundred of plastic sandals production workers due to contact with n-hexane; it had been later successively reported of the n-hexane chronic poisoning cases in United States, Canada, Brazil, South Africa and China's Taiwan, Hong Kong and other places. Since the 1980s, there had been cases of population n-hexane chronic poisoning reported at nearly every year. Especially, due to the rapid development of production and processing industries in the coastal areas, in many fields such as footwear, electronic component production and package production , the chronic n-hexane poisoning, as a representative case in the organic solvents poisoning, had frequently happened and brought severe harm to the physical health of the workers.
Role and Application
N-Hexane is a kind of organic solvent with good viscosity. It is commonly used in rubber food, pharmacy, perfume, footwear, tape, ball, grinding, leather, textile, furniture, paint industry, all used as dilution or cleaning solvent. It can also used as the solvents for extracting the seed oil (Such as soybean oil, cottonseed oil, flax oil, peanut, safflower oil, etc; it can also be used as raw materials for the manufacture of polymers; Such as polypropylene, polyethylene.
INHALATION causes irritation of respiratory tract, cough, mild depression, cardiac arrhythmias. ASPIRATION causes severe lung irritation, coughing, pulmonary edema; excitement followed by depression. INGESTION causes nausea, vomiting, swelling of abdomen, headache, depression.
The boiling point of 62~82 ℃, ADI take GMP as limited (FAO/WHO, 2001).
TWA 180 mg/m3
Suitable for HPLC, spectrophotometry, environmental testing
Explosive and hazardous characteristics
it is explosive when mixed with air
Oral-Rat LD50: 28710 mg/kg; Inhalation-mouse LCL0: 120000 mg/m3