Colorless fuming liquid with a pungent odor. Boiling point 105-106°F. Density 0.979 g / cm3. Flash point 48°F (8°C). Very toxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption. Fumes irritate the eyes and mucous membranes. Corrosive to most metals and tissue.
First check the IR to see if OH bands are present. If absent, or present in small amounts, then redistil it under a moderate vacuum. If present in large amounts then treat it with oxalyl chloride or thionyl chloride and reflux for 2-3hours, evaporate and distil the residue. Strongly LACHRYMATORY -work in a fumecupboard. Store it in sealed ampoules under N2. [Traynham & Battiste J Org Chem 22 1551 1957, Grignard reactions: Whitmore et al. J Am Chem Soc 63 647 1941, Beilstein 2 IV 912.]
Widely used N-acylating agent for amines,1 Schiff bases,2 and pyrrolidinones3 as well as O-acylating agent for alcohols,4 lactones,5 and saccharides.6
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Fumes in air. Reacts vigorously and exothermically with water to form trimethylacetic acid and corrosive hydrochloric acid; both acids corrode metals and tissue [AAR 1991].
Pivaloyl chloride is acidic. Incompatible with bases (including amines), strong oxidizing agents, and alcohols. May react vigorously or explosively if mixed with diisopropyl ether or other ethers in the presence of trace amounts of metal salts [J. Haz. Mat., 1981, 4, 291].
Flammable/combustible material. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
A corrosive irritant to
skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. The
liquid is flammable when exposed to heat,
flame, or oxiduers. When heated to
decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-.
Tetrahedron Letters, 29, p. 4569, 1988 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)80549-3
May cause toxic effects if inhaled or ingested/swallowed. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
Colorless to yellow liquid