Fungicide, Insecticide: Used in the manufacture of benzoates; plasticizers,
benzoyl chloride, alkyd resins, in the manufacture of food
preservatives, in use as a dye binder in calico printing; in
curing of tobacco, flavors, perfumes, dentifrices, standard
in analytical chemistry. Not currently registered for use in
the U.S. Benzoic acid is currently used in about a dozen
Benzoic acid was found in the 16th century. In 1556, Nostradamus first described carbonization effect of benzoin; After the Alexius Pedemontanus and Brian blessed decipher were discovered in 1560 and 1596. In 1875, the salkowski discovered the antifungal potency of benzoic acid, so benzoic acid is used for long term preservation cloudberry.
Dust may be irritating to nose and eyes. At elevated temperatures, fumes may cause irritation of eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
For use as a volumetric standard, analytical reagent grade benzoic acid should be carefully fused to ca 130o (to dry it) in a platinum crucible, and then powdered in an agate mortar. Benzoic acid has been crystallised from boiling water (charcoal), aqueous acetic acid, glacial acetic acid, *C6H6, aqueous EtOH, pet ether (b 60-80o), and from EtOH solution by adding water. It is readily purified by fractional crystallisation from its melt and by sublimation in a vacuum at 80o. The S-benzylisothiuronium salt has m 167o (from EtOH/H2O). [Beilstein 9 IV 273.]
At high temperature Benzoic acid can react with oxidizing reagents.
Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate are commonly used food preservative. In acidic conditions, it has inhibitory effect on yeast and mold. When pH value is 3 antibacterial strength, when pH was 6 for a lot of mould effect is very poor, so the inhibition the optimum pH value is 2.5-4.0. In the food industry with plastic barrels concentrated fruit and vegetable juice, the maximum usage shall not exceed 2.0g/kg; in the jam (not including canned), fruit juice (taste) drinks, soy sauce, vinegar in the maximum amount is 1.0g/kg; in Wine, candy, wine in the maximum amount of 0.8g/kg in the low salt; pickles, sauces, candied fruit, use the largest 0.5g/kg in carbonate; use the largest beverage 0.2g/kg. because of solubility of benzoic acid, when used will be stirring, or dissolved in a small amount of hot water or ethanol. The use of concentrated fruit juice in the soft drink used for benzoic acid easily volatile with steam, it is commonly used in the sodium salt. Benzoic acid in food industry is a common preservative in dairy products, but not allowed to be added. In general, benzoic acid is considered to be safe. But for some special populations, including infants, long-term intake of benzoic acid may lead to asthma, urticaria, metabolic acidosis and other adverse reactions. Paul deodorant benzoic acid is also used as a beverage. As the cream sweet perfume fragrance. Can also be used for chocolate, lemon, orange, sub berries, nuts, candied fruit and other edible flavor type. Tobacco flavor also commonly used. In addition of benzoic acid is also used as a pesticide, medicine, dye, mordant and plasticizer agent for the production of raw materials, polyamide resin and alkyd resin modifying agent and steel equipment anti rust agent.
Benzoic acid,C6H5COOH, also known as benzene carboxylic acid and phenyl formic acid,is a colorless, monoclinic crystalline solid that has a melting point of 122.4"C and sublimes readily at 100·C. It is an aromatic carboxylic acid that is slightly soluble in water and moderately soluble in alcohol and ether. It is used as a preservative and its derivatives are valuable in medicine, commerce, and industry.
Air & Water Reactions
Vapor from molten Benzoic acid may form explosive mixture with air. The finely powdered dry acid is a significant dust explosion hazard [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 884]. In air very rapid combustion occurs [Wilson, L.Y. et al., J. Chem. Ed., 1985, 62(10), p. 902]. Slightly soluble in water.
RETARDER BA®; MICROL®
Preservative; TENN-PLAS®; RETARDEX®; SALVO
LIQUID®; SALVO POWDER®; TULSA®
1. Used as a chemical reagent and preservative.
2. Benzoic acid is important type food preservative. Under acidic conditions, It has inhibitory effects to mold, yeast and bacteria , but the effect is weak acid producing bacteria. The most appropriate antimicrobial pH values is ranging from 2.5 to 4, generally lower, the pH value is appropriate from 4.5 to 5. In the food industry with plastic barrels concentrated fruit and vegetable juice, the maximum use amount shall not be over 2.0g/kg; in jam (excluding canned), (taste) juice drink, soy sauce, vinegar in the maximum dose of 1.0g/kg; in soft candy, wine, wine in the maximum dose of 0.8 g/kg separately; in the low salt pickled vegetables, the sauce, candied fruit, maximum dose is 0.5 g/kg; in carbonated drinks in the largest amount of use is 0.2g/kg. due to benzoic acid, slightly soluble in water, its use can be a small amount of ethanol enable dissolved.
3.Preservative; anti microbial agents.
Due to the low solubility of benzoic acid and use shall be stirring, or dissolved in a small amount of hot water or ethanol. When used in the soft drink with fruit juice concentrate, for benzoic acid easy volatile with the water vapor, so often used in the sodium salt, besides the above sodium equivalent to benzoic acid 0.847g.
4.Often used as a fixative agent or preservative. Also used as a fruit juice aroma conservation agents. As a perfume with perfume fragrance. Can also be used for chocolate, lemon, orange, berries, nuts, candied fruit type edible essence. Tobacco flavor is also commonly used.
5.Benzoic acid and its sodium salt are food preservatives. Under acidic conditions, it has inhibition of yeasts and molds. When pH 3, antibacterial strength and when pH 6, many fungi effect is very poor, so the antibacterial optimum pH is 2.5-4.0. Benzoic acid is mainly used for the production of sodium benzoate preservatives, dyes intermediates, pesticides, plasticizers, mordant, medicine, spice and also can be used as alkyd resin and polyamide resin modifier for the production of polyester, terephthalic acid and used equipment, iron and steel anti rust agent.
6.Mainly used for antifungal and antiseptic.
7.Used in medicine, dye carriers, plasticizer, spices and food preservatives such as production, and can also be used to paint of alkyd resin performance improvement; used as pharmaceutical and dye intermediates, used for the preparation of plasticizer and spices etc., as well as equipment, iron and steel anti rust agent.
ChEBI: A compound comprising a benzene ring core carrying a carboxylic acid substituent.
Behavior in Fire: Vapor from molten Benzoic acid may form explosive mixture with air. Concentrated dust may form explosive mixture.
Benzoic acid is the simplest member of the aromatic carboxylic acid family. It is a weak acid that is a precursor for the synthesis of many important organic compounds. More than 90 percent of commercial benzoic acid is converted directly to phenol and caprolactam. Its use in the production of glycol benzoates for the application of plasticizer in adhesive formulations is increasing. The organic compound is also used in the manufacture of alkyd resins and drilling mud additive for crude oil recovery applications. It is also used as a rubber polymerization activator, retardant, resins, alkyd paint, plasticizers, dyestuffs, and fibers.
Benzoic acid and its esters occur in apricots, cranberries, mushrooms and jasmine plants. The history of benzoic acid dates back to sixteenth century. In the year of 1875 Salkowski a prominent scientist discovered its antifungal abilities. In medicine, benzoic acid is the principal component of benzoin resin, and is a constituent of Whitfield’s ointment which is used for the treatment of fungal skin diseases such as tinea, ringworm, and athlete’s foot.
Boric acid,H3B03, also known as boracic acid, orthoboric acid, and sassolite, is a white solid composed of triclinic crystals.It is a derivative of barium oxide and is soluble in water. A white crystalline solid. Slightly soluble in water. The primary hazard is the potential for environmental damage if released. Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment. Used to make other chemicals, as a food preservative, and for other uses.
Industrial preparation method
The industrial benzoic acid is mainly by toluene liquid phase air oxidation preparation. The process was with cobalt naphthenate as catalyst, in response to temperature is 140-160 ℃ and operating pressure is 0.2-0.3MPa and response generation benzoic acid. Reaction after steaming to toluene, and vacuum distillation and recrystallization to obtain the product. The process uses cheap raw materials, high yield. Therefore, it is industrial uses mainly the method.
Laboratory preparation method of the main reaction:
1.C6H5CH3+ KMnO4+H2O-C6H5 COOK+KOH+MnO2+H2O(water in fron of the manganese dioxide is supplied with water reaction environment)
2.C6H5 COOK+HCl--C6H5 COOH
Drug and dosage:
Toluene 1.5g (1.7ml, 0.016mol), potassium permanganate 5g (0.032mol), CTAB(cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) 0.1g.
With 100 ml round bottom flask. Install a refluxing device. add 5g potassium permanganate, 0.1g of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, 1.7 ml of toluene and 50 ml of water to the reaction flask, stir heated boiling (vigorous stirring, violent boiling), keep the reactant solution stable boiling.
When large amounts of brown precipitate, potassium permanganate purple shallow or disappeared, the toluene layer disappeared, reaction has basically ended. Filter out of manganese dioxide precipitation, landfill leachate by concentrated hydrochloric acid, precipitation of benzoic acid precipitation, filtering to the crude product.
The crude product water recrystallization. In a boiling water bath for drying, weighing, measuring the melting point.
Scaly or needle like crystals. With the smell of formaldehyde or benzene. Slightly soluble in water, soluble in ethanol, methanol, diethyl ether, chloroform, benzene, toluene, CS2, CCl4 and turpentine.
Benzoic acid accumulation is less, low toxicity in the body involved and metabolism. If the excessive consumption of benzoic acid, the body's liver and kidney will be jeopardized. Maximum safety of carbonated drinks of benzoic acid usage is 5mg/kg of body weight, then calculated according to the weight of 60kg, daily limit is 300mg, benzoic acid for carbonated drinks, the maximum amount of use is 0.2g/kg, then drank 1.5kg of beverage is safe.
It has strong toxic effects on microorganisms, but the toxicity of the sodium salt is very low. A daily dose of 0.5g, has no toxicity to the body , even in an amount of not more than 4g of health also has no harm. In human and animal tissues it can bind with protein components of the glycine and detoxification, formed hippuric acid excreted in the urine. Benzoic acid crystallites or dust on the skin, eyes, nose, and throat has stimulating effect. Even if its sodium salt, if you take a lot, also can damage to the stomach. The operator should wear protective equipment. Need to be stored in a dry and ventilated place moisture, heat, away from the fire source.